Imatges de pàgina
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this reading, but adopts the one in the text and censures the interpretation of Sf. Pratishtha may have the sense I have given, which agrees with the prdrthitarthadhigamah and 6aritart7iatd of the preceding lines. Atiirama may either refer to the trouble which the king has undergone in arriving at the object of his ambition, or to the troubles of his subjects which it is his office to remove. In the latter case na 6a iramaya will mean 'without leading to personal trouble or weariness.' The Indian thattra, or parasol, from the shelter it affords has been chosen as one of the insignia of royalty. It is very heavy, and being fixed on a long pole greatly fatigues the person holding it. It is always borne by a servant; but here the king is figuratively made to bear it himself, so that he cannot give shelter to himself and others, without undergoing great personal fatigue. Na 6a iramaya is found in all the Deva-n. MSS.; the Beng. have yatha iramaya, i. e. 'royalty does not so much lead to the removal of fatigue as to fatigue.' According to K., who repeats the first negative before na da iramaya, the two negatives are here employed affirmatively, i. e. to affirm that royalty does lead to personal fatigue. 'It is not for the removal of great fatigue and not not for fatigue.' Cf. a similar use of two negatives on p. 24, 1.10, with note.

1 Vaitdliha = vandin, 'a herald,' v.;=stuti-pdthaka, 'a panegyrist,' S\ He was a kind of herald or crier, whose duty was to announce, in measured verse, the fixed periods into which the king's day was divided. The strain which he poured forth usually contained allusions to incidental circumstances. In Vikram. and Rata., only one Vaitalika appears, but here and in the Malavik. there are two. In Vikram., Act II, he announces the sixth hour or watch of the day, about two or three o'clock, at which period alone the king is allowed to amuse himself. From the Dasakumara it appears that a king's day and night were supposed to be divided into eight portions of one hour and a half, reckoned from sunrise, for distributing which strict directions are given, thus: Day—1. The king being dressed, is to audit accounts; 2. He is to pronounce judgment in appeals; 3. He is to breakfast; 4. He is to receive and make presents;

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5. He is to discuss political questions with his ministers; 6. He is to amuse himself; 7. He is to review his troops; 8. He is to hold a military council. Night—1. He is to receive the reports of his spies and envoys; 2. He is to sup or dine; 3. He is to retire to rest, after the perusal of some sacred work; 4 and 5. He is to sleep; 6. He is to rise and purify himself; 7. He is to hold a private consultation with his ministers, and instruct his officers; 8. He is to attend upon the Pwohita, or family priest, for the performance of religious ceremonies. See Wilson's Hindu Theatre, vol. i. p. 209.

1 'Indifferent to thine own ease, thou endurest toil every day for the sake of (thy) people. But thy regular-business is of this very kind. For the tree suffers intense heat with its head (while) it allays by (its) shade the heat of those seeking (its) shelter.' Athava, see p. 30, n. 3. Vrittir, some of the Beng., supported by K. and S'., have srish(ir.

2 'Having assumed the mace [sceptre] thou restrainest those who advance on the wrong road [set out on bad courses]; thou composest differences; thou art adequate to the protection (of thy people). Let kinsmen make their appearance forsooth in affluent circumstances [when there is abundant property], but in thee the whole duty of a kinsman is comprehended towards thy subjects.' Atta-danda=grihita-darida; danda, 'a magistrate's staff,' taken as a symbol of punishment and justice; it is sometimes 'the sceptre of a king;' hence danda-dhara, dandin, 'staffbearer,' &c, are names for Yama, the god of justice and lord of punishment. Vimdrga, some have kumarga, 'bad ways.' Kalpase = sampadyase, K. Manu furnishes several examples of klrip in the sense of ' to be sufficient,' 'to be fit' (see ii. 151, ii. 266, vi. 20; also Kaghu-v. viii. 40).

Verses 109 and 110. Malinj or Manini (a variety of Ati-sakvabi). See verses 10, 19, 20, 38, 55.

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■/ItanwsAw vibJiaveshu=utsaveshu, 'at times of festivity.' Kukshim-bharibhis taih kira prayojanam, 'what is the use of these parasitical gluttons as relations?' K. The Calcutta ed. and S1. have samvibhaktah for santu nama. The meaning may certainly be,' let kinsmen make their appearance (i. e. start up they will on all sides) when there is plenty of property to divide.' K. refers to verse 155, towards the end of Act VI. of this play, yena yena viyujyante prajah, &c, 'let it be publicly announced that of whatever dear kinsman his subjects are deprived, Dushyanta will be (in the place of) that (kinsman) to them, the wicked excepted.'

1 The use of ete with 1st pers. pi. of the verb is noticeable, see p. 133, n. 2.

2 'The terrace of the fire-sanctuary, with the cow (that yields the ghee) for the oblations close by, is beautiful after its recent purification.' Sa-irlka, lit. 'possessed of the goddess of beauty;' a bold metaphor, used elsewhere by Kalidasa. Homa-dhenu, agrd-iarana, see p. 148, n. 1.

3 'Has the devotion [penance] of the ascetics, who have collected a. store of penitential merit, been frustrated by impediments % or else has any harm been inflicted by any one on the animals grazing in the sacred

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grove? Or is it that the flowering of the creeping plants has been checked [stopped, stunted] through my misdeeds? Thus my mind, in which so many doubtful-conjectures have arisen, is perplexed with an inability to decide.' Upodlw,=samprdpta, K. Vighnais, see p. 40, n. 5. Dharmaranya-dareshu prdnishu, cf. p. 13, 1. 3. Sho svit, used as particles of doubt, see Gram. 717. h. Prasavah, i.e. .pushpa-phalddi, 'the flower, fruit, &c.,' K. Apa-caritaih=-dur-d6araih.

1 'To pay homage to.' Sabhdj is one of the few dissyllabic roots.

2 'Granted that this king eminent-in-virtues [of high parts] swerves not from rectitude; (and that) not one of the classes, (not) even the lowest, addicts itself to evil courses; nevertheless with my mind perpetually familiarized to seclusion I regard this thronged (palace) as a house enveloped in flames.' Kdmam occurs frequently in this sense (cf. p. 24, 1. 10; p. 55, n. 3). Abhinna-sthitih=avihata-maryddah, K. ;=sa-mwryadah, 53. Asau, so read the Beng. and the Mackenzie MSS.; the others have dho. Varndndm, i. e. brahmanddindm. Apahrishfo 'pi, 'even the lowest (class).' The castes were originally four in number: r. Brahmans or priests; 2. Kshatriyas or soldiers; 3. Vaisyas or merchants and husbandmen; 4. Sudras or slaves; see p. 84, n. 3. A-patha,' a wrong road,'' a bad

Verse 112. Sikharini (a variety of Atyashti). See verses 9, 34, 44, 62.

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