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carnivora—lions, tigers, leopards, and hyenas. Close at hand are the bear pit and the bear pond. Two species of camel will be found near the clock tower; and a little beyond are inclosures where water-fowl and pelicans are confined. Not far from the clock tower is a house where the Brahmin bulls and some yaks from Thibet live. Near the seal pond are aviaries containing kites and vultures. In a neighbouring house are some carnivorous animals, including the beautiful clouded tiger, and some marsupials, including the Tasmanian devil, whose singular habits will attract attention. Making our way to the fish-house, where fishes and many specimens of the lower aquatic animals, such as sea-anemones, are living in large tanks, eagles and vultures are placed in a house close by; and near them will be found beavers, otters, and armadillos. In the monkey-house are many curious species of baboons, apes, and monkeys, those caricatures of humanity. Passing to the north part of the gardens, by means of a tunnel carried under the public road, and turning to the right, we arrive at houses tenanted by snakes and other reptiles, amongst which the gigantic salamander from Japan is particularly to be noticed. The great python lately laid a number of eggs, which it incubated. Such an event never occurred before in this country in the case of a large serpent. This reptile came from West Africa, and has been eleven years in the garden. The kangaroos are close at hand. Passing through a house containing a remarkably rich collection of parrots, we reach a house tenanted by several foreign species of deer ; a house where Indian elephants and rhinoceroses are living ; and the tank where the hippopotami like to disport themselves. In this part are the giraffes and the elands, animals which have now been established in the parks of some noblemen in our island. The last house in this portion of the garden is tenanted by ostriches, emus, mooruks, and the curious apteryx or kiwi, from New Zealand, which has purely nocturnal habits, and is therefore only seen by the visitors when brought out by the keeper.
It may be well to mention that the pelicans, etc., are fed at half-past two o'clock ; the otters, at three ; the eagles (Wednesdays excepted), at half-past three ; and the lions, etc., at four.
In addition to the entrance where carriages can set down visitors, there is the south entrance in the Broad Walk, only available to pedestrians. This is distant about 300 yards from Gloucester Gate, near which an omnibus passes every ten minutes.
CHAPTER THE THIRTEENTH.
PUBLIC PICTURE GALLERIES.
National Gallery-South Kensington Museum-Soane Museum-Na
tional Portrait Gallery-Annual Exhibitions of Pictures, etc.
In addition to the public galleries, the subject of this chapter, the lover of pictures ought to visit the galleries at Windsor Castle, Hampton Court, and Dulwich, which are described elsewhere in this volume.
THE NATIONAL GALLERY is on the north side of Trafalgar Square, one of the finest sites in Europe, according to Sir Robert Peel. The eastern half is in the temporary occupation of the Royal Academy, the other half contains the national collection of pictures by the old masters, and the paintings bequeathed to the nation by J. W. M. Turner, the works of his own pencil. The pictures are very much crowded, but the arrangement is only temporary. Many plans for the enlargement of the gallery have been put forward, but nothing has been hitherto decided on.
Open free to the public on Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, and Saturday, of each week, from 10 to 6, from the beginning of May to the end of September, and from 10 to 5 from the beginning of November to the end of April. During the month of October it is closed. Students are admitted on Thursdays and Fridays.
Speaking now of the ancient masters, the nucleus of the collection was acquired in 1824 by the purchase for £57,000 of 38 pictures brought together by Mr. John Julius Angerstein, a London banker. Two years later Sir George Beaumont presented a collection of 16 pictures to the nation ; and in 1831 the Reverend W. H. Carr left to the nation 31 pictures. Subsequently, 17 pictures were bequeathed by Lieutenant-Colonel Ollney, 15 by Lord Farnborough, 14 by R. Simmons, Esq., and 8 by Lord Colborne-honour to their names ! The nation has had many other generous benefactors in this way, and a large number of pictures have been purchased with public money, until the collection now amounts to upwards of 400 paintings. This is only a small number for a national collection, and it is far exceeded in extent by several galleries on the continent, but then ours promises to increase much more rapidly than those ; and in course of time we may hope to possess a gallery worthy of the nation. At present some of the leading schools are inadequately represented. Of Raphael, for example, we have a first-rate specimen; of the Spanish and the Dutch schools the specimens are extremely few. On the other hand, in Correggios, Claudes, Gaspar Pousins, Nicolo Pousins, and Paul Veroneses, we are fairly rich.
