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Dr. Birkbeck, were the chief inaugurators, and the Duke of Sussex laid the first stone of the building, which was designed by W. Wilkins, but only the central portion has yet been erected. The principal feature is a Corinthian portico, so large that it dwarfs the dome behind. The building is 400 feet long. In the library is a marble statue of Locke. On the stairs is a statue of Flaxman the sculptor, the original models of whose principal works are placed in the hall under the cupola, amongst which notice the composition of St. Michael and Satan, and the Pastoral Apollo. There is no divinity chair, and consequently young Jews and Mahommedans who would not be admitted at King's College are usually amongst the pupils. There is a junior school, to which boys are not admitted after the age of 15. Corporal punishment forms no part of the discipline, the extreme penalty for misconduct being expulsion. The library contains 45,000 vols., including 10,000 vols. of Chinese books left by Dr. Morrison, and the collection of books on political economy bequeathed by David Ricardo. University College Hospital is over against the College, and is in connection with the medical school. Behind the college, in Gordon Square, is University Hall, erected in 1849, where theology and moral philosophy are taught.
THE UNIVERSITY OF LONDON consists of an examining body, with a chancellor, senate, and subordinate officers, and the graduates. It was instituted in 1836 for the purpose of rendering academical honours accessible without distinction to every class and denomination, and its place of assembling is Burlington House, Piccadilly. It does not undertake the office of instruction ; its sole duty is to examine the persons who present themselves for examination, and to confer degrees on those who prove to be deserving. There are two matriculation examinations in each year, at Burlington House, two B.A. examinations, and one M.A. examination. There are also provincial examinations for matriculation, and for the degree of B.A. These examinations are carried on simultaneously with the examinations in London, on the same days and at the same hours, before a sub-examiner, named by the senate and sent down expressly for the occasion. The answers are taken to London in sealed packets, to be reviewed by the London examiners at the same time with the answers of the London candidates.
Amongst other noteworthy places of education must be mentioned the City of London School, Mill Street, Cheapside, founded
1835; the Wesleyan Normal College, Horseferry Road, Westminster, established 1850 ; Mercers' School, College Hill, Dowgate, founded before 1447, since which time the school has been often removed—Sir Thomas Gresham was educated here ; St. Mark's Training College, Chelsea, established for training schoolmasters for the National Society; and Queen's College, 67 and 68 Harley Street, for the general education of ladies, and for granting certificates of knowledge.
CHAPTER THE TWENTY-SIXTH.
Covent Garden-Floral Hall—Smithfield-Billingsgate—Metropolitan
COVENT GARDEN MARKET, the chief market in London for fruit, flowers, and vegetables, dates from Charles II.'s reign, and occupies the site of a convent garden, whence the present name. The existing buildings were erected for John, Duke of Bedford, in 1830, by Mr. W. Fowler, architect. The area is about three acres, and the Duke of Bedford derives about £5000 a year from the place. It is well worth while to walk along the central arcade any day before five o'clock to see the articles exposed for sale on the stalls. Hither is sent fresh produce, not only from many parts of the British Isles, but from France, Belgium, Portugal, even from Azores, the Bermudas, and the West Indies. Extravagant prices are paid occasionally for early produce : green peas at £2 the quart, fifteen shillings for a bundle of asparagus, and strawberries at one shilling an
Early in the morning, from four to six o'clock in summer, the market is crowded with carts bringing in vegetables from the neighbourhood of London, or from the railway stations. At each end of the arcade, a flight of steps leads to a terrace with conservatories. Here Ward's cases, ferns, aquariums, ornamental fish, greenhouse plants, etc., are sold. Beneath the market are spacious storecellars ; and an artesian well, 280 feet deep, furnishes the needed supply of water.
THE FLORAL HALL, a structure of iron and glass, contiguous to the Royal Italian Opera House, Covent Garden, was erected in 1859, from the designs of E. M. Barry, for the purpose of affording a suitable place for the sale of flowers and objects connected
with their cultivation when alive, or their reception when cut. The structure has a frontage of 75 feet in Bow Street, and its 'total length is 280 feet. Cast-iron columns, 27 feet high, support the arches of the roof. The crown of the arch is 52 feet from the floor. A dome 50 feet in diameter ornaments the south end of the building, having a height of 91 feet from the floor of the hall. Access to the interior is obtained both from the Covent Garden Piazza, and from Bow Street. When well filled with flowers, the appearance of this hall is very beautiful, and it looks well when lighted up at night, when the visitors to the theatre are promenading in it. Balls are occasionally given here, for which, from the abundance of space, it is well suited.
SMITHFIELD MARKET, Newgate Street, City (frequently styled West Smithfield, to distinguish it from East Smithfield, Tower Hill), was until the last few years the only market for live stock in London. Although, after the erection of the Metropolitan Cattle Market in the north of London, it ceased to be so used, the pens until lately still encumbered the place, and the surrounding objects were anything but sightly. Operations, however, are now in progress for the construction of a metropolitan meat and poultry market on this site. It is to be 30 feet in height, 625 feet in length, by 240 feet wide, and will contain 100,000 feet of shop space. A carriage road will bisect it from north to south, with avenues occupying 50,000 superficial feet. There will be roads 60 feet wide on the east, west, and north sides, where vehicles can be accommodated without interfering with the street traffic. Meat and poultry will be brought direct from the country and from the Metropolitan Cattle Market, near the Caledonian Road, by means of rails laid under the market, by which it will be connected with the Metropolitan and other railways. A new street, 60 feet wide, will lead into Victoria Street. The cost of these improvements is estimated at £180,000. The nuisance occasioned to the streets of London by the droves of cattle and sheep that were brought here for sale was intolerable, and but for the strenuous opposition of the Corporation would not have been suffered to continue so long. The Corporation derived from £5000 to £6000 a year, tolls being charged on the beasts exposed for sale, and a rental for the use of the pens. The space, only about six acres and a quarter, was much too small the accommodation of the stock, and this led to the infliction of many cruelties on the animals. The business transacted was very large, the payments