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And the right-valiant Banquo walk'd too late;
Whom, you may say, if it please you, Fleance kill'd,
For Fleance fled. Men must not walk too late.
Who cannot want the thought, how monstrous
It was for Malcolm, and for Donalbain,
To kill their gracious father? damned fact !
How it did grieve Macbeth! did he not straight,
In pious rage, the two delinquents tear,

That were the slaves of drink, and thralls of sleep?
Was not that nobly done? Ay, and wisely too;
For 'twould have anger'd any heart alive,
To hear the men deny it. So that, I say,
He has borne all things well: and I do think,
That, had he Duncan's sons under his key,

(As, an't please heaven, he shall not,) they should find
What 'twere to kill a father; so should Fleance.
But, peace-for from broad words, and 'cause he fail'd
His presence at the tyrant's feast, I hear,

Macduff lives in disgrace: Sir, can you tell
Where he bestows himself?

Lord. The son of Duncan,

From whom this tyrant holds the due of birth,
Lives in the English court; and is receiv'd
Of the most pious Edward with such grace,
That the malevolence of fortune nothing

Takes from his high respect: Thither Macduff is gone
To pray the holy king, on his aid

To wake Northumberland, and warlike Siward:

That, by the help of these, (with Him above

To ratify the work,) we may again

Give to our tables meat, sleep to our nights;

Free from our feasts and banquets bloody knives;
Do faithful homage, and receive free honours,
All which we pine for now: And this report
Hath so exasperate the king, that he
Prepares for some attempt of war.

Len. Sent he to Macduff?

Lord. He did and with an absolute, Sir not I,
The cloudy messenger turns me his back,

And hums; as who should say, You'll rue the time
That clogs me with this answer.

Len. And that well might

Advise him to a caution, to hold what distance
His wisdom can provide. Some holy angel

Fly to the court of England, and unfold

His message ere he come; that a swift blessing
May soon return to this our suffering country
Under a hand accurs'd!

Lord. My prayers with him.

ACT IV.

[Exeunt.

SCENE I-A dark Cave. In the middle a Cauldron boiling. Thunder. Enter the three Witches.9

1 Witch.

THRICE the brinded cat hath mew'd.

2 Witch. Thrice; and once the hedge-pig whin'd.
3 Witch. Harper cries :-'Tis time, 'tis time.
1 Witch. Round about the cauldron go;

In the poison'd entrails throw.

[9] Scene I.-As this is the chief scene of enchantment in the play, it is proper, in this place, to observe, with how much judgment Shakspeare has selected all the circumstances of his infernal ceremonies, and how exactly he has conformed to common opinions and traditions :

"Thrice the brinded cat hath mew'd."

The usual form in which familiar spirits are reported to converse with witches, is that of a cat. A witch, who was tried about half a century before the time of Shakspeare, had a cat named Rutterkin, as the spirit of one of those witches was Grimalkin; and when any mischief was to be done, she used to bid Rutterkin go and fly. But once, when she would have sent Rutterkin to torment a daughter of the Countess of Rutland, instead of going or flying, he only cried mew, from whence she discovered that the lady was out of his power, the power of witches being not universal, but limited, as Shakspeare has taken care to inculcate :

"Though his bark cannot be lost,
"Yet it shall be tempest-tost."

The common afflictions which the malice of witches produced, were melancholy, fits, and loss of flesh, which are threatened by one of Shakspeare's witches:

"Weary sev'n nights, nine times nine,
"Shall he dwindle, peak, and pine."

It was likewise their practice to destroy the cattle of their neighbours, and the farmers have to this day many ceremonies to secure their cows and other cattle from witchcraft; but they seem to have been most suspected of malice against swine. Shakspeare has accordingly made one of his witches declare that she has been killing swine; and Dr. Harshet observes, that, about that time, "a sow could not be ill of the measles, nor a girl of the sullens, but some old woman was charged with witchcraft."

"Toad, that under the cold stone,

"Days and nights hast thirty-one
"Swelter'd venom sleeping got,

"Boil thou first i'the charmed pot."

Toads have likewise losg lain under the reproach of being by some means accessary to witchcraft, for which reason Shakspeare, in the first scene of

Toad, that under coldest stone,
Days and nights hast thirty-one
Swelter'd venom sleeping got,

Boil thou first i' the charmed pot!

this play, calls one of the spirits Paddock or Toad, and now takes care to put a toad first into the pot. When Vaninus was seized at Thoulouse, there was found at his lodgings ingens bufo vitro inclusus, a great toad shut in a vial, upon which those that prosecuted him Veneficium exprobrabant, charg ed him, I suppose, with witchcraft.

"Fillet of a fenny snake,

"In the cauldron boil and bake :
"Eye of newt, and toe of frog:
"For a charm," &c.

The propriety of these ingredients may be known by consulting the books De Viribus Animalium and De Mirabilibus Mundi, ascribed to Albertus Magnus, in which the reader, who has time and credulity, may discover very wonderful secrets.

"Finger of birth-strangled babe,
"Ditch-deliver'd by a drab ;"

It has been already mentioned, in the law against witches, that they are supposed to take up dead bodies to use in enchantments, which was confessed by the woman whom King James examined; and who had of a dead body, that was divided in one of their assemblies, two fingers for her share. It is observable, that Shakspeare, on this great occasion, which involves the fate of a king, multiplies all the circumstances of horror. The babe, whose finger is used, must be strangled in its birth; the grease must not only be human, but must have dropped from a gibbet, the gibbet of a murderer; and even the sow, whose blood is used, must have offended nature by devouring her own farrow. These are touches of judgment and genius.