The late J. W. M. Turner bequeathed to the nation a large collection of oil paintings and water-colour drawings, executed by his own hand, upon the condition that a suitable place for their exhibition should be provided for them within a certain time. At first they were placed in Marlborough House, then they were removed to the South Kensington Museum, and within the last few months they have been brought to Trafalgar Square. There are to be seen about 125 oil pictures in the artist's various styles, as well as a number of water-colour drawings and unfinished studies. These are placed in the great western room, which has been named the Turner Gallery.
In the entrance hall of the National Gallery are placed a marble statue of Sir David Wilkie, by S. Joseph (the painter's palette is let into the pedestal); a marble alto-relievo, by Thomas Banks, of Thetis and her Nymphs; and a bust in bronze of the Emperor Napoleon, the bequest of P. C. Crespigny, Esq. Of the attendants in this hall may be purchased at various prices official catalogues of the pictures. These are hung on the walls of five saloons, the largest of which, only recently constructed, is 75 feet long and 30 feet wide. We shall now mention those pictures amongst the old masters that best deserve the visitor's attention, arranging them with reference to their schools.
Italian. FRA ANGELICO : Christ surrounded by angels, saints, etc., the predella of an altar piece, in five compartments, cost £3500. GIOVANNI BELLINI : portrait of a Doge; and Madonna and child. BRONZINO : portrait of a lady; Venus, Cupid, Folly, and Time. CANALETTO : two views in Venice. ANNIBALE CARACCI : Christ appearing to St. Peter; St. John in the wilderness; Pan teaching Apollo. CARACCI LODOVICO : Susannah and the Elders. CIMA DA CONEGLIANO : Infant Christ on the knees of the Virgin. CORREGGIO: Mercury instructing Cupid ; Ecce Homo-for
these two pictures £10,000 were given to the late Marquis of Londonderry; Holy Family, cost £3800; Christ's agony in the garden, a repetition of the picture in the Duke of Wellington's collection. FRANCESCA : Virgin with the Infant Christ; Virgin and two angels weeping over the dead body of Christ; Virgin and child with two saints. GUERCINO : Angels weeping over Christ. GUIDO : Perseus and Andromeda; Venus attired by the Graces; the Magdalen; the coronation of the Virgin ; Ecce Homo. FRA FILIPPO LIPPI: Madonna and child enthroned ; the Annunciation ; St. John the Baptist and saints. CARLO MARATTI : portrait of a Cardinal. PONTORMO: portrait of a knight. RAPHAEL : St. Catherine of Alexandria, cost £5000; portrait of Pope Julius II. SEBASTIAN DEL PIOMBO : Resurrection of Lazarus, very fine, “the most important specimen of the Italian school in England” (Dr. Waagen)£15,000 were offered for it by Mr. Beckford to Mr. Angerstein, and refused; the composition and drawing are by Michael Angelo, and it was painted in competition with Raphael's celebrated Transfiguration, now in the Vatican. SALVATOR ROSA : landscape. TITIAN : the Music Lesson; Bacchus and Ariadne, a picture finely criticised by Elia ; Madonna and child; the Tribute Money, cost £2604; portrait of Ariosto. PAUL VERONESE ; adoration of the Magi; Family of Darius at the feet of Alexander, cost £14,000. LEONARDI DA VINCI : Christ disputing with the Doctors.
Spanish. MURILLO: Holy Family, cost £3000 ; St. John and the lamb. VELASQUEZ : Philip IV. of Spain hunting. ZURBARAN: a Franciscan Monk.
