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living creatures is observed (to be) affected with various emotions, through fear and anger; and that is the glory of the archers when the arrows fall true on the moving mark. Falsely indeed do they call hunting a vice; where (is) there such a recreation as this ?' Medas, 'adeps or fat,'=sthaulya-janaka-dhātu, 'a secretion causing fatness, K. It performs the same functions to the flesh that the marrow does to the bones; its proper seat is in the belly (udara); hence the flesh is called medas-krit, 'the maker of adeps.' Ćheda=nāśa, 'destruction,” “removal,'
reduction' (cf. gharma-ćéheda, 'the cessation of the heat,' Vikram., Act IV). Utthāna-yogyam, the Beng. MSS. read utsāha-yogyam, but utsāha is merely a synonym for utthāna, which is applied to any kind of manly exertion. K. says it here refers especially to the act of mounting on horse-back. Sattvānām, i. e. jantūnām sinhādīnām, of animals such as lions, &c.' Sattva may include both the hunters and the hunted. Vikritimat, affected with vikriti or vikāra,' i.e. any emotion which causes a change from the prakriti, or natural and quiescent state of the mind' (parityakta-prakritikam, K.); see p. 38, n. 2. Bhaya-krodhayoḥ (satoḥ)= bhaye krodhe ća. Utkarsha=pratishthā,' fame,'' honour,' S. Vyasanam, see Manu vii. 47, 50, where hunting is designated as one of the ten vices (vyasanāni) of kings, and is, moreover, included amongst the four most pernicious (Isashtatama).
1 Utsāha-hetuka, 'one who encourages or incites to exertion;' opposed to utsāha-bhanga-kara, 'one who damps another's zeal, Hitop. 1. 1987.
2 ‘His Majesty has returned to his natural state [i.e. is no longer eager after the excitement of hunting]; but thou, wandering from forest to forest, wilt probably fall into the jaws of some old bear, greedy after a human nose.' Prakriti, 'the natural, quiescent state of the soul, as
opposed to vikriti; see above. Āhindan, see p. 60, l. 2 ; Dasa-kumāracarita, p. 151, 1. 6, says, bhallūkā manushyāņām nāsikām grihnanti, 'bears seize the human nose.' The Beng. read śřigāla-mriga-lolupasya, 'eager after a jackal or deer. Rićihassa is Prākṣit for rikshasya, Vararući iii. 30.
1 “Let the buffaloes agitate-by-their-plunges the water of the tanks, repeatedly struck with their horns; let the herd of deer, forming groups under the shade, busy themselves in rumination; let the bruising of the Mustā grass be made in (undisturbed) confidence by the lines [herds] of boars in the pool ; and let this my bow, having-the-fastening-of-its-stringloose, get repose. Gāhantām=lolayantu, let them agitate, stir,' K., hence lulāpa is one of the names for a buffalo. Gāk, properly, “to plunge into,' plunge about in. Nipāna=āhāva, 'a reservoir or trough near a well' (upakāpa). Romantha=adhara-calana, 'the moving of the lower lip or lower jaw,' K., and bhuktasya punar ākrishya or udgīrya tarvanam, «the chewing of what has been eaten after drawing or vomiting it up again,' i. e. 'chewing the cud, S., Ć. Abhyasyatu=paunahpunyena karotu, 'perform again and again,' Ć. Tatibhiḥ=yüthaiḥ, by herds.' The Beng. read varāha-patibhir, ‘by the chiefs of the boars.' There is no difficulty in tatibhir; many herds of animals form lines or tracks in moving from one place to another, or in grazing. Mustā, a sort of fragrant grass (Cyperus Rotundus) eaten by swine, which are hence called mustāda. Kshati=vidāraṇa,' tearing,''uprooting,' K.;=lunthana,
rolling,' S. The grass would probably be bruised by their trampling and rolling on it, as well as by their eating it. Sithila-jyā-bandha= avaropita-guna. S. and Ć. observe that the above verse furnishes an example of the figure called Jāti or Svabhāvokti, i.e. a description of living objects by circumstances or acts suited to their character. They also notice the change of construction from the nom. to the instr. in the third line, and its resumption in the fourth.
