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in p. 22, n. 3, and p. 86, n. 2. He is here said to be one of the PrajSpatis, or fathers of all created things, who were Brahma's sons, created by him to supply the universe with inhabitants, and who, after fulfiling their mission, retired from the world to practise penance and prepare for death. The Vftyu-purana certainly reckons Kasyapa, with his father-in-law Daksha and other sages, among the Prajapatis, but he does not belong to the seven original Prajapatis of whom his father Marici is one, nor to the ten enumerated by Manu (i. 35). Of the thirteen daughters of Daksha married to Kasyapa, the eldest, and his favourite wife, was the Aditi introduced here, from whom were born the gods and particularly the twelve Adityas, the several representatives of the sun in the twelve months of the year. From Diti, Danu, and others of the remaining twelve, came the Asuras or demons; and, fromVinatS, Aruna, 'the Dawn' (see p. 142, n. 3), and Garuda, 'the vehicle of Vishnu and king of birds.' Svdyambhuvdt=Brahma-sunoh, K. Surdsura-guruh, as to guru, see p. 173, n. 3, and p. 91,1. 3. Sa-patnikas, i. e. patnyd Adityd saha (cf. sa-strlka, sa-irika, &c.)

1 Anatikramanlya, cf. p. 68, 1. 7; p. 91, 1. 3. S'reydnsi = iubhani, kaiyapa-dariana-namaskdrddlni, 'lucky occasions,' 'opportunities for obtaining blessings, such as visiting and paying homage to Kasyapa.'

2 PradaksMni-kritya, see p. 159, 1. 8.

3 'A noble resolve,' 'a prime idea,' = mukhyah pakshah, K.; cf. p. 205,1. 7.

4 "The circumferences of the chariot-wheels cause no sound, and no

Verse 174. Vansa-sthavila (a variety of Jaqati). See verses 18, aa, 23, &c, 161.

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dust is seen rising-in-advance (of us); the chariot of thee reining-in (thy steeds), although it has descended (to the earth), is not observed (to have done so) by-reason-of-its-not-touching the surface of the ground.' Upodhaiabddh^prdpta-dhvanayah, K. (cf. upodTia-rdga, Vikram., Act II). Pravartamdna may mean 'rising in front of us' (cf. p. n, 1. 3). Nirundhatah=nigrihnatflh, K. Na lakshyate, see p. 70, n. 3 at the end. In Vikram,, Act I, when the car of Pururavas touches the ground, the direction is rathavatara-kshobham ndfayanti, 'acting the concussion (caused) by the descent of the chariot.' Such, Matali remarks, is the difference between the car of Indra and that of mortal heroes.

1 'Where stands yon sage, towards [facing] the sun's orb, immovable as the trunk-of-a-tree, (his) body half-buried in an ant-hill, with (his) breast closely-encircled. by a snake's-skin, round the throat excessively pinched by a necklace (formed) of the tendril of a withered creeper, wearing a circular-mass-of-matted-hair enveloping (his) shoulders (and) filled with bird's-nests.' Valmikdrdha, &c, so read K. and the Mackenzie MS.; the other Deva-n., valmlkdgra. Valmika (=krimi-krita-mrittikdcaya) is the mound of earth thrown up by the large ants of India. These hillocks sometimes rise, in Bengal, to the height of eight or ten feet, and are held sacred; (see Manu iv. 46. 238.) Such was the immovable impassiveness of this ascetic, that the ants had thrown up their mound as high as his waist, without being disturbed, and the birds had built their nests in his hair. Sandash(a-s°=ailisJi(a-nirmokena, cf. p. 120, n. 3. The serpent's skin was used by the ascetic in place of the regular Brahmanical cord, called yajnopavita; see Indian Wisdom, p. 201. Latd-pratdna^=latd-san

Verse 175. Sabdula-vikmdita (a variety of Atidhriti). See verses 14, &c., 172.

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ici/ia, 'the spreading part of a creeper.' Jata-mcmdala is the circle or bundle of matted entangled hair which ascetics allowed to grow on the crown of their heads, and which fell in long clotted tresses over the back and shoulders. Jafa is, especially, S'iva's hair so plaited and arranged, through which the Ganges meandered before its descent upon the earth. Ni&tam=jmritam, K. Stharyuh = iaklta-hinas taru-skandhah. Abhyarkavimbam=8urya-mandalabMmukharn, K. The Mackenzie MS. has adhyarka".