Flemish and Dutch. BAKHUIZEN : Dutch shipping. BERGHEM : Crossing the Ford. Cuyp: landscape. GERARD Dow: the Painter's Portrait. VAN EYCK; portrait of a Flemish Merchant and lady, painted 1434, cost £630; and two portraits of men. N. MAAS : Dutch Housewife; the Idle Servant. MABUSE: Man's portrait. MORETTO : portrait of an Italian nobleman. MORO : portrait of a lady. REMBRANDT : Woman taken in Adultery, cost £5250 ; adoration of the Shepherds; portrait of a Jew merchant; portrait of a Capuchin Friar ; portrait of a Jewish Rabbi; his own portrait; the Amsterdam Musketeers. RUBENS : Abduction of the Sabine Women; Peace and War; the Brazen Serpent; landscape with Rubens' Chateau ; the Judgment of Paris, cost £4200. RUYSDAEL: two landscapes with waterfalls. TENIERS : Music party; Boors regaling; the Money Changers; Players at Tric-trac. A. VAN DER NEER: River Scene by Moonlight. VAN DER WEYDEN : portraits of himself and his wife. VANDYCK : the Emperor Theodosius refused admission into the Church by St. Ambrose; portrait of Gevartius.
French. CLAUDE: landscape, Cephalus and Procris ; Seaport at sunset; landscape, David at the cave of Adullain; the Chigi Claude ; Seaport; the Embarkation of the Queen of Sheba; the Bouillon Claude; Seaport, morning, Embarkation of St. Ursula ; small landscape, death of Procris ; landscape, a study of trees; small landscape, given to the nation by Sir George Beaumont, but so admired by him that he asked leave to retain it during bis life, and he made it his travelling companion. GASPAR Poussin : landscape, Abraham preparing to sacrifice Isaac; a Land Storm ; landscape, Dido and Eneas taking refuge from the storm ; view of La Riccia ; Italian landscape, town on the side of a hill. Nicolo Poussin: Nursing of Bacchus ; Bacchanalian Festival ; Dance of Bacchanals in honour of Pan.
THE SOUTH KENSINGTON MUSEUM at Brompton is about one mile distant from Hyde Park Corner, in near neighbourhood to
the Great Exhibition Buildings of 1862. It stands upon part of the ground which was purchased by the commissioners of the Exhibition of 1851 with the surplus funds derived from that Exhibition About twelve acres of land were obtained from the commissioners at a cost of £60,000. Public money to the amount of nearly £140,000, has been further laid out here on buildings, and on those parts of the collections that have been purchased. The cost of management is about £7000 a year.
Admission free on Monday, Tuesday, and Saturday of each week, the whole day from 10 A.M. till 10 P.M. In the evening the galleries are lighted with gas; students are admitted on Wednesday, Thursday, and Friday. On these days the public must pay 6d. each person—hours from 10 A.M. till 4 P.M.
Here are refreshment rooms, waiting rooms with lavatories, etc. In 1860, the visitors to this museum amounted to 610,696.
The collections here are so large that a careful examination would occupy some days. They consist of—
1. Objects of ornamental art, as applied to manufactures, with an art library.
2. British pictures, sculpture, and engravings.
4. Appliances for teaching in schools, school furniture, books, maps, diagrams, models, and apparatus used in primary education.
5. Materials for building and construction, stone, bricks, tiles, glass, etc.
6. Substances used for food.
7. Animal products employed in the arts, leather, furs, feathers, wools, hair, etc.
8. Models of patented inventions, machines, etc.
9. Reproductions, by means of photography and casting, of antique sculpture and paintings.
The two last named collections have entrances distinct from that leading to the other collections. The photographs are sold at cost price to the public. The collections of materials for building and construction, and animal products, have been almost wholly presented by private individuals, without cost to the state. The food collection is very interesting. Here may be seen the various articles used as human sustenance, from all quarters of the world, with analyses of those which are chiefly employed, shewing their comparative values as feeding agents. A collection