Imatges de pàgina

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1 'In which course [path, orbit] of the (seven) winds are we now moving?' The Hindus divide the heavens into seven Margas or Pathas, i. e. paths, courses, orbits (like the stories of the Mussalman creed), assigning a particular vayu or wind to each. Cf. Vishnu-p. p. 212. The first of these seven, vdyu-mdrgah or vayw-pathas, is identical with the bhuvarloha, or atmospheric region, extending from the bhur-loka, or terrestrial region [comprising the earth, and the adho-loka, called Patala], upwards to the sun. The wind assigned to this Marga is called avaha, and its office is to bear along the atmosphere, clouds, meteors, lightning, &c. The other six make up the svar-loka or heavenly region with which Svarga is often identified (cf. p. 272, n. 2) in the following order :—The 2nd Marga is that of the Bun, and its wind, called pravaha or pravaha, causes the sun to revolve; 3rd, that of the moon, its wind samvaha or samvaha impels the moon; 4th, that of the nakshatra, or lunar constellations, its wind udvaha causes the revolution of these asterisms; 5th, that of the graha, or planets, its wind vivaha bears along the seven planets; 6th, that of the saptarshi, or seven stars of the Great Bear, its wind parivaha bears along these luminaries, as well as the svar-ganga, or heavenly Ganges [saptarshi-cakram svar-gangdm shashthah parivahas tatlia\; it appears from the next verse that this was the Marga in which Indra's car was at the moment moving; 7th, that of dhruva, or the polarstar, the pivot or axis of the whole planetary system, to which, according to the Vishnu-p. (pp. 230, 240), 'all the celestial luminaries are bound by aerial cords, and are made to travel in their proper orbits, being kept in their places by their respective bands of air.' According to the Brahmanda-p., from which, as quoted by K., the above account is taken, the wind of the seventh Marga, causing the revolution of the polar-star, is paravdha [f paravaha]. All the Deva-n. MSS. read katarasmin for katarnasmin; sometimes katara is used for katama.

2 'They call this road, freed-from-all-impurities-by-the-second-stride-of

Verse 170. Vasanta-tilaka (a variety of Sakvabi). See verses 8, 27, 31, Sec, 168.

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Vishnu, (the road) of that wind Parivaha, which bears along the tripleflowing-river [Ganges] located in heaven, and causes the stars [of the Great Bear] to revolve, duly-distributing-their-rays.' See the last note. Tri-srotas=svar-gan-ga=manddkini, K. The Ganges was supposed to take its rise in the toe of Vishnu [whence one of its names, Vishnu-padi]; thence it flowed through the heavenly sphere, being borne along by the wind Parivaha and identified with the MandSkini, or Milky way: its second course is through the earth; but the weight of its descent was borne by Siva's head, whence after wandering among the tresses of his hair, it descended through a chasm in the Himalayas: its third course is through Patala, or the lower regions, the residence of the Daityas and Nagas, and not to be confounded with Naraka, 'hell,' 'the place of punishment.' Gagana-pratishthdm=dkdda-sthdm, S'. and C.; were it not for this interpretation I should translate 'the glory of the skies;' cf. p. 260, 1. ri. There is doubtless a double-entendre. Jyotvnshi, &c., i.e. saptarsJwndm dhishnydni, K. Pravibhakta-ras'mih, i. e. asan-klrna-rairnayas tejansi yasmin karmani tat tathoktam, K. Vartayati=sancdrayati, K. Dvitlya-7wri°, i. e. dvidyena harer vishnor vikramena pada-nydsena nirdosham, K. Tasya vdyor, &c, i. e. tasya parwahdkhyasya vdyor mdrgam panthdnam imam grihnanti dmananti. ParivdTio [sic] nama svar-gangdm saptarshi-mandalam pravartayati shashtho vdyu-skandho yathoktam Brahmdnda-purdne, K. The story of Vishnu's second stride was this—An Asura or Daitya (see p. 86, n. 2) named Bali or Mahabali, a descendant of Hiranya-kasipu had, by his devotions, gained the dominion of Heaven, Earth, and Patala. Vishnu undertook to trick him out of his power, and assuming the form of a Vamana, or dwarf (his fifth Avatara), he appeared before the giant, and begged, as a boon, as much land as he could pace in three steps. This was granted, and the god immediately expanded himself till he filled the world, deprived Bali at the first step, of earth; at the second, of heaven; but, in consideration of some merit, left Patala still under his rule. Another account makes him comprehend earth in his first step, the region of the air in his second, and heaven in his third. Hence tri-vikrama, tri-pdda, as names of Vishnu. See Indian "Wisdom, p. 331, n. 1. The Beng. MSS. have, in place of tasya dvitlya &c, tasya vyapeta-rajasahpravahasya vdyor margo dvitiya-hzri-vikramaputa eshah.

