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1 Jpi nama, 'would that!' In this sense it occurs also in Vikram., Act III, apt nama Pururava bhaveyam, 'would that I were Pururavas!'
2 'Can this (lady) possibly be sprung from a wife dissimilar in class (to that) of the father of the family!' Api nama here='may be,' 'can it possibly be,'' I wonder whether,' expressive of some doubt \evam sambhdvyate, Schol.] Kshetra=kalatra, 'a wife;' a-savarna=asamana-jatiya, 'of a different (and inferior) tribe or caste.' A Brahman might many a Kshatriya, i. e. a womau of the military or kingly class next below him (Manu iii. 13), and the female offspring of such a marriage would belong to the mixed class called murdhabhishikta or murdhavasikta, 'headanointed' (Manu x. 6), and would be a suitable object of affection for a Kshatriya, who in his kingly character was a murdhabhisMkta also. But if S'akuntala were a pure Brahman! woman, both on the mother's and father's side, she would be ineligible as the wife of a Kshatriya (Manu iii. 13).
3 'But, have done with [away with] doubt.' Athava is used to correct a previous thought [pakshdntare]. Kritam used adverbially (like alam) requires the instr. case.
Verse 22. Vansa-sthavila (a variety of Jagati). See verse 18.
1 'Without any doubt she is capable of marriage with a Kshatriya, since my honourable soul has a longing towards her: for in matters that are subjects of doubt, the tendencies [inclinations, promptings] of the hearts of good men are an authoritative guide (to the truth).' The meaning is, 'If this damsel be the daughter of a Brahman by a Brahmani [or woman of the same caste], then why should I be conscious of a sudden liking for one whom I could never hope to marry ] This feeling of sympathy could only arise towards a legitimate object: for in such matters, the secret prompting [inner voice] of the heart is decisive.' He therefore concludes that she must have been of mixed origin, with some Kshatriya or regal blood in her veins; and discovers afterwards that she was, in fact, the daughter of the Efijarshi Visvamitra (originally of the Kshatriya or regal tribe) by an Apsaras. Dushyanta, as a king, belonged of course to the Kshatriya caste. This caste came next to the Brahmanical, and according to Manu (i. 87) sprang from the arm of Brahma. They wore a girdle of murva and a sacrificial cord of hemp (Manu ii. 42, 44), and were properly soldiers. They were said to have been exterminated by Parasu-rama, the representative of the BrShmanical tribe, in revenge for the murder of his father, the sage Jamadagni, by the sons of Kartavirya. This fable is founded on the historical fact that, at some period or other, struggles, arising out of mutual jealousy of each other's encroachments, took place between the military and sacerdotal classes; and that the former did in the end succumb to the superior power and intelligence of the BrShmans. The example of Visvamitra proves that it was possible for a Kshatriya, by the practice of religious austerities, to raise himself to the rank of a Brahman. Other anomalies of caste occur. A number of men, half warriors, half priests, Kshatriyas by birth, and BrShmans by profession, called An-girasas or ' descendants of An-giras,' were said to have sprung from Nabhaga (Vishnu-p. p. 359; Maha-bh. Sel. p. 23). Kings were never chosen from the Brahmanical class, but were properly Kshatriyas (Manu vii. 2); though there was no positive law against their belonging to the two inferior classes of Vaisyas and S'udras, or even to three mixed classes (san-kara) formed by intermarriage with the others, viz. Mflrdhabhishiktas, Mahishyas, and Karanas (Manu x. 6). One dynasty of kings of the line of Nanda were actually S'udras, and kept the Kshatriyas in subjection (Vishnu-p. p. 467). In
fact, the king was but a high officer appointed to train the army, instruct in military exercises, administer justice, and execute the laws. These onerous duties were sufficient to deter the Brahmans from desiring a rank inconsistent with their love of dignified repose. Aryam=sa-maryddam, 'correct,' 'upright' (Schol.) Pramanarn, 'that by which anything is measured;' hence, 'a criterion or standard of truth,' 'a sure guide,' 'an authority' [prama-karanam, 'a cause of true knowledge,' Schol.] In this sense it is usually found in the singular number, neuter gender, though in apposition to a masculine or feminine noun, or even to a plural noun, as here. Thus also, Vedah pramanarn,'the Vedas are an authority.' See also Hitop. 11. 169, 1465. Pravritti, 'onward course;' hence, 'a course of action,' 'tendency,' 'inclination.'
