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not in the same line. Some years ago the Quadrant had an arcade on each side, supported by 270 columns. In the Quadrant (W.) is an entrance to St. James' Hall. Nearly opposite New Burlington Street (W.) (in which the Royal Asiatic Society have rooms) is Archbishop Tenison's chapel (E.), built in 1702. On approaching Oxford Street, Hanover Chapel is seen with the portico over the footpath between Hanover Street and Princes Street, both of which communicate with Hanover Square. At the intersection with Oxford Street there is another Circus, to the north of which is, at No. 309, the POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTION (W.) between Cavendish Place and Margaret Street, both leading into Cavendish Square. In Margaret Street (E.) is ALL SAINTS' CHURCH. Opposite the Polytechnic is (No. 316) the Portland Gallery and Bazaar (E.) Regent Street ends at All Souls' Church, Langham Place, which has a fluted spire that has been a good deal ridiculed for its resemblance to an extinguisher. Further north is Portland Pluce, the broadest street in London, being 126 feet wide from house to house. At its northern end are Park Crescent and Park Square, surrounded by good houses.
OXFORD STREET.—New Oxford Street, opened in 1847, extends from High Holborn to Tottenham Court Road, and occupies part of a notorious district known as St. Giles's Rookery, inhabited by the lowest of the low. It is now a broad street of handsome shops, with ambitious façades in different styles. Near the Holborn end, Museum Street (N.) leads to the BRITISH MUSEUM, and in Hart Street is the church of Sr. GEORGE'S, Bloomsbury, the steeple of which is ornamented by a statue of George II. Bloomsbury Street (S.) contains the Bedford Episcopal Chapel, a Baptist Chapel (with a large rose window), and a French Protestant Chapel. Arthur Street (S.) leads to St. GILES' CHURCH. At the north-east corner of Tottenham Court Road is Meux’s great brewery.
Oxford Street begins at Tottenham Court Road (which is a main line for omnibuses to Camden Town and Hampstead, Kentish Town and Highgate), and extends westward to the northeast corner of Hyde Park, a distance of a mile and a half. Tottenham Court Road obtained its name from leading to the manor-house of Totten or Tottenhall, now removed. Hanway Street, leading from it into Oxford Street, is filled as of old with china dealers and curiosity-shops. Charles Street (S.) leads to
Soho Square (an old square with a history), in the middle of which is a stone statue of Charles II. in armour, and at the west side is the Soho Bazaar. Wardour Street (S.) abounds in curiosity-shops. The PRINCESS'S THEATRE (N.) is opposite the much frequented PANTHEON BAZAAR, built in 1812 as a theatre, and remodelled in 1835 for its present application. The LONDON CRYSTAL PALACE, another bazaar, has an entrance near the Circus (N.) Crossing REGENT STREET at the Circus, we continue westward along Oxford Street, and reach Hollis Street (N.) leading to Cavendish Square, in which are the residences of the Duke of Portland, and statues of the Culloden Duke of Cumberland, and Lord George Bentinck. Byron was born at 24 Hollis Street. On the other side of Oxford Street is Harewood Place, leading to Hanover Square, where there is a statue of William Pitt. The ORIENTAL CLUB, the Hanover Square Concert Rooms, and the offices of the Royal Agricultural and Zoological Societies are in this square. After passing the top of Bond Street we arrive at Duke Street, which leads (N.) to Manchester Square, and (S.) to Grosvenor Square, built about 1730, and now inhabited by several of the nobility. Orchard Street (N.) leads to Portman Square, also the haunt of the aristocracy; and to Baker Street, in which are Tussaud's Wax - Work Exhibition, and the Baker Street Bazaar. This is a route for omnibuses to the north-west side of London. Passing the top of Park Lane, which contains many handsome houses of the nobility and wealthy gentry, we come to the Cumberland Gate entrance to HYDE PARK where the MARBLE ARCH has been placed.
