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There are, in the University of Co- students in the same university we penhagen, seven professors of Theology, were a good deal amused to find only two of Civil Law, two of Mathematics, one student dedicating himself to one of Latin and Rhetoric, one of Belles Lettres. Greek, one of Oriental Languages, one The people of Holstein and Sleswick of History, five of Medicine, one of are Dutch in their manners, character, Agriculture, and one of Statistics. and appearance. Their language is in They enjoy a salary of from 1000 to general the Low German ; though the 1500 rix-dollars, and are well lodged better sort of people in the towns begin in the University. The University of to speak High German.* In Jutland Copenhagen is extremely rich, and and the isles, the Danish language is enjoys an income of 3,000,000 rix. spoken : within half a century this dollars. Even Mr. Catteau admits that language has been cultivated with it has need of reform. In fact, the some attention : before that period, the reputation of universities is almost Danish writers preferred to make use always short-lived, or else it survives of the Latin or the German language. their merit. If they are endowed, pro- It is in the island of Finland that it is fessors become fat-witted, and never spoken with the greatest purity. The imagine that the arts and sciences are Danish character is not agreeable. It anything else but incomes. If uni- is marked by silence, phlegm, and versities slenderly endowed are ren reserve. A Dane is the excess and dered famous by the accidental occur- extravagance of a Dutchman; more rence of a few great teachers, the breeched, more ponderous, and more number of scholars attracted there by saturnine. He is not often a bad the reputation of the place makes the member of society in the great points situation of a professor worth intriguing of morals, and seldom a good one in for. The learned pate is not fond of the lighter requisites of manners. His ducking to the golden fool : he who understanding is alive only to the has the best talents for getting the useful and the profitable: he never lives office has most commonly the least for for what is merely gracious, courteous, filling it; and men are made moral and and ornamental. His faculties seem mathematical teachers by the same trick to be drenched and slackened by the and filthiness with which they are made eternal fogs in which he resides; he is tide-waiters and clerks of the kitchen. never alert, elastic, nor serene. His
The number of students in the Uni- state of animal spirits is so low, that versity of Copenhagen is about 700 : what in other countries would be they come not only from Denmark, deemed dejection, proceeding from but from Norway and Iceland : the casual misfortune, is the habitual tenour latter are distinguished as well for the and complexion of his mind. In all regularity of their manners as for the the operations of bis understanding intensity of their application ; the in- he must have time. He is capable of struments of which application are undertaking great journeys; but he furnished to them by a library con- travels only a foot pace, and never taining 60,000 volumes. The Danes leaps nor runs. He loves arithmetic have primary schools established in better than lyric poetry, and affects the towns, but which have need of Cocker rather than Pindar. He is much reform before they can answer slow to speak of fountains and amorous all the beneficial ends of such an in- maidens : but can take a spell at stitution. We should have been happy porisms as well as another ; and will to have learned from Mr. Catteau the make profound and extensive comdegree of information diffused among binations of thought, if you pay him the lower orders in the Danish do
• Mr. Catteau's description of Heligominions ; but upon this subject he is land is entertaining. In an island containsilent. În the University of Kiel there ing a population of 2000, there is neither is an institution for the instruction imagined the possibility of such a fact in
horse, cart, nor plough. We could not have of schoolmasters; and in the list of any part of Europe.
for it, and do not insist that he shall We have been compelled to pass either be brisk or brief. There is some-over many parts of Mr. Catteau's book thing, on the contrary, extremely more precipitately than we could have pleasing in the Norwegian style of wished; but we hope we have said and character. The Norwegian expresses exhibited enough of it, to satisfy the firmness and elevation in all that he public that it is, upon the whole, a very says and does. In comparison with valuable publication. The two great the Danes, he has always been a free requisites for his undertaking, moderaman; and you read his history in his tion and industry, we are convinced looks. He is not apt, to be sure, to this gentle possesses in an eminent forgive his enemies; but he does not degree. He represents everything withdeserve any, for he is hospitable in the out prejudice, and he represents everyextreme, and prevents the needy in thing authentically. The same cool their wants. It is not possible for a and judicious disposition, which clears writer of this country to speak ill of him from the spirit of party, makes him the Norwegians; for, of all strangers, perhaps cautious in excess. the people of Norway love and admire convinced that everything he says is the British the most. In reading Mr. true ; but we have been sometimes inCatteau's account of the congealed and duced to suspect that we do not see blighted Laplanders, we were struck the whole truth. After all, perhaps, with the infinite delight they must have he has told as much truth as he could in dying; the only circumstance in do, compatibly with the opportunity of which they can enjoy any superiority telling any. A person more disposed over the rest of mankind; or which to touch upon critical and offensive tends, in their instance, to verify the subjects might not have submitted as theory of the equality of human con- diligently to the investigation of truth, dition.
