Imatges de pàgina
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fact, the king was but a high officer appointed to train the army, instruct in military exercises, administer justice, and execute the laws. These onerous duties were sufficient to deter the Brāhmans from desiring a rank inconsistent with their love of dignified repose. Aryam=sa-maryādam, ' correct,' 'upright' (Schol.) Pramānam, that by which anything is

measured;' hence, 'a criterion or standard of truth,' 'a sure guide,' 'an authority' [pramā-kāranam, 'a cause of true knowledge,' Schol.] In this sense it is usually found in the singular number, neuter gender, though in apposition to a masculine or feminine noun, or even to a plural noun, as here. Thus also, Vedāḥ pramāṇam, the Vedas are an authority.' See also Hitop. ll. 169, 1465. Pravritti, 'onward course;' hence, 'a course of action,' tendency,' 'inclination.'

1 Nevertheless [however the suggestions of my heart are to be relied upon] I will accurately ascertain about her.' Upalapsye=jnāsye, ‘I will inform myself.'

2 Nava-mālika, see p. 22, n. I. 3 Madhu-kara, 'a honey-maker,' 'a bee ;' ef. Lat. mellificus, mellifer. + Literally, “turns towards,' 'attacks,' 'assaults.' 6. Good ! even her repulse is charming.' 6 "In whichever direction the bee turns towards (her), in that direction

Verse 23. VANSA-STHAVILA (a variety of JAGATI). See verses 18, 22.

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1 “Who is this that is practising rudeness towards the gentle maidens of the hermits, (and that too) whilst a descendant of Puru [see p. 15, n. I], a chastiser of the ill-behaved, is governing the earth ?' Sasati, loc. of the pres. part., used here absolutely, and liable in this root and in roots of cl. 3 to be confounded with the 3rd pers. pl. present tense. Mugdhāsu=apraudhāsu, apragalbhāsu, 'gentle, timid,’ ‘modest,' 'innocent,' Schol.

? Aty-āhita = mahā-bhīti, 'great danger.' According to some, 'great outrage,' 'great crime. The same word occurs in the beginning of Acts IV. and V. of Vikram. Cf. also Malavik. 55, 19; 56, 4.

8 'I trust your devotion prospers,' does your piety thrive ?' 'is all well with your acts of devotion ?' This was the regular salutation on meeting a Brāhman. According to Manu, kuśalam implies an inquiry respecting the well-being of a Brāhman's acts of penance, at all times liable to be obstructed by evil spirits and demons. Manu ii. 127. See also Rāmāy. i. 52, 4.

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1 “Now (indeed it does prosper) by the acquisition of a distinguished guest.' The rites of hospitality were enforced amongst the Hindūs by very stringent regulations. The observance of them ranked as one of the five great sacraments (mahā-yajra), under the title of nri-yajña or manushya-yajra, the man-sacrament.' Brahmā, Prajāpati, Indra, Fire, the Vasus, and the Sun were supposed to be present in the person of a guest, and to partake of the food that was given to him (Vishņu-p. p. 306). No wonder then that reverence of him was said to be conducive to wealth, to fame, to life, and to a heavenly reward (Manu iii. 106). On the other hand, no punishment was thought too severe for one who violated these rites. If a guest departed disappointed from any house, his sins were to be transferred to the householder, and all the merits of the householder were to be transferred to him (Vishņu-p. p. 305 ; Hitop. 1. 361). Some of the things which were to be offered to a guest by even the poorest man were food, vegetables, water for the feet, and if more could not be given, ground on which to lie (Manu iii. 101; Vishņu-p. P. 308).

2 The argha or arghya was a respectful offering to Brāhmans of rice, Dūryā grass, flowers, fruit, &c., with water in a small boat-shaped vessel. Cf. Rāmāy. i. 20, 9. 10; Wilson's note, Megha-d. 5. Upahara=ānīya prayačćha,'having fetched, present.'

8 This (which we have brought with us for watering our plants) will serve as water for the feet. Water for the feet was one of the first things invariably presented to a guest in all Eastern countries. Should a guest arrive, a seat is to be offered to him, and his feet are to be washed and food is to be given him (Vishņu-p. p. 305. Cf. also Luke vii. 44). Idam, i. e. vrikshārtham ānītam udakam, Schol.

4 Sūnsitā gūr, ‘kind yet sincere language,' 'complimentary and friendly words without flattery' (priyaın satyam ća vaćanam). This is one of

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