A little west of the Marble Arch, and near the end of the Edgware Road, there is a stone with an inscription recording that Tyburn Turnpike stood at that spot, and within a short distance was the site of the gibbet where many a criminal has come to an untimely end. “ What a change in a century ; in a few years ! (exclaims Thackeray.) Within a few yards of that gate the fields began : the fields of the highwayman's exploits, behind the hedges of which he lurked and robbed. A great and wealthy city has grown over those meadows. Were a man brought to die there now, the windows would be closed and the inhabitants keep their houses in sickening horror. A hundred years back people crowded to see that last act of a highwayman's life and make jokes on it. Swift laughed at him, grimly advising him to provide a Holland shirt and white cap crowned with a crimson or black ribbon for his exit, to mount the cart cheerfully, shake hands with the hangman, and som
-farewell. Gay wrote the most delightful ballads and made merry over the same hero. Contrast these with the writings of our present humourists ! Compare those morals and ours—those manners and ours !”
CHAPTER THE THIRTY-FIRST.
COLUMNS AND STATUES IN THE OPEN AIR.
Monument-Nelson Column-York Column-Westminster Column
THE MONUMENT on Fish Street Hill, in the City, stands on the site of St. Margaret's Church, which was consumed in the great fire, to commemorate which it was erected by Wren at a cost of about £14,000. It is a fluted Doric column of Portland stone, and 202 feet high. On the pedestal are some sculptures, of little value as works of art, and some Latin inscriptions recording the destruction of the city and its restoration. Up to the year 1831, there was also to be read an inscription untruthfully attributing the fire of 1666 to “the treachery and malice of the Popish faction, in order to carry out their horrid plot for extirpating the Protestant religion and old English liberty, and the introducing Popery and slavery.” It was to this inscription that Pope's couplet alluded
“Where London's column, pointing to the skies,
A winding staircase of 345 steps passes up the interior to the balcony at the top. The charge for permission to ascend is 3d., and it is open from nine to dusk. A vase of flames, made of gilt bronze, 42 feet high, crowns the apex. Defoe has compared the structure to a candle, and the great vase “ to a handsome gilt flame like that of a candle.” Several persons having committed suicide by throwing themselves from the balcony, a height of 175 feet, it was thought prudent to encage it with iron work to prevent future attempts of that kind.
THE NELSON COLUMN, Trafalgar Square, commenced in 1839, is still unfinished! The design was furnished by Mr. W. Railton, who took for his model a column of the Temple of Mars
Ultor at Rome. The order is Corinthian, the material Devonshire granite. At the base are four blocks, intended to receive four lions as soon as the painter to whom they have been entrusted shall have sculptured them. The four sides of the pedestal have bronze reliefs. On the north side, fronting the National Gallery, the relief (by W. F. Woodington) represents a scene at the battle of the Nile, when Nelson, on being wounded in the head, said to the surgeon, who was leaving a sailor to attend to the admiral, “ No ; I will take my turn with my brave fellows." On the south side, facing Parliament Street, the relief was designed by C. F. Carew, and represents Nelson's death at the battle of Trafalgar. The hero is being carried from the quarter-deck to the cockpit, and is telling Captain Hardy that “they have done for him at last.” The figures are life-size. Underneath is Nelson's ever memorable signal, “ England expects every man will do his duty.” On the east side, next the Strand, the relief, designed by Mr. Ternouth, pictures the bombardment of Copenhagen ; whilst that on the west side, facing Cockspur Street, designed by Watson and Woodington, represents the battle of St. Vincent. At the top of the fluted column is a statue of Nelson, 17 feet high, cut by E. H. Baily out of three blocks of Craigleith stone. The top of the statue is 1624 feet above the ground. The diameter of the column at its base is rather more than ten feet ; its summit has a height of 1454 feet. The column has cost £25,000, the statue, capital, and reliefs £5000, and the lions will cost about £3000 more, so that the whole expense of the structure will be about £33,000.
THE YORK COLUMN, Carlton House Terrace, St. James' Park, affords a striking instance of the extent to which party spirit will go in this country. It was erected in 1830-33 in memory of the Duke of York (second son of George III.) who died in 1827. One would think that the sooner such a man was forgotten the better for himself and for royalty. And yet he has a memorial equal to the hero Nelson's, and superior to those of the greatest benefactors of our nation. The cost was about £25,000, which sum was raised by subscription. It is of the Tuscan order, designed by B. Wyatt, and constructed of Aberdeenshire granite. On the summit is a bronze statue of the Duke in his robes of the order of the garter by Sir R. Westmacott. Inside the column there is a spiral staircase of 168 steps, leading to the top, 1231 feet above the ground, whence there is a good view of