with which passion was not concerned. If we pass over Tycho Brahé, and How few writers are, at the same time, the well known history of the Scaldes, laborious, impartial, and intrepid ! of the Chronicles of Ísleif, Sæmunder, We cannot conclude this article withHijnfronde, Snorro, Sturleson, and out expressing the high sense we enterother Islandic worthies, the list of tain of the importance of such reDanish literati will best prove that searches as those in which Mr. Catteau they have no literati at all. Are has been engaged. They must form there twenty persons in Great Britain the basis of all interior regulations, and who have ever heard of Longomon- ought principally to influence the contanus, Nicholas Stenonis, Sperling Lau. duct of every country in its relations renberg, Huitfeild, Gramn, Holberg, towards foreign powers. As they conLangebeck, Carstens, Sohm, Kofod, tain the best estimate of the wealth Anger? or of the living Wad, Fabri- and happiness of a people, they bring cius, Hanch, Tode, and Zäga? We theory to the strictest test'; and meado not deny merit to these various sure, better than all reasoning, the personages; many of them may be wisdom with which laws are made, and much admired by those who are more the mildness with which they are adconversant in Danish literature than ministered. If such judicious and we can pretend to be: but they are elaborate surveys of the state of this certainly not names
on which the and other countries in Europe had learned fame of any country can be been made from time to time for the built very high. They have no classical last two centuries, they would have celebrity and diffusion : they are not quickened and matured the progress an universal language : they have not of knowledge, and the art of governing, enlarged their original dominion, and by throwing light on the spirit and become the authors of Europe, instead tendency of laws; they would have of the authors of Denmark. It would checked the spirit of officious inter. be loss of time to speak of the fine ference in legislation ; have softened arts in Denmark; they hardly exist. I persecution, and expanded narrow con
ceptions of national policy. The hap- \ Dr. Wittman, too, was passing over piness of a nation would have been the same ground trodden by Bonaparte proclaimed by the fulness of its garners, in his Syrian expedition, and had an and the multitudes of its sheep and ample opportunity of inquiring its prooxen ; and rulers might sometimes bable object, and the probable success have sacrificed their schemes of am. which (but for the heroic defence of bition, or their unfeeling splendour, at Acre) might have attended it; he was the detail of silent fields, empty har on the theatre of Bonaparte's impated bours, and famished peasants.
crimes, as well as his notorious defeat; and might have brought us back, not anile conjecture, but sound evidence of
events which must determine his chaWITTMAN'S TRAVELS. racter, who may determine our fate. (E. REVIEW, 1803.)
We should have been happy also to
have found in the Travels of Dr. Travels in Turkey, Asia Minor, Syria, &c. Wittman a full account of the tactics
and into Egypt. By William Wittman, and manæuvres of the Turkish army; M.D. 1803. London. Phillips.
and this it would not have been difficult DR. WITTMAN was sent abroad with to have obtained through the medium the military mission to Turkey, towards of his military companions. Such the spring of 1799, and remained appear to us to be the subjects, from attached to it during its residence in an able discussion of which, Dr. the neighbourhood of Constantinople, Wittman might have derived conits march through the Desert, and its siderable reputation, by gratifying the short operations in Egypt. The ardour of temporary curiosity, and military mission, consisting of General adding to the stock of permanent Koehler, and some officers and privates knowledge. of the artillery and engineers, amounting Upon opening Dr. Wittman's book, on the whole to seventy, were assembled we turned, with a considerable degree at Constantinople, June, 1799, which of interest, to the subject of Jaffa; and, they left in the same month of the fol- to do justice to the Doctor, we shall lowing year, joined the Grand Vizier quote all that he has said upon the at Jaffa in July, and entered Egypt subject of Bonaparte's conduct at this with the Turks in April, 1801. After place. the military operations were concluded there, Dr. Wittman returned home by
"After a breach had been effected, the Constantinople, Vienna, &c.