1 'Nevertheless [however the suggestions of my heart are to be relied upon] I will accurately ascertain about her.' Upalap#ye=jnasye, 'I will inform myself.'
2 Nava-malika, see p. 22, n. 1.
3 Madhu-kara, 'a honey-maker,' 'a bee;' cf. Lat. mellificus, mellifer.
4 Literally, 'turns towards,' 'attacks,' 'assaults.'
6 'In whichever direction the bee turns towards (her), in that direction
Verse 23. Vansa-sthavila (a variety of Jag ATI). See verses 18, 22.
her rolling eye is darted; bending her brows through fear, she is already learning coquettish-movements of the eye even though (as yet) uninfluenced-by-love.' Yatah and tatah are properly 'whence' and 'thence;' iatah=tasmat sthanat, 'from that place,' S'. Shat-Sarana, 'a six-footed insect,' 'a bee.' Drishfi-vibhrama,' eoquettish play of the eye,' 'amorous or sidelong glances,' 'rolling motion of the eyes, indicative of amorous feelings' (=drishti-vilasat S'.)
1 'Thou touchest repeatedly her quivering eye, whose outer-corner moves (playfully); going close to her ear, thou art softly humming as if whispering a secret (of love); thou art drinking the lip, containing all the treasures of delight, of her waving her hand; (whilst) we, O bee! through (the necessity for) inquiring into the truth (of her origin), are disappointed (of immediate fruition), thou indeed art in the full enjoyment (of thy desire).' In other words, 'Whilst I am kept in suspense by the necessity of ascertaining whether she be a Brahmanl or a KshatriyS, woman, thou art in the act of enjoying her charms.' VyddhunvatyaA, gen. case of the pres. part. fern, agreeing with as yah understood. Bhii with vi and a,' to shake about.' Verbs of cl. 5 reject the nasal in the fern, of this participle, see Gram. 141. e, Pan. vii. 1, 80. Rati-sarvasvam = T«£inidkanam,' entirely made up of delight,'' whose whole essence is delight.' So khadga-sarvasvah, 'one whose whole property consists of a sword.' Adhara, properly 'the lower lip,' in contradistinction to oshtha (i. e. avastha), 'the upper lip,' but here simply 'the lip.' Adharam fivad, 'thou art drinking (the moisture of) the lip.' Cf. adharam pdtum pravrittd (Vikram., Act IV), and adhara-madhu ('the nectar of the lip') pivanti (Bhartri-h. i. 26). Hata here=mano-hata, 'disappointed,' or rather 'kept in anxious suspense.' Kriti=kritarthah or krita-krity'ah, 'one who has gained the object of his desire, and is in full enjoyment of it.'
Verse 24. Sikhabini (a variety of Atyashti). See verse 9.
1 Literally, 'ill-trained;' hence, 'ill-behaved,' 'ill-mannered.' 8 'Who (are) we to rescue (you)1!' i.e. 'who are we that we should be able to rescue you? what power have we to rescue you V \avayok ho 'dliiharah, S*.] In a passage further on (ha tvam visrashtavyasya, &c.) K. explains ha by na prabhu, avasa, 'powerless.' All the Deva-n. MSS. read parittadum (Sk. paritratum), but the Beng. read parittame (Sk. paritraiie), and the Calcutta ha sattl amhe paritffine. The infinitive may well stand for the dative paritranaya (see p. 14, n. 2), especially in Prakrit, which has no dative. A precisely similar construction occurs in the Malavik. p. 55, 1. 13, ha vayam jetum; and again, p. 40, 1. 16, he avam jparigrahaya (Prak. pariggahassa, the gen. being put for Sanskrit dative).