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hangs, a celebrated picture of Holbein, Henry VIII. presenting the charter to the company, 10 feet 6 inches by 7 feet, containing 18 figures. The king is on his throne ; Thomas Vicay, the master of the company, is kneeling before him and receiving the charter. The members of the court are also kneeling. All the details are very carefully finished. This admirable painting is the finest of Holbein's works in Britain. Sly Mr. Pepys tried to buy it for £200," it being said to be worth £1000,” as he notes. There are also some curious portraits of Sir Charles Scarborough (chief physician to Charles II., James II., and William III.) and other physicians. The chests of the company contain a silver-gilt cup, richly embossed, given by Henry VIII. ; a silver cup given by Charles II. ; two chaplets in silver, and a silver punch-bowl, presented by Queen Anne. In olden time the same person practised the arts of shaving and surgery. An act was passed in 1512 forbidding any except barbers from practising surgery within the city and seven miles round, save such persons as had been examined by the Bishop of London! In 1540 the barbers and the surgeons were made one corporation, but the barbers were interdicted from practising surgery, except so far as drawing teeth and bleeding were concerned. The surgeons were separated in 1745, and have now a college of their own in Lincoln's-Inn-Fields. The designation of barber-surgeons, however, is still retained. Close by are the clothworkers' almshouses. Underneath the chapel are the remains of a Norman crypt. The short columns have embellished capitals ; the ribs of the groining have zig-zag and spiral ornaments. This crypt belonged to the hermitage of St. James. The church of St. Giles, Cripplegate, is in the neighbourhood. For an account of it see another page.
PAPER-STAINERS' HALL, Little Trinity Lane, Upper Thames Street, rebuilt after the great fire, contains a picture of St. Luke writing the gospel, by Vansomer ; a landscape, by Lambert, with figures by Hogarth ; Charles II. and his queen, by Huysman ; Queen Anne, by Dahl ; William III., by Kneller; and some other portraits. Camden, the historian, bequeathed money to buy a silver cup, which is now employed at the election feasts. The company was incorporated in 1582 by Queen Elizabeth. This company has very commendably commenced an annual exhibition, open during the summer, of specimens of marbling, graining, arabesque, glass-work, and other ornament. It takes place in their hall, and prizes are awarded to the most successful exhibitors. This proceeding ought to have a beneficial effect on the arts of decoration, and is deserving of imitation by other city companies.
SADDLERS' HALL, No. 143 Cheapside, has a handsome great hall. Here is an ancient funeral pall of crimson velvet, embroidered with gold. In the hall is a portrait of the father of George III., a master of the company, which was incorporated by Edward I.
STATIONERS' HALL, Stationers' Hall Court, Ludgate Hill, was erected after the great fire in which the company are said to have lost £200,000) on the site of the old hall then destroyed. The stationers existed as a guild in 1403, but were not incorporated until 1557, in the reign of Philip and Mary, the existing charter being dated in 1690. Under their charters all printers were obliged to serve their time to a member of the company ; and publications of all kinds were required to be entered at Stationers' Hall. The register of works commencing in 1557 has been published. James I. granted them the monopoly of printing almanacs, which they retained until late years, and this branch of business they still carry on, though subjected to competition. The bible printed by them in 1632 is classed amongst bibliographical curiosities from its omitting the word “not” from the seventh commandment. Archbishop Laud made a star chamber of it, and the company had to pay a heavy fine.
Under the copyright act the proprietor of every published work must register it in the books of the company before he can prosecute any claim at law in respect of it ; and assignments must also be registered. In the Court-room is some carving, attributed to G. Gibbons ; also West's painting of King Alfred sharing his loaf with the pilgrim St. Cuthbert, given by Alderman Boydell, a former master, whose portrait as Lord Mayor, by Graham, hangs here.
Other portraits are those of Prior, Steele, Richardson the novelist and his wife, John Bunyan, Bishop Hoadley, and Vincent Wing the astrologer. In the hall used to take place musical performances on St. Cecilia's day, for which Dryden wrote his well known ode.
WATERMEN'S HALL, St. Mary at Hill, built 1786. This company was incorporated by Philip and Mary in 1555. Under various Acts of Parliament it is empowered to make regulations with reference to the watermen, barge owners, and others con
nected with the navigation of the Thames from Teddington to Gravesend.
WEAVERS’ HALL, Basinghall Street, contains an old picture representing William Lee, a Cambridge M.A., directing the attention of a knitter to his loom for weaving stockings. This company is allowed to have been earlier incorporated than any other of the city companies.
CHAPTER THE EIGHTEENTH.
THE THAMES : ITS ORIGIN, TIDES, ETC.
Port of London - On the River from Chelsea to Hungerford-From
Hungerford to London Bridge–From London Bridge to Greenwich
This river, so intimately connected with all our associations of London, has its rise near Cirencester in the county of Gloucester. In its course of 220 miles it crosses or touches nine counties. Its basin is estimated to have an area of 6600 square miles, and it extends into fifteen counties. The source of the Thames is thought to be about 280 feet above low-water mark at London Bridge. Its navigation commences at Lechlade on the borders of Gloucestershire and Berkshire, but its navigable property for many miles below this point, as far indeed as Teddington in Middlesex, is obliged to be kept up by means of locks and weirs. Small steamers occasionally make their way up to Hampton Court. At London itself the river is alive with them, and they afford a cheap and ready means of passing from point to point, of which thousands daily avail themselves. The first steamer was placed on the river in 1814. Large vessels are stopped at London Bridge, ships of 800 tons burden come up to St Katherine's docks, and vessels of 1400 tons burden can get as far as Blackwall. Vessels of any burden may reach Woolwich.
At London Bridge the river is about 300 feet wide; at Woolwich it is about a quarter of a mile ; at Gravesend it has widened —it is more than half a mile ; and at its mouth it has a width of eighteen miles. The upper part of its course abounds with pretty scenery, but below London Bridge it is extremely uninteresting in this respect, except at one or two points.
At low water there is a depth of about twelve feet at London Bridge, but the influence of the ocean tide causes the water to