French troops stormed and carried the The travels are written in the shape place. It was probably owing to the obsti
nate defence made by the Turks, that the of a journal, which begins and con- French commander-in-chief was induced cludes with the events which we just to give orders for the horrid massacre which mentioned. It is obvious that the succeeded. Four thousand of the wretched route described by Dr. Wittman is not inhabitants who had surrendered, and who new: he could make no cursory and had in vain implored the mercy of their superficial observations upon the people conquerors, were, together with a part whom he saw, or the countries
through (amounting, it has been said, to five or
of the late Turkish garrison of El-Arish which he passed, with which the public six hundred) dragged out in cold blood, are not already familiar. If his travels four days after the French had were to possess any merit at all, they tained possession of Jaffa, to the sand hills, were to derive that merit from accurate about a league distant, in the way to Gaza, physical researches, from copious in- and there most inhumanly put to death. formation on the state of medicine, I have seen the skeletons of these unfortusurgery, and disease in Turkey; and nate victims which lie scattered over the above all, perhaps, from gratifying the hills; a modern Golgotha, which remains a
lasting disgrace to a nation calling itself civi. rational curiosity which all inquiring lised. It would give pleasure to the author minds must feel upon the nature of the of this work, as well as to every liberal plague, and the indications of cure. mind, to hear these facts contradicted
on substantial evidence. Indeed, I am sorry much more the appearance of a battle to add, that the charge of cruelty against and pursuit than of a massacre.
After toe French generally does not rest here. It all, this gentleman lay eight months Laring been reported, that, previously to the retreat of the French army from Syria, under the walls of Jatia ; whence their commander-in-chief bad ordered all comes it he has given us no better the French sick at Jaffa to be poisoned, I evidence ? Were 5000 men murdered was led to make the inquiry to which every in cold blood by a division of the one who should have visited the spot would French army a year before, and did Daturally have been directed, respecting an no man remain in Jaffa, who said, I act of such singular, and, it should seem, saw it done – I was present when they wanton inhumanity. It concerns me to
were marched out - I went the next bare to state, not only that such a circumstanee was positively asserted to have hap- day, and saw the scarcely dead bodies penal, but that, while in Egypt, an indic of the victims ? If Dr. Wittman reridual was pointed out to us, as having ceived any such evidence, why did he bera the executioner of these diabolical not bring it forward ? If he never Connauds.”-(p. 128.)
inquired for such evidence, how is he Now, in this passage, Dr. Wittman qualified to write upon the subject ? offers no other evidence whatever of If he inquired for it and could not the massacre, than that he had seen find it, how is the fact credible ? the skeletons scattered over the hills, This author cannot make the same and that the fact was universally be- excuse as Sir Robert Wilson, for the liered. But how does Dr. Wittman suppression of his evidence; as there know what skeletons those were which could be no probability that Bonaparte he saw? An oriental camp, affected would wreak his vengeance upon Soliby the plague, leaves as many skeletons man Aga, Mustapha Cawn, Sidi Mabebind it as a massacre. And though homet, or any given Turks, upon whose the Turks bury their dead, the Doctor positive evidence Dr. Wittman might complains of the very little depth at have rested his accusation. Two such which they are interred; so that wicked acts as the poisoning and the jackals, high winds, and a sandy soil, massacre have not been committed might, with great facility, undo the within the memory of man; — within work of Turkish sextons. Let any the same memory, no such extraone read Dr. Wittman's account of the ordinary person has appeared, as he camp near Jaffa, where the Turks re- who is said to have committed them; mained so long in company with the and yet, though their commission must military mission, and he will imme- have been public, no one has yet saiu, diately perceive that, a year after their Vidi ego. The accusation still rests departure, it might have been mis- upon hearsay. taken, with great ease, for the scene of At the same time, widely dissemia toassacre. The spot which Dr. Witt- nated as this accusation has been over man saw might have been the spot Europe, it is extraordinary that it has where a battle had been fought. In not been contradicted in print; and, the turbulent state of Syria, and amidst though Sir Robert Wilson's book must the variety of its barbarous inhabitants, have been read in France, that no can it be imagined that every bloody officer of the division of Bon has come battle, with its precise limits and cir- forward in vindication of a criminal cumscription, is accurately committed who could repay incredulity so well. to tradition, and faithfully reported to General Andreossi, who was with the inquirers ? Besides, why 'scattered First Consul in Syria, treats the accuamoog hills ? If 5000 men were sations as contemptible falsehoods. But marched out to a convenient spot and though we are convinced he is a man massacred, their remains would be of character, his evidence has certainly heaped up in a small space, a mountain less weight, as he may have been of the murdered, a vast ridge of bones speaking in the mask of diplomacy. and rottenness. As the Doctor has as to the general circulation of the described the bones scenery, it has report, he must think much higher of VOL. I.
