Imatges de pàgina
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were the chief food of anchorites, and constituted their whole substance. With an offering of these they were commanded to honour every one who came to their hermitage (Rāmāy. i. 52, 16; 61, 4; Manu vi. 7). The allusion, however, evidently is to Sakuntalā, who might be regarded as the holy father's most valuable possession. ___1 'Get off with you! having formed some (idea) in your heart, you are speaking. Hridaye or manasi kri is not an unusual idiom for “to turn or cogitate in the mind' (see Ramay. ii. 64, 8). Apetam is the 2nd du. impv. of i, 'to go,' with apa.

a Sakhă-gatam,ʻrelating to your friend.' (Šakuntalā-vishayakam, Schol.) This use of gata is noticeable, see note on ātma-gatam, p. 38, n. 1. Only one Deva-n. MS. reads bhavatyau ; but this is supported by the oldest Bengālī, which also adds kimapi. . His reverence Kasyapa [see p. 22, n. I] lives in the constant practice-of-devotion [or in perpetual celibacy].' Braleman is properly the Supreme Spirit from which all created things are supposed to emanate and into which they are absorbed. It may also mean the Veda, or holy knowledge. S. explains brahman by tapas, i.e. bodily mortification and penance; K. by brahma-carya, 'the practice of continence.'

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a yurid: aferats fa alista sfa MgrAWUH TETANTE TUWTA: 1

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and for many thousand years more before he became a Brāhman. It
was not till after this period that he became the preceptor of Rāma-
candra. No chronological inconsistency is too monstrous for Hindū
- 1 Know him (to be) the father of our dear friend ; but father Kanva.
is the (reputed) father of her, through the fostering of her body, &c.,
when deserted.' Prabhava=janma-hetu, 'the operative cause of being,'
i.e. a. father.

? The story of Viśvāmitra, as told in the Rāmāyaṇa, is briefly this. On his accession to the throne in the room of his father Gādhi, in the course of a tour through his dominions, he visited the hermitage of the sage Vasishtha (one of the ten Brahmadikas or Prajapatis, sons of Brahma). There the cow of plenty, which granted its owner all desires, and was the property of Vasishtha, excited the king's cupidity. He offered the Muni untold treasures in exchange for the cow, but being refused, prepared to take it by force. A long war ensued between the King and the Muni (symbolical of the struggles between the Kshatriya and Brāh

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manical classes) which ended in the defeat of Viśvāmitra, whose vexation was such, that he devoted himself to tremendous austerities, hoping to force the gods to make him a Brāhman that he might fight with the saint Vašishtha on equal terms. The Rāmāyaṇa goes on to recount how, by gradually increasing the rigour of his bodily mortification through thousands of years, he successively earned the title of Rājarshi (i. 57, 5), Rishi (63, 2), Maharshi (63, 19), and finally, Brahmarshi (65, 18). Not till he had gained this last title did Vašishtha consent to acknowledge his equality with himself, and ratify his admission into the Brāhmanical state. It was at the time of Viśvāmitra's advancement to the rank of a ķishi, and whilst he was still a Kshatriya, that Indra and the gods, jealous of his increasing power-exhibited in his transporting king Tričanku to the region of the stars, and in saving Sunaḥsepa, the son of his own brother-in-law Rićīka, out of the hands of Indra, to whom he had been promised by king Ambarisha as a victim in a sacrifice—sent the nymph Menakā, to seduce him from his life of continence. The Rāmāyaṇa records his surrender to this temptation, and relates that the nymph was his companion in the hermitage for ten years, but does not allude to the birth of Sakuntalā during that period. It only informs us that at the end of ten years the Rishi extricated himself from this hindrance (niyama-vighna), and abandoning the nymph, departed into another region. See Indian Wisdom, p. 363.

1 •Such is the dread which the (inferior) gods have of the devotion of others l' Indra and all the deities below Brahman are really, according to the Hindū system, finite beings, whose existence as separate deities will one day terminate, and whose sovereignty in Svarga, or “heaven,' is by no means inalienable. They viewed with jealousy and alarm any persistency by a human being in acts of penance which might raise him to a level with themselves; and if carried beyond a certain point, might enable him to dispossess them of paradise. Indra was therefore the enemy of excessive devotion, and had in his service numerous nymphs (apsaras), such as Menakā, Rambhā, and Urvašī, who were called his ' weapons' (Indrasya praharaṇāni, Vikram., Act I), and who were constantly sent by him to impede by their seductions the devotions of holy men.

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fua, nit' 1" Then at the season of the descent of Spring, having looked upon the

intoxicating beauty [form] of that (nymph).' Some commentators consider vasantodāra to be a compound of vasanta and udāra ; but odāra is a legitimate Prākṣit contraction for avatāra, although avadāra would be equally correct. Cf. odansayanti for avatansayanti (p. 7, n. 1), hodi for havadi or bhavati, jedi for jayadi or jayati, &c. Avatāra is from ava-trī, 'to descend,' and applies especially to the descent of a god from heaven. Vasanta, 'the Spring,' is often personified as a deity. See Vikram., Act II, Pekkhadu bhavam vasantāvadārasūidam assa ahirāmattanam pamadavaṇassa, 'let your honour observe the delightfulness of this pleasure-garden manifested by the descent of Spring. Unmādayitļikam is for the neut. unmādayitsi, 'that which causes to go mad or be intoxicated' (=adhairya-janakam, 'causing unsteadiness').

2 What (happened) afterwards is quite understood [or guessed by me].' The suffix tāt, in words like parastāt, adhastāt, may stand for the nominative case, as well as for abl, and loc. (Pāņ. v. 3, 27). Hence parastāt=para-vșittāntaḥ, the rest of the story, the subsequent particulars.'

3 • Exactly so,' 'how can it be otherwise ?' Athakim is a particle of assent.

4 "It is fitting (that she should be the daughter of an Apsaras). How

Verse 26. SLOKA or ANUSHTUBH. See verses 5, 6, II.

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