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1 'Loving [amorous] fair-ones make ear-rings of the Sirisha-blossoms that-are-very-gently-kissed by bees (and) the points-of-whose-filamentsare-very-delicate.' According to S'ankara, hesara = kinjalka, and the whole compound is a Bahuvrihi, agreeing with sirisha-kusumdni. There is an allusion to the blossoms of the Smsha being thus used in Meghaduta 67, cdruha/rne Airisham; and Raghu-v. xvi. 48, 61. Compare also karna-sirisha-rodhi, at the end of Act I. of this play; and Ritu-s. ii. 18, hritavatansaih kummaih, &c. Avatansayanti is a nominal verb from avatansa.
2 'On every side, the audience, having all the feelings of its soul fixed on the melody, is as if formed into a picture,' i. e. motionless or riveted with attention. Alikhita=-ni66ala, K.; ran-ga applies to the audience as well as to the stage. Prakarcma, 'a subject,' 'story,' 'poem.'
3 'By your reverence;' arya-mtiraih is here an epithet of the manager, the respectful plural being used. In Vikramorvasl, Act I, arya-vidagdha
mtirah, 'respectable and intelligent persons,' occurs as an epithet of the audience. Misra, 'mixed,' in a compound of this kind has the force of 'gentleman.' A-jnapta, * ordered,' 'arranged,' 'announced.'
1 Adhikriyatam=prakati-kriyatam, K., i. e. 'let it be made the subject of exhibition,' 'let it be brought prominently forward;' see p. 6, note 2. Some read prayoge; compare in Ratnavall, p. 2, 1. 15, nalika prayogena ndtayilavya.
2 The rule is, that the conclusion of the prelude should prepare the audience for the entrance of one of the dramatis personse. Hence, the manager exclaims, 'I was forcibly carried away by the ravishing melody of thy song, like king Dushyanta here by the very fleet antelope.' PrasabJiam, a kind of adverbial indeclinable participle from an old form sabh (=rt. sah) with pra, and meaning 'forcibly,' 'violently;' (see Gram. 5670
Verse 5. Sloka or Anushtdbh, consisting of four Padas of eight syllables.
i=! w ^ O | w i=i || U W O ii I w — ww
O" i=i O" O" | w u II O U U u J w — wO
The first four syllables and the last syllable of each Pada may be either long or short.
'O long-lived one!' a respectful mode of addressing kings. Candrasekhara quotes a verse of Bharata, Vaded rdjnvm 6a 6etlm 6a bhavatlti vidushakah, ayushman rathinam silto vriddham tateti 6etarah. Cf. Manu ii. 125. 2 'Casting (my) eye on the black-antelope and on thee with-thy-strungbow I behold, as it were, Siva visibly present chasing the deer.' Adhi-jya, 'having the string [jya] up;' at the end of the chase the bow would be iithila-jya: see verse 40. Sa-jya is used like adhi-jya. Pinakin is S'iva, armed with his bow called Pindha. [So the bow of Vishnu has a name Sdrn-ga, and that of Arjuna, Gandiva, Megha-d. 48, 50.] In illustration, Katavema refers to Eaghu-v. xi. 44, Dhanuh, yena vrisha-dhvajo vdnam asrijad vidruta-kratu-mrigdnusdrinam. Siva, not having been invited to Daksha's celebrated horse-sacrifice, was so indignant, that with his wife he suddenly presented himself, confounded the sacrifice, dispersed and mutilated the gods, and chasing Yajna, 'the lord of sacrifice,' who fled in the form of a fleet deer, overtook and decapitated him. The Vayu-purana makes Siva create a manifestation of himself as a monstrous being named Vira-bhadra, who pursues Yajna in the form of a deer: see Vishnu-purana, p. 65.
Verse 6. Sloka or Andshtubh. See verse 5.
so ii ?ifct!M$r$fC&H n 10
3?: i V-'
1 'There he is now, gracefully by the bending of his neck fixing a glance ever and anon at the chariot which pursues him, by (the contraction of) the hinder half (of his body) repeatedly drawing himself into the fore-(part of his) body through fear of the descent of the arrow; strewing the road with grass half-chewed which dropB from his mouth kept open from exhaustion. See! by reason of his lofty boundings he springs forward chiefly in the air, little on the ground.' For baddha-drishti, compare Raghu-v. i. 40, syandanabaddha-drishtishu. Pravishtah purva-kayam is equivalent to pravishta-purva-kayah, lit. 'entering the fore-part of his body,' a Bahuvrihi compound analogous to baddha-drishtih and hirnavartma. In regard to Darbha or Kusa grass, see note to verse 15.
2 '[With surprise.] How now! the deer has become visible with difficulty [lit. with effort] to me pursuing (him).' Dr. Burkhard reads this line thus: Sa esha katham anupadam eva prayatna-prekshaniyah samvrittah.
3 'Because the ground is full of hollows, I have slackened the speed of the chariot by drawing in the reins.' Utkhdtini, lit.' full of excavations.'
* 'Separated by a longer interval or distance.'
5 The expressions nirupya and natayitva, which occur so frequently in
Verse 7. Sbaodhaba. See verse 1.
—- \j I \J \J \J \J \J \J — I — w \J
the stage-directions, are synonymous, and may both be translated by 'acting,' 'gesticulating,' 'exhibiting by gesticulation.' The properties and paraphernalia of the Hindu stage were as limited as the scenery; and though seats, thrones, weapons, and cars were introduced, yet much had to be supplied by the imaginations of the spectators, assisted by the gesticulations of the actors. Thus, though the car of Dushyanta might have been represented on the stage, the horses would be left to the imagination, and the speed of the chariot would only be indicated by the gesticulations of the charioteer.
1 'The reins being loosed, these chariot-horses gallop along as if with impatience of the speed of the deer [i. e. impatient or emulous of its speed], having the fore-part of their bodies well stretched out, having the chowrie which forms their crest motionless, having the ears erect yet firmly fixed [or bent backwards], not to be overtaken even by the dust raised by themselves.'—The 6ama.fi or chowrie, formed of the white bushy tail of the Yak or Bos Grunniens, served for whisking off flies; and was used as an emblem of princely rank. It was placed as an ornament between the ears of horses, like the plume of the war-horse of chivalry. The velocity of the chariot caused it to lose its play and appear fixed in one direction, like a flag borne rapidly against the wind. A similar idea occurs in Act I. of the Vikramorvasl, 6itrarambha-vini66alam hayasirasi tamaram. There is some difficulty in nibhritordhvakarndh. The commentator explains nibhrita by nis6ala, 'motionless.' The most usual sense of nibhrita is 'secret,' 'modest,' 'depressed,' 'low' (Glta-g. ii. Ii, ii. 21; Hitop. passim). In Eaghu-v. viii. 15 the sky is described as nibhritendw, 'having its moon nearly set' (=astamayasannacandra). Hence might flow the acceptation 'bent backwards.' The ears of a horse while running at full speed would be not only erect, but probably bent backwards so as to present the least resistance to the
Verse 8. Vasanta-tilaka (a variety of Sakvari or Sakkari or Sarkari), containing fourteen syllables to the Pada or quarter-verse, each Pada being alike. w — ww**/ — w w — w |j