1 Prabhavishnu, “the mighty one,' equivalent to our expression “your Majesty.'
2 Vana-grāhinaḥ=vanāvarodhakān, see p. 61, n. 1.
3 In ascetics with whom quietism [a passionless state] is predominant (over all other qualities), there lies concealed a consuming energy [fire]. That (energy), like sun-crystals, (which are) grateful [cool] to the touch, they put forth, from (being acted upon by) the opposing-influence of other forces,' i.e. the inhabitants of this hermitage, however passionless they may be, and however kind when unprovoked, contain within themselves a latent energy, which, when roused by opposing influences, will be put forth to the destruction of those who molest them; as a crystal lens, however cool to the touch in its natural state, will emit a burning heat when acted upon by the rays of the sun. Sama-pradhāneshu, 'in whom stoicism or self-control is everything;' who regard exemption from all passion and feeling as the summum bonum. Sūrya-kānta, lit. “beloved by the sun;' also called surya-mani, the sun-gem,' and diptopala, shining stone,' a stone resembling crystal. Wilson calls it a fabulous stone with fabulous properties, and mentions a fellow-stone called candra-kānta,
Verse 41. UPAJATI or AKHYANAKI (a variety of TRISHTUBH), each quarter-verse being either Upendra-vajrā or Indra-vajrā, the former only differing from the latter in the first syllable.
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'moon-beloved, or Candra-mani, ' moon-gem.' It may be gathered from this passage that its properties resembled those of a glass lens, which instrument may possibly have been known to the Hindūs at the time when this play was written. The following parallel sentiment is from Bhartși-h. ii. 30 : Yad acetano 'pi pādaih sprishtah prajvalati savitur atikāntab, tat tejasvī purushaḥ para-krita-nikṣitam katham sahate, 'since even the lifeless (stone) beloved of the sun, when touched by its rays, burns ; how then can the man of spirit put up with an injury inflicted by another ?' Abhi-bhava=tiras-kāra, “insult,' K. The sun's rays, disturbing the natural state of the stone, are compared to the hunter's disturbing the hermitage and provoking its inhabitants. Vamanti, so read all the Deva-n. MSS. and K. The Beng. have sparśānukālā api sūrya-kāntās, te hy anya-tejo'Bhibhavād. dahanti, 'although the sun-crystals be grateful to the touch, yet, from the influence of other heat, they burn.'
1 This is inserted on the authority of Kāțavema and one MS. (India Office, 2696). The Beng. read bho utsāha-hetuka nishkrama.
2 •Your arguments for exertion (in the chase) have fallen (to the ground),' i. e. all that you have alleged in praise of hunting, with the view of rousing the king's ardour, has been in vain.
* Some read bhavanto; but the fem. bhavatyo (supported by K.) seems more correct, as the female attendants, called Yavani, are intended. See p. 62, n. 2, in the middle.
''Fulfil your office (of door-keeper),' i. e. dvāra-stho bhava, 'stand at the door,' C.
1.(The place) bas now been made clear of flies by your Majesty,' i. e. we are now left alone, and no one can interrupt us. Nir-makshikam= nir-janam, 'free from people,' S., Č. According to Pāṇ. ii. 1, 6, nirmakshikam is an Avyayıbhāva compound, but it is here used adjectively. The Prākṣit conforms to Vararući iii. 30. The phrase occurs again in the beginning of Act VI. Has makshika here at all the sense of the French mouchard, “a spy,' which is derived from mouche, 'a fly?'
2 'On this stone-seat, furnished with a canopy,' &c. See p. 26, n. 3.
3 Lit. 'thou hast not obtained the fruit [benefit] of thy eyes, since the best of things worthy to be seen has not been seen by thee,' i. e. until you have seen Sakuntalā, you may consider your eyes as barren, and created in vain ; when they have fallen upon this object, they may then be said to have yielded some fruit. So in Vikram., Act I, the king, speaking of Urvasi, says, yasya. netrayor abandhyayoh (not barren) pathi sthitā tvam. Cf. also Gīta-g. ix. 6, Harim avalokaya saphalaya nayane, 'look upon Hari (and) make thy eyes fruitful.'