"And now about the cauldron sing,

"Black spirits and white,
"Red spirits and grey,

"Mingle, mingle, mingle,

"You that mingle may."

And, in a former part :

"weird sisters, hand in hand,-
"Thus do go about, about;

"Thrice to thine, and thrice to mine,

"And thrice again, to make up nine."

These two passages I have brought together, because they both seem subject to the objection of too much levity for the solemnity of enchantment, and may both be shown, by one quotation from Camden's account of Ireland, to be founded upon a practice really observed by the uncivilized natives of that country : "When any one gets a fall," says the informer of Camden, "he starts up, and, turning three times to the right, digs a hole in the earth; for they imagine that there is a spirit in the ground, and if he falls sick in. two or three days, they send one of their women that is skilled in that way to the place, where she says, I call thee from the east, west, north, and south, from the groves, the woods, the rivers, and the fens, from the fairies red, black, white." There was likewise a book written before the time of Shakspeare, describing, amongst other properties, the colours of spirits.

Many other circumstances might be particularised, in which Shakspeare has shown his judgment and his knowledge. JOHNSON.

[1] The urchin, or hedgehog, from its solitariness, the ugliness of its appearance, and from a popular opinion that it sucked or poisoned the udders of cows, was adopted into the demonologic system, and its shape was some. times supposed to be assumed by mischievous elves. Hence it was one of the piagues of Caliban in The Tempest. T. WARTON.

All. Double, double toil and trouble;
Fire, burn; and, cauldron, bubble.

2 Witch. Fillet of a fenny snake,
In the cauldron boil and bake :
Eye of newt, and toe of frog,
Wool of bat, and tongue of dog,
Adder's fork, and blind-worm's sting,
Lizard's leg, and owlet's wing,
For a charm of powerful trouble,
Like a hell-broth boil and bubble.

All. Double, double toil and trouble;
Fire, burn; and, cauldron, bubble.

3 Witch. Scale of dragon, tooth of wolf ;
Witches' mummy; maw, and gulf,
Of the ravin'd salt-sea shark ;2
Root of hemlock, digg'd i' the dark;
Liver of blaspheming Jew;
Gall of goat, and slips of yew,
Sliver'd in the moon's eclipse;
Nose of Turk, and Tartar's lips ;3
Finger of birth-strangled babe,
Ditch-deliver'd by a drab,
Make the gruel thick and slab :
Add thereto a tiger's chaudron, 4
For the ingredients of our cauldron.
All. Double, double toil and trouble;
Fire, burn; and, cauldron, bubble.

2 Witch. Cool it with a baboon's blood,
Then the charm is firm and good.

Enter HECATE, and the other three Witches.5

Hec. O, well done! I commend your pains;
And every one shall share i' the gains.
And now about the cauldron sing,

[2] The gulf is the swallow, the throat. Ravin'd is glutted with prey. Ravin is the ancient word for prey obtained by violence. STEEV. [3] These ingredients, in all probability, owed their introduction to the detestation in which the Turks were held on account of the holy wars.

STEEV.

[4] Chaudron, i. e. entrails; a word formerly in common use in the books of cookery. STEEV.

[5] The insertion of these words (and the other three Witches) in the orig. inal copy, must be owing to a mistake. RITSON.

Perhaps these additional Witches were brought on for the sake of the approach ing dance. The original triad of hags was insufficient for the performance of the "ancient round" introduced in p. 59. STEEV.

[blocks in formation]

Like elves and fairies in a ring,
Enchanting all that you put in.

SONG.

Black spirits and white,
Red spirits and grey;
Mingle, mingle, mingle,
You that mingle may.

2 Witch. By the pricking of my thumbs, Something wicked this way comes :-Open, locks, whoever knocks.

Enter MACBETH.

Macb. How now, you secret,black,and midnight hags? What is't you do?

All. A deed without a name.

Macb. I conjure you, by that which you profess, (Howe'er you come to know it,) answer me: Though you untie the winds, and let them fight

Against the churches; though the yesty waves"
Confound and swallow navigation up;

Though bladed corn be lodg'd,7 and trees blown down;
Though castles topple on their warders' heads ; &
Though palaces, and pyramids, do slope

Their heads to their foundations; though the treasure Of nature's germins tumble all together,9

Even till destruction sicken, answer me

To what I ask you.

1 Witch. Speak.

2 Witch. Demand.

3 Witch. We'll answer.

1 Witch. Say, if thou'dst rather hear it from our

mouths,

Or from our masters'?

Macb. Call them, let me see them.

1 Witch. Pour in sow's blood, that hath eaten Her nine farrow; grease, that's sweaten From the murderer's gibbet, throw

Into the flame.

[6] Yesty waves-i. e. foaming or frothy waves. JOHNSON.

71 Corn, prostrated by the wind, in modern language, is said to be lay'd; but lodg'd had anciently the same meaning. RITSON.

[8] Topple is used for tumble.

STEEV.

19 Germins are seeds which have begun to germinate or sprout. Germen, Lat. Germe, Fr. STEEVENS.

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