Imatges de pàgina

Author of this book, that before, and all picture true affection.

So that you see, the rest to the end of the Chapter. No: Gentlemen, it was mere Right and Property, there is such a sort of a Whim in the Style, and not the fear that my Wife should lose something so like myself, so incomprehen. the idea of her Husband's face, that tempt. sible (not because it is nonsense,) that who ed me the exercise of so much patience as ever throws but half an eye on that and me to sit three times to have (an't please ye) together, will swear 'twas spit out of the my face drawn, to be stared on as often as mouth of Kainophilus.”

the Reader pleases; yet I might affirm The famous. Athenian Society was

(did no modesty forbid me to give them shortly afterwards instituted by this their just

praise), that Knight has limned,

Vander Gucht graved, and Freeman workperson--and of the many clumsy vo

ed off, my Picture so much to the life, you jumes published by them, a great part do not flatter them when you say, was written by Dunton himself. The

They make my Picture seem to think and live.” purpose of these lucubrations was to

“ A Gentleman seeing a very good Pics solve real or imaginary cases of con

ture of St Bruno, the Founder of the Car, science," in regard to worldly-above thusian Order, and being asked his opinion all love affairs and being assisted by of it, • Were it not,' says he, for his silent Samuel Wesley and some other wric rule, it would speak. So I may say of ters of talent, it is wonderful how Dunton's Picture (it is drawn so much to the much success attended this absurd life, 'bating a little flattery), that were not proposal for a time. Even Swift has Pictures resolved on a perpetual silence (that written a poem in commendation of is, had they not a rule to hold their tongues), the Athenian Society, but when he this Picture would talk as loud and as often did so, “ little” as Mr Scott observes, So that, Gentlemen, you might well say of

as the Original does by which it was drawn. “ did he suspect that he was bestow

my two Limners, ing his praises on the bookseller, John

Their pencil sure was made of flesh and blood.Dunton.

The prosperity of Dunton's business seems soon after for, as speechless as my Picture is, it is drawn

so much alive, it is hoped it will guard this time to have again been on the

• Dunton's Athenianism from all piratical decline, for we find him making Printers, by distinguishing the original and another involuntary voyage (to Ire- true Copies from such as are false and imland,) and shortly after his return he perfect. --So that you see, Gentlemen, it is publishes “ Dunton's farewell to print- merely the securing the benefit of my own ing," and seems to have shut up shop copies, that has put me to the charge of a for a season. To the last named pro- Copper-plate, and not the ambition to have duction is prefixed an engraved head of a Face cut in Brass, with a Laurel about the author-for which seeming piece eight Verses under my Picture, writ by the

my Head, and Pegasus for my Arms, and of vanity he thus apologizes :

Athenian Society." “ I shall conclude,” he observes, “ with

By this time (we had almost fora short remark on Dunton's Effigies; and shall introduce all I have to say on that sub- gotten the matter as easily as Mr Dunject with a short account of the original of ton himself appears to have done,) he drawing Faces; for it is so little known, has lost Iris, and married another the discovery of it is a sort of novelty. lady whose romance name is Valeria.

“ The first Limning that ever was owes Having lived happily with her for a its rise to the parting of two Lovers, in this few months, their harmony is disturb

When the daughter of Delu- ed by money, the root of evil. Dunriades, the Sycionian, was to take leave of ton is in want of cash to answer some her sweet-heart, now going to wars, to comfort herself in his absence she took his Pic bills, and applies to Madame Nicho ture with a coal upon the wall, as the can.

las, his mother-in-law, who refuses dle gave the shadow, which her father ad

to give him any assistance. miring, perfected it afterwards ; and it was é sequences are a separation from his the first Picture by report that ever was wife-of whom, notwithstanding, he made. But the drawing of Dunton's face still continues to speak in terms of the owes itş rise to the great wrong done me by most devout attachment-and about a Harris and other piratical Printers, and not score of pamphlets on the behaviour to love (as was the case of the Sycionian of her mother. Nothing can be more Limner); for being married, my Spou and I wear each other's Pictures in our

pestiferous than the titles of these li. hearts (being drawn and hung there), and bellous brochures—but we find that so have no occasion for an outward Picture we are giving more than enough of to comfort us; for neither absence, time, room to the affair when we mention it nor scarce death itself, can fade the colours at all. where a united heart is the frame, and the

( To be continued.)

manner :