1 'Hence, indeed, do-I-feel-a-delightful-repose in all my senses [organs] external and internal,' lit. 'hence my inner soul along with my external tr*n i

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organs feels (a pleasurable) repose.' Cf. in Vikram. end of Act IV, tvaddarianena prasanno me savdhydntardtmd, i. e. 'body and soul,''my external and internal being,' 'my outer and inner man.' And again, UrvaSlgdtra-spars'dd iva nirvritam me sa-hridayam iariram. The organs of sense (indriya) according to the San-khya system are divided into two classes, external, vahyendriya; and internal, antar-indriya. The external are of two kinds: the five ' organs of perception,' jhanendriya, viz. the ear, eye, skin, tongue, and nose; and the five ' organs of action,' karmendriya, viz. the throat, hand, foot, organ of excretion, and that of generation. The internal organs are three, viz. manas, 'the mind,' or organ of thought; buddhi,'the reason,' or organ of apprehension; ahanhdra, 'individuality,' or 'self-consciousness.' Vitta, 'the heart,' or organ of feeling, is sometimes added. The Amara-k. (i. 4, 17) divides the Indriyas into two grand classes: 1. harmendriyani; and 2. buddhlndriydni or dhlndriydni, 'intellectual organs;' the latter comprises the jndnendriydni with manas; this seems to be the popular division. Cf. Vikram., Act III, bhavitavyatdnuvidhaylni buddhlndriydni.

1 'We have descended to the path of the clouds,' i. e. to the atmospheric region between the sun and the earth, the Mfirga of the clouds and of the Avaha wind (see p. 275, n. 1). The chariot must, therefore, have traversed with the speed of lightning, the four intervening Margas of the planets, lunar constellations, moon, and sun. If the Beng. reading, pravahasya, be adopted in the last verse, the transition would merely be from one Marga to the next.

2 'Here [ayawt] by the Catakas flying forth through the interstices of the spokes, and by the horses glistening with the flash of the lightnings, thy chariot, the rings [circumferences] of whose wheels are bedewed with

Verse 171. Malini or Manini. See verses 10, 19, 20, 38, 55, 109, no, 120.

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mist, betrays (our) progress over clouds whose bellies are pregnant with rain.' Ara=nemy-avash(ambha; the Beng. MSS. and the Mackenzie read aga, 'a mountain.' Ara-vivarebhyaS dakrdvayavandm vivarebhyo antardla-pradeiebhyah, K. Nishpatadbhih-=nirga66hadbMh, K. (see p. 253, n. 1 at the end). The Cataka is a kind of cuckoo. The Hindus suppose that it drinks only the water of the clouds, and their poets usually introduce allusions to this bird in connexion with cloudy or rainy weather (see Megha-d. verses 9, 23, 113; Raghu-v. xvii. 60). So trishdkulaii cdtaka-pakshinam kulaih praya6ita valdhakdh, Ritu-s. ii. 3. Ha/ribhir=aSvaih, especially Indra's horses (see p. 12, n. 1, and cf. Raghu-v. iii. 43). Adira-bhdsdm = vidyutam, S'. Gatam, &c, teshdm meghandm upari urdhva-bhdge gatam gamanam, K. PUunayati=sudayati, K.

1 'The earth descends as it were from the summit of the upward-rising [emergent] mountains. The trees, from the elevation [coming-into-view, rising, appearing] of (their) trunks, lose their state of being enveloped [concealed, wrapped] in their foliage. The rivers whose-waters-were-lostin-narrowness, become visible [acquire manifestation] from the expansion (of their waters). Behold! the earth is being brought up to my side [near me], as if by some one flinging it upwards.' In the same way to a voyager in a balloon at a very great height, the surface of the earth would seem flat, the trees would be compressed within their foliage like mushrooms, and the rivers shrivel into threads or tiny rivulets; but, on descending, the mountains would appear to stand out, and the earth to recede from them, the trees would exhibit their elevation, and the rivers their breadth of water. Vnmajjatam-=vdga6chatdm,'K.. Avaroha£i=adhogacihati, K. Parndbhyantara°. The Colebrooke MS. and my own have

Verse 172. Sardula-vikridita. See verses 14, 30, 36, 39, 40, 63, 79,85, &c, 149.

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pa/rna-svantara; the Taylor, parneskvantara; the Mackenzie, parna-prastara; K.., parndntwra-vilinam. Skandhodaydt=kroddvirbJiavdt,TL. Santanat-=jala-vistardt, K.; the other Deva-n. have santdnais. Tanubhdva0, tanubhavena sukshmatvena adrishtaip, salilam ydsdm, K. Vyaktim b/tajanti, i. e. vyaktd bhavanti, K.

1 'What mountain yonder is seen, bathing itself in the eastern and western ocean, pouring down a golden stream like a bar [bank, gate] of evening clouds?' Parigha occurs in p. 87, 1. 6, meaning 'the bar of a gate,' but it may also denote the gate itself. Sdnu-mat, lit. 'possessed of table-land,' 'a mountain having extensive level ground on its summit.'

a Hema-kuta,' golden-peaked,' a sacred range of mountains lying among the Himalaya chain, and apparently identical with, or immediately adjacent to Kailasa, the paradise of Kuvera, the god of wealth, as it is here described as the mountain of the Kimpurushas, or servants of Kuvera. They are a dwarfish kind of monster, with the body of a man and the head of a horse, and are otherwise called Kinnara (a&va-mukha, turangamukha). This mountain is also here described as 'the scene [place, field] of the perfect fulfilment of penance.' The Mackenzie MS. has tapasvinam for tapasam.

3 'That PrajSpati [Kasyapa], who sprang from Marici, the Selfexistent's-son [i.e. from Marici, son of Brahma], (and who is) the father of the gods and demons, practices penance here along with his wife (Aditi).' An account of Kasyapa, who, as son of Marici, is called Marica, is given

Verse 173. Sloka or Anoshtubh. See verses 5,6,11, la, 26, 47, 50, 51, &c., 164.

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