the sagacity of multitudes than we do, throw the person rubbed into a very who would convert this into a reason copious perspiration. A patient in of belief. Whoever thinks it so easy typhus, who was given over, recovered to get at truth in the midst of passion, after this discipline was administered. should read the various histories of the The boldness and enterprise of recent rebellion in Ireland; or he may, medical men is quite as striking as the if he chooses, believe, with thousands courage displayed in battle, and evinces of worthy Frenchmen, that the infernale how much the power of encountering was planned by Mr. Pitt and Lord danger depends upon habit. Many a Melville. As for us, we will state what military veteran would tremble to feed appears to us to be the truth, should it upon pus; to sleep in sheets running even chance to justify a man in whose with water; or to draw up the breath lifetime Europe can know neither hap- of feverish patients. Dr. White might piness nor peace.
not, perhaps, have marched up to a The story of the poisoning is given battery with great alacrity ; but Dr. by Dr. Wittman precisely in the same White, in the year 1801, inoculated desultory manner as that of the mas- himself in the arms, with recent matter sacre. “An individual was pointed out taken from the bubo of a pestiferous to us as the executioner of these diaboli- patient, and rubbed the same matter cal commands.” By how many persons upon different parts of his body. was he pointed out as the executioner? | With somewhat less of courage, and by persons of what authority ? and of more of injustice, he wrapt his Arab what credibility? Was it asserted from servant in the bed of a person just personal knowledge, or merely from dead of the plague. The Doctor died; rumour? Whence comes it that such and the Doctor's man (perhaps to an agent, after the flight of his em- prove his master's theory, that the ployer, was not driven away by the plague was not contagious) ran away. general indignation of the army? If -The bravery of our naval officers Dr. Wittman had combined this species never produced anything superior to of information with his stories, his this therapeutic heroism of the Doctor's. conduct would have been more just, Dr. Wittman has a chapter which he and his accusations would have carried calls An Historical Journal of the greater weight. At present, when he, Plague; but the information which it who had the opportunity of telling us contains amounts to nothing at all. so much, has told us so little, we are He confesses that he has had no exrather less inclined to believe than we perience in the complaint ; that he has were before, We do not say, these no remedy to offer for its cure, and no accusations are not true, but that Dr. theory for its cause.* The treatment Wittman has not proved them to be of the minor plague of Egypt, Ophtrue.
thalmia, was precisely the method Dr. Wittman did not see more than common in this country ; and was two cases of plague: he has given them generally attended with success, where both at full length. The symptoms the remedies were applied in time. were thirst, headache, vertigo, pains in Nothing can be conceived more the limbs, bilious vomitings, and pain- dreadful than was the situation of the ful tumours in the groins. The means military mission in the Turkish camp; of cure adopted were, to evacuate the exposed to a mutinous Turkish soldiery, primæ viæ; to give diluting and re- to infection, famine, and a scene of the freshing drinks; to expel the redundant most abominable filth and putrefaction; bile by emetics; and to assuage the aud this they endured for a year and pain in the groin by fomentations and a balf, with the patience of apostles of anodynes; both cases proved fatal. In one of the cases, the friction with warm * One fact mentioned by Dr. Wittman oil was tried in vain; but it was thought appears to be curious ; – that Constanti. useful in the prevention of plague: the the interruption of its communication with
nople was nearly free from plague during immediate effect produced was, to Egypt.