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1 'There he is now, gracefully by the bending of his neck fixing a glance ever and anon at the chariot which pursues him, by (the contraction of) the hinder half (of his body) repeatedly drawing himself into the fore-(part of his) body through fear of the descent of the arrow; strewing the road with grass half-chewed which dropB from his mouth kept open from exhaustion. See! by reason of his lofty boundings he springs forward chiefly in the air, little on the ground.' For baddha-drishti, compare Raghu-v. i. 40, syandanabaddha-drishtishu. Pravishtah purva-kayam is equivalent to pravishta-purva-kayah, lit. 'entering the fore-part of his body,' a Bahuvrihi compound analogous to baddha-drishtih and hirnavartma. In regard to Darbha or Kusa grass, see note to verse 15.
2 '[With surprise.] How now! the deer has become visible with difficulty [lit. with effort] to me pursuing (him).' Dr. Burkhard reads this line thus: Sa esha katham anupadam eva prayatna-prekshaniyah samvrittah.
3 'Because the ground is full of hollows, I have slackened the speed of the chariot by drawing in the reins.' Utkhdtini, lit.' full of excavations.'
* 'Separated by a longer interval or distance.'
5 The expressions nirupya and natayitva, which occur so frequently in
Verse 7. Sbaodhaba. See verse 1.
—- \j I \J \J \J \J \J \J — I — w \J
the stage-directions, are synonymous, and may both be translated by 'acting,' 'gesticulating,' 'exhibiting by gesticulation.' The properties and paraphernalia of the Hindu stage were as limited as the scenery; and though seats, thrones, weapons, and cars were introduced, yet much had to be supplied by the imaginations of the spectators, assisted by the gesticulations of the actors. Thus, though the car of DuBhyanta might have been represented on the stage, the horses would be left to the imagination, and the speed of the chariot would only be indicated by the gesticulations of the charioteer.
1 'The reins being loosed, these chariot-horses gallop along as if with impatience of the speed of the deer [i. e. impatient or emulous of its speed], having the fore-part of their bodies well stretched out, having the chowrie which forms their crest motionless, having the ears erect yet firmly fixed [or bent backwards], not to be overtaken even by the dust raised by themselves.'—The cdmarl or chowrie, formed of the white bushy tail of the Yak or Bos Grunniens, served for whisking off flies; and was used as an emblem of princely rank. It was placed as an ornament between the ears of horses, like the plume of the war-horse of chivalry. The velocity of the chariot caused it to lose its play and appear fixed in one direction, like a flag borne rapidly against the wind. A similar idea occurs in Act I. of the Vikramorvasl, titraramhlia-viniscalam hayasirasi tSamaram. There is some difficulty in nibhritordhvakarnah. The commentator explains nibhrita by nisSala, 'motionless.' The most usual sense of nibhrita is 'secret,' 'modest,' 'depressed,' 'low' (Glta-g. ii. Ii, ii. 21; Hitop. passim). In Raghu-v. viii. 15 the sky is described as nibhritendu, 'having its moon nearly set' (=astamaydsannacandra). Hence might flow the acceptation 'bent backwards.' The ears of a horse while running at full speed would be not only erect, but probably bent backwards so as to present the least resistance to the
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wind. This interpretation is confirmed by the reading of the Bengali MSS., iyuta-karna-hhanga; but if the sense ni£6ala be insisted on, translate—' having the ears erect and immovable.'
1 'Truly, the horses are [or appear as if] outstripping the horses of the Sun, and the horses of Indra,' i. e. the speed of the chariot seems like that of the Sun or the Wind. Harito is taken by some commentators as gen. case of harit, 'the Sun,' and harm as ace. case plural of hari, 'a horse.' But 6a after harm indicates that both harito and harm are ace. cases after afitya. In the Big-veda we find hari (dual) and harayah and haribhih (I. 16, i; Ioi, io; 16, 4; 52, 8) for 'the horses of Indra;' and haritah for 'the seven horses of Surya or the Sun' (I. 50, 8; 115, 4). In Nirukta i. 15 the different vehicles of the gods are given, and among them hari Indrasya, haritah ddityasya. Hence Indra is called hari-haya or hari-vdhana (Vikram., Act III), and in Big-veda, hari-yojana; and the Sun is called harii-aiva. One name of the Sun is saptdsva, 'having seven horses.' The Bengali MSS. read katham afitya harinam harayo, &c, but harito harinsca is supported by all the Deva-nagari MSS., and by a parallel passage in Vikram., Act I, anena ratha-vegena vainateyam api asadayeyam.
3 'That which in my sight (appeared) minute suddenly attains magnitude; that which was divided in half becomes as if united; that also which is by nature [really] crooked (appears) even-lined [straight] to my eyes. Nothing (seems) at a distance from me nor at my side even for a moment, by reason of the velocity of the chariot.' This is a method of describing great velocity of motion, which may be well appreciated by any one, in these days, who may have taken notice of the effect produced upon adjacent objects by an express railway speed of a mile a minute.
1 'With himself as the third,' or 'with himself making the third,' i.e. himself and two others. This is a not unusual compound. Compare the expression, Pcmdava mdtri-shmhtah, 'the Pandavas with their mother as the sixth,' i. e. five persons, or six counting their mother. Again, thaya-dvitvyo Nalah, 'Nala made two hy his shadow,' 'umhra geminatus' (Nala v. 25). Also, adhite caturo vedan akhyanapancaman, 'he reads the four Vedas with the Akhyanas as a fifth' (Nala vi. 9). A similar idiom prevails in Greek, alros heing used after ordinal numbers: thus, ire'nirTos air6s, 'himself with four others,' Thucydides I. xlvi. Similarly, rpirov fmiTaXavrov, 'two talents and a half,' and cfiSopov TifurdXavTov, 'six talents and a half,' Herodotus I. 15, 50.
Verse 10. Malini or Manini (a variety of Ati-sakvari or Ati-sakkari), containing fifteen syllables to the Pada or quarter-verse, each Pada being alike. *-» W v-< W W W — — I — \j \j
1 'Not indeed, not indeed must this arrow (of thine) be allowed to descend upon this tender body of the deer, like fire upon a heap of flowers. Where, forsooth, on the one hand (ca), is the very frail existence of fawns t and where, on the other (ca), are thy sharp-falling adamantine shaftsV i.e. "Where is the suitability or congruity between the one and the other? "What has the one to do with the other? How great a contrast or difference is there between the one and the other! Let not your shafts waste their strength upon an object so frail and tender, but let them be directed towards a mark more fitted to prove their adamantine qualities. This repetition of hva to express great contrast or unsuitability between two things is not uncommon. It is used by Kalidasa again at the end of the Second Act of this play, hva vayam, &c.; also in Megha-duta 5, thus, '"Where is a cloud which is a collection of vapour, fire, water, and wind % and where the meaning of messages to be received by intelligent mortals V i. e. Why deliver a message intended for intelligent human beings to a cloud 1 What possible connection can there be between objects whose nature is so different? See also Eaghu-v. i. 2, 'Where is the race sprung from the sun? and where my scanty powers of mind?' The majority of MSS. read pushparasau, some tula-rdsau, 'on a heap of cotton.'
2 'Therefore withhold your well-aimed [lit. well fitted to the bow] arrow. Your weapon is for the deliverance of the distressed, not to inflict a wound on the innocent.' Sandha is properly 'to unite or fix an arrow to a bow,' hence 'to take aim' (Draupadi-h. 149); and sandhanam, 'the act of taking aim.' Prahartum is here' used where praharanaya might be expected, but the infinitive is interchangeable with the dative, and frequently has the force of that case.