Imatges de pàgina



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___1 Atma-gatam and sva-gatam (lit. 'gone to one's self') used in theatrical language, like 'aside,' to denote that the words which follow are spoken privately, as if to the speaker's self, and not in the hearing of any one but the audience (=ananya-prakasam). Gata, 'gone,' is used loosely at the end of a compound to express relationship and connexion without necessary implication of motion. It may mean simply 'in connexion with,' 'in relation to ;' or, as here, 'with exclusive reference to,' 'addressed exclusively to.'

2 How now! can it really be that, having looked upon this man, I am become susceptible of [lit. accessible to] an emotion inconsistent with a grove devoted to penance ?' Vikāra is any alteration or transition from the natural and quiescent state of the soul; hence any emotion, whether of joy, grief, anger, &c. Kim is used kutsāyām, disdainfully,' and=katham eva jātam, 'how can it have happened ?' The use of the gen. after gamanīyā is noticeable.

3 Sauhārda, 'friendship, an abstract noun from su-hrid. Observe that both su and hrid are vriddhied (see Gram. page 63, Prelim. Obs. c).

4 Janāntikam, 'aside to a person standing near. This is a theatrical direction similar to ātma-gatam, but the speech which follows is supposed to be audible by one other person, to whom a private signal is

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made. "That which is spoken apart from the rest, with a signal, such as holding up three fingers of the hand (tripatāka), being a mutual speech (between two), is called janāntikam,' S. and Sāhit.-d. p. 177.

1 Who can this be (who being) lively (yet) dignified in mien, appears as if endowed with majesty (while) speaking to us sweetly. Catura, 'lively,' 'sprightly,' 'animated,' may perhaps mean here, 'polite,' 'courteous,' in relation to madhuram ālapan. Gambhīra, 'profound,' is used metaphorically for one whose thoughts and feelings are deep or suppressed, “reserved,’ ‘dignified,' not betraying emotion.' The oldest MS. reads mahuram; the others mahuram piam; but piam belongs properly to the margin.

? Prakāśam, 'aloud,' another theatrical direction denoting that the words which follow are to be made audible to all, those which precede having been spoken aside.

3 • Which race of royal-sages is adorned by your honour?' Ka-tama, ' which out of many ? A Rājarshi is a king or man of the Kshatriya and military class who has attained to the rank of a ķishi or saint by the practice of religious austerities. Such were Ikshvāku, Purūravas, Dushyanta, &c. There are six other classes of Rishis. The Rajarshi is inferior to the Brahmarshi or 'Brāhman-saint,' but it was possible for a Rājarshi to raise himself to the rank of the latter, and therefore to the state of a Brāhman, by very severe penance, as exemplified in the story of the celebrated Viśvāmitra, son of Gādhi, and father of Sakuntalā. See p. 43, n. I; also Rāmāy. i. 20, 20; 65, 18 ; Astra-siksha, II8.

+ ' With its people pining by separation,' i.e. by your absence.

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1 'Or on what account has your person, so very delicate [unaccustomed to hardships] as it (evidently) is, been brought to the point of (undergoing) the fatigue of visiting a grove of penance ?’

210 (my) heart! be not uneasy, this Anasūyā is giving utterance to all thy thoughts,' i.e. is making inquiry about all those points about which thou art anxious (such as, who this stranger is, whence he has come, &c.)

3 'Or how shall I make concealment of myself ?' i.e. how shall I hide my real character ? how shall I dissemble ? Apa-hāra= vaicana, deception,' K., or = ni-hnava or sangopana, 'concealment,' 'dissimulation.' This is a very unusual sense of the word, but all the Deva-n. MSS. agree in reading apahāra. The Beng. have parīhāra, which is also explained by san-gopana. The oldest Beng. MS. (India Office, 1060) omits the words from katham to karomi.

4 O lady!' voc. of bhavati. A Brāhman is to be accosted with the respectful pronoun bhavat, and to any woman not related by blood, the address bhavati, 'Madam,' or subhage bhagini, 'amiable sister,' is to be used (Manu ii. I28, 129). ___ 'I, that very person appointed by his majesty, the descendant of Puru, for the supervision of religion, have arrived at this sacred grove, for the purpose of ascertaining whether the (religious) rites are free from obstruction.' The sacrifices of holy men were liable to be disturbed by evil

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spirits called Rākshasas—the determined enemies of piety. No great
religious ceremony was ever carried on without these demons attempting
to impede its celebration; and the most renowned saints were obliged on
such occasions to acknowledge their dependence on the strong arm of the
military class for protection. The idea that holy men, who had attained
the utmost spiritual power, were unable to cope with the spirits of evil,
and the superiority of physical force in this respect is remarkable. (See
Rāmāy. bk. i. chaps. 20, 21, 32; and end of Act III. of this play.) In
point of fact the Rākshasas were poetical representations of the wild
aborigines of the woods.
___1 Sa-nāthāh, 'possessed of a guardian ;' see p. 26, n. 3.

2 « Understanding the gestures of both,' i. e. of Sakuntalā and Dush-
yanta. Ākāra=éeshțā or in-gita, 'a gesture,' sign,' or rather the state
of mind as evidenced by gestures and outward appearances, such as
change of colour, &c.
___3 What would then happen ?' i.e. if he were near at hand, what would
he do ? Schol.

4 “He would make this distinguished guest happy (possessed of the object of his desire) with all the substance of his life,' i.e. he would do worthy honour to his guest by offering him the best of his substance and property. Sarva-sva, see p. 33, n. 1. S. explains sarva-svam by phalamūlādikam, 'fruits, roots, and other necessaries of life. Fruits and roots

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