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1 • Here is the young Malika. [a kind of double jasmine, see p. 22, n. I] named by you the Light of the Grove, the self-elected wife of the Sahakāra. Have you forgotten it?' The Sahakāra is a sort of fragrant Mango tree. Its union with other plants seems a favourite idea with Kālidāsa; for in Raghu-v. viii. 60, allusion is made to its marriage with the Phalini or Priyan.gu. It is said to be a great favourite with bees (Raghu-v. vi. 69). In Ratn. p. II, l. 7, it is spoken of as mandalāyamāna, 'forming a circle.' Svayamvara-vadhū, a wife by self-election.' The Svayamvara, or 'selection for one's self,' was a form of marriage in which a princess made a free public choice of a husband from a number of assembled suitors. In very early times the princesses of India seem to have enjoyed this singular privilege. It is not mentioned amongst the forms of marriage in Manu iii. 21, &c.; but the provision which is made in Manu ix. 90, proves that a similar custom prevailed at that period. When marriageable, she is there told to wait for three years; and after that time, if she fail to obtain a suitable husband, she is to choose for herself; [samāna-jāti-gunam varam svayam vriņīta, Schol.] She is then called Svayamvarā. In the Mahā-bh. we have a beautiful account of the Svayamvara of Damayanti (who chooses Nala), and of Draupadi (who chooses Arjuna); and in Raghu-v. vi. of the Svayamvara of Indumatī, sister of Bhoja, king of Vidarbha (who chooses Aja, the son of Raghu). See also Nalod. i. 30. Even the goddess Lakshmi is said to have exercised this privilege. See the allusion to the Lakshmi-svayamvara at the beginning of Act III. of Vikram. Vi-smțita is also used transitively between verses 129 and 130 of this play. In Raghu-v. xix. 2, vi-smrita has an acc. after it. See Gram. 896; Pan. iii. 4, 72.
1 'At a charming season, indeed, has the union between this pair, the (Mālikā or jasmine) creeper and the (Sahakāra) tree, taken place. The Light of the Grove (has) youthfulness by (its) fresh blossoms [i. e. its fresh blossoms give it all the bloom of a young bride), and the Sahakāra is capable of enjoyment by reason of (its) young shoots (just) formed.' Vyatikara is properly 'mutual action,' 'co-operation ;' hence 'union,
blending,' 'intertwining,' 'intermingling.' See Megha-d. 15. So also vyatikara-sukham, 'mutual enjoyment.' The prepositions vi and ati in composition imply both reciprocity and contrariety: hence, in Hitop. 1. 2319, vyatikara signifies 'reverse,''turn in affairs.' Baddha-pallavatayā, ' by the state of young shoots formed on it.' This is an idiomatic use of the instr. case of the abstract noun in to, to denote 'by reason of,' 'on account of.' Bandh often means 'to form,' 'produce;' thus, badhnanti phalam (Raghu-v. xii, 69); drumeshu svayam phalam baddham (Kumāra-s. v. 60). Upabhoga-kshama occurs in connection with grīshmasamaya in p. 6, n. 2, and in Vikram., Act III, with avakāśa. The first
meaning of Kshama is 'patient,' 'enduring.' Here and elsewhere it= yogya, "capable,' 'suitable;' so drishți-kshama, capable of being seen,' 'visible.' So in verse 22, kshatra-parigraha-Reshamā, ' capable of marriage with a Kshatriya.'
अपि नाम कुलपतेरियमसवर्णक्षेत्रसम्भवा स्यात् । अथवा ing, ary: कृतं सन्देहेन ।
1 Api nāma, 'would that!' In this sense it occurs also in Vikram., Act III, api nāma Purūravā bhaveyam, 'would that I were Purūravas!'
2 • Can this (lady) possibly be sprung from a wife dissimilar in class (to that) of the father of the family!' Api nāma here='may be,' 'can it possibly be,' 'I wonder whether,' expressive of some doubt [evam sambhāvyate, Schol.] Kshetra=kalatra, 'a wife;' a-savarna=asamāna-jātīya, 'of a different (and inferior) tribe or caste.' A Brahman might marry a Kshatriyā, i.e. a woman of the military or kingly class next below him (Manu iii. 13), and the female offspring of such a marriage would belong to the mixed class called mūrdhābhishikta or mūrdhāvasikta, “headanointed' (Manu x. 6), and would be a suitable object of affection for a Kshatriya, who in his kingly character was a mūrdhābhishikta also. But if Sakuntalā were a pure Brāhmaṇi woman, both on the mother's and father's side, she would be ineligible as the wife of a Kshatriya (Manu iii. 13).
3. But, have done with [away with] doubt.' Athavā is used to correct a previous thought [pakshantare]. Kritam used adverbially (like alam) requires the instr. case.
Verse 22. VANśA-STHAVILA (a variety of Jagarī). See verse 18.
1 Without any doubt she is capable of marriage with a Kshatriya, since my honourable soul has a longing towards her: for in matters that are subjects of doubt, the tendencies [inclinations, promptings] of the hearts of good men are an authoritative guide (to the truth).' The meaning is, “If this damsel be the daughter of a Brāhman by a Brāhmaṇī for woman of the same caste), then why should I be conscious of a sudden liking for one whom I could never hope to marry ? This feeling of sympathy could only arise towards a legitimate object : for in such matters, the secret prompting [inner voice) of the heart is decisive.' He therefore concludes that she must have been of mixed origin, with some Kshatriya or regal blood in her veins; and discovers afterwards that she was, in fact, the daughter of the Rājarshi Viśvāmitra (originally of the Kshatriya or regal tribe) by an Apsaras. Dushyanta, as a king, belonged of course to the Kshatriya caste. This caste came next to the Brāhmanical, and according to Manu (i. 87) sprang from the arm of Brahmā. They wore a girdle of mūrvā and a sacrificial cord of hemp (Manu ii. 42, 44), and were properly soldiers. They were said to have been exterminated by Paraśu-rāma, the representative of the Brāhmanical tribe, in revenge for the murder of his father, the sage Jamadagni, by the sons of Kārtavīrya. This fable is founded on the historical fact that, at some period or other, struggles, arising out of mutual jealousy of each other's encroachments, took place between the military and sacerdotal classes; and that the former did in the end succumb to the superior power and intelligence of the Brāhmans. The example of Viśvāmitra proves that it was possible for a Kshatriya, by the practice of religious austerities, to raise himself to the rank of a Brāhman. Other anomalies of caste occur. A number of men, half warriors, half priests, Kshatriyas by birth, and Brāhmans by profession, called Āngirasas or descendants of Angiras,' were said to have sprung from Nabhāga (Vishņu-p. p. 359; Mabā-bh. Sel. p. 23). Kings were never chosen from the Brāhmanical class, but were properly Kshatriyas (Manu vii. 2); though there was no positive law against their belonging to the two inferior classes of Vaiśyas and Sūdras, or even to three mixed classes (san-kara) formed by intermarriage with the others, viz. Mūrdhābhishiktas, Māhishyas, and Karaņas (Manu x. 6). One dynasty of kings of the line of Nanda were actually Sūdras, and kept the Kshatriyas in subjection (Vishņu-p. p. 467). In