1 Kashfam kridchram tapo yasya sa tathoktah, K.

* 'Possessed of the Mandara-tree reared by Aditi.' This was one of the five trees of Svarga (see p. 272, n. 1), and is probably the tree intended here, as, in verse 176, the Kalpa tree also is said to have graced Kasyapa's retreat, which the commentator thence infers to have been located in part of Svarga. Mandara, 'the coral tree,' may also mean 'swallow-wort.'

3 Amrita,' the beverage of immortality,'' the nectar' of the Hindu gods, supposed to be a liquid substance distilled by the moon, who is thence called arnrita-su,' nectar-producer;' amritadhdra, 'nectar-repository.'

* Avatarishyati iti ieshah, B.; i. e. supply avatarishyati.

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1 '(The place) to which other sages aspire by (their) penances, (where there is) habitual [suitable, adequate] support of life by air in a grove inwhich-the-Kalpa-tree-is-found-; (where there is) the performance of religious ablutions in water, brown with the dust of the golden lotus; (where there is) meditation (while seated) on jewelled slabs of marble, (and) restraint (of the passions) in the presence of celestial nymphs; in (such a place as) this these (sages) are performing penance.' Prananam vrittih= jivanam, K. The Hindus imagine that supporting life upon air is a proof of the highest degree of spirituality to which a man can attain. Sat-kalpavrikshe=vidyamana-kalpardrume, K.; =vidyamana-kalpa-tarau, S. and C The Colebrooke MS. has sankalpa-vrikshe; this use of sat is noticeable. Sild-tala, 'the surface of a stone slab or seat;' cf. p. 76, 1. 3. Vihudha-stri =divyangana, K. Samyama=niyatendriyatva, K. Ebhih sat-kalpa-vrikshatvadikair vihshair ay am praties'ah svarga iti pratiyate,' by these attributes of the Kalpa tree, &c, it is inferred that this place was part of Svarga,' K-. As to the Kalpa tree, see p. 272, n. 1. Yat, &c, i.e. yat sthanam anye kankslianti tasmin svarga-pradeie ami munayas tani phalani parihritya tapasyanti iti anena tesham mokshdrthitvam gamy ate, K.

2 'Verily the aspirations [desire] of the great soar upwards [are ever mounting upwards].' Utsarpinl=udgamana-£ila=:atis'ayini, K.

3 As to dkdSe and kim bravishi, see p. 96, n. 3.

■* 'Being questioned by Dakshayani [i. e. his wife Aditi] respecting the Verse 176. Sardula-vikripita. See verses 14, 30, 36, 39, 40,63, 79, 85, &c, 175.

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duties [duty} of a wife devoted to her husband, he is recounting them [it] to her, in company with the wives of the Maharshis.' Ddkshayanl is a patronymic applicable to any of the daughters of Daksha (see p. 279, n. 3). Pati-vrata, cf. p. 241, n. 3. Adhikritya, see p. 6, n. 2. Maharshi,' a great saint;' the Maharshi was one step in advance of the Rishi or simple ' saint.' The classification of Rishis varies, but the following seems to be the usual gradation: 1. Rishi; 2. Maharshi; 3. Paramarshi; 4. Devarshi; 5. Brahmarshi. Amara mentions two other orders, Eandarshis and Srutarshis. The Rajarshi was a mixed order (see p. 39, n. 3).

1 'We must await the leisure of saints.' So reads the Mackenzie MS., supported, apparently, by K. Munaydh is of course the nominative, but such is the terseness of compounds like pratipdlydvasardh that a literal English translation is impossible. The other Deva-n. have pratipdlydvasardh khalu prastdvah.

2 The Asoka (Jonesia Asoka) is one of the most beautiful of Indian trees. Sir "W. Jones observes that 'the vegetable world scarce exhibits a richer sight than an Asoka tree in full bloom. It is about as high as an ordinary cherry tree.' The flowers are very large, and 'beautifully diversified with tints of orange-scarlet, of pale yellow, and of bright orange, which form a variety of shades according to the age of the blossom.'

3 'Opportune time' is one of the meanings of antara. As to gurave, cf. p. 173, n. 3 in the middle. Kasyapa was the reputed father of Indra.

4 'I go-to-do (what I proposed),' 'I will-do (as I said);' cf. p. 213, 1. 1, and p. 17,1. 8.

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