The con


Prediction First. The densities of the planets will be found to be constantly increasing. Every particle of matter, from the deposited upon a globe of a somewhat surface of a planet down to the centre, greater magnitude, but not so great presses with a constant force on the as that on which the secondary strata particle upon which it is recumbent; were formed. Thus did geologists apand this globe would still be subject proximate toward the evolution of this to the same law, whether it had a dis- important law, by proving that the tention to equal the magnitude of Ju- globe had from time to time diminishpiter, or a compression to equal the ed in magnitude since the strata which density of Mercury. If, from the encompass it began to be deposited. centre of the Earth up to the surface, It may here just be observed, that every particle pressed on the super- the sinuosity of the strata in certain incumbent particle, it is evident

that situations proves that the globe must the Earth would constantly suffer a have had a greater magnitude when dilatation of diameter. Now, as it is these strata were deposited. Thus it the prevailing opinion among philoso- is evident, that those secondary strata, phers, that there is more vacuity than which have sometimes been found to matter within the circumference of any undulate from one range of primitive one of the planets,* it is no wonder hills to another, and which at the same that it should become a question much time remain continuous throughout, agitated amongst them, whether the would, if restored to their former lepressure of all the particles in an op. vel position, extend over a much posite direction would produce an op- greater horizontal surface than could posite effect? i. e. Whether the law be included between those ranges of which is now in force within the bow. hills; those hills must have therefore els of the Earth would produce a con- been removed to a greater distance stant diminution of the Earth's dia from each other when they admitted meter so long as vacuities existed with of the horizontality of these strata bein the interior ?

tween them, now they could only be It was a grand era in the history of removed to a greater distance from this discovery when geologists had each other by a dilatation of the Earth’s proved that the primitive strata, if pla- diameter; this globe must have thereced in a horizontal position, would form fore had a greater magnitude when the circumference of a much larger these strata were deposited. globe than that which they now cir- The question relative to the concumscribe ; this globe, therefore, must stant increase of the Earth's density have had a greater magnitude when by the particles gravitating towards these strata were deposited ; and that the centre, now found its way into the the secondary strata must also have records of science, and no longer was been incumbent upon a larger globe it rejected by philosophers as but the while they retained a horizontal posi- reverie of a maniac--the probable tion; but as they neither dip to so existence of such a law operating withgreat a depth as the primitive strata, in the bowels of the Earth was now nor are so highly inclined in their po- fully established, and philosophers in sition to the horizon, the globe on their future researches, after its discowhich they were deposited could not very, arbitrarily insulated the Earth have had so great a magnitude as that in space beyond the sphere of all plaon which the primitive strata were netary and solar attraction, and then formed ; and that also the last formed reasoned as to the effects that would strata, which, though they are in gene- be produced on the globe by the presral but little removed from their first sure of all the particles towards the position, must have nevertheless been surface that the diameter of the

It was a bold conjecture of Newton's, that the porosity of the Earth is such, that, were all the particles brought into contact with each other, it is possible they might be contained within the compass of a cubic inch. VOL. VI.


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Earth would constantly dilate by every and the subsequent expression of some particle pressing on the superincum- of the substances of which they were bent particle was admitted that as the composed were also due, though less globe distended the quantity of va- directly, to the discovery of this excuity within the interior would in- traordinary law; but of all the sciences, crease-and that after the Earth had Geology and Cosmogony were certainly attained to the magnitude of Jupiter, the most indebted to its evolution. In there would exist within it at least a geology

accounted satisfactorily, hundred and twenty times more va- First, Why strata, which were oricuity than matter ;-having obtained ginally horizontal in their position, these data, they now argued as to the are now inclined to the horizon. probable effects that would be produce Thus, as a plant increases in densied on the globe by the constant pres- ty, it diminishes in magnitude ; and sure of all the particles in an opposite since it is constantly increasing in dendirection, and since they had found that sity, it is constantly diminishing in a quantity of vacuum, equal to a hun- magnitude, this globe has therefore dred and twenty times the magnitude suffered a diminution of magnitude of the Earth, before it was subjected to since the strata were deposited which the operation of the expansive force, everywhere encompass it; and, therewas now contained within it, they had fore, since these strata at their formano difficulty in admitting that the tion would form the circumference of particles would take a retrograde move a larger globe, and are now circumment, and that the globe would con- scribing the nucleus of a less, they sequently suffer a diminution of dia- would, if soft, suffer bendings and inmeter. It was however a problem flections while accommodating themlong and keenly agitated amongst selves to a globe constantly diminishthem, to determine the precise state of ing in magnitude; and, if indurated, condensity of the Earth at which the they would break asunder, and assume mobility of the particles would be ar- a position somewhat inclined to the rested; this was found to be a pro- horizon, and as the globe diminished blem of very difficult solution, and it more and more in magnitude, the was not till after much contention and strata would approach more and more varied discussion that they arrived at toward a verticle position. the plain and natural conclusion, that Second, Why strata deviate the more so long as vacuities existed within the from the horizontal position as they interior of the Earth, the motion of the are the more ancient. particles downwards would never cease; As this globe has constantly dimiand as they found that the force nished in magnitude, then the more which counteracts the force of gravity we recede from the present period, the does not operate to a great depth be greater will be its magnitude, and conlow the surface of any one of the pla- sequently the more ancient the strata, nets, they thus proved that the densie the greater would be the globe on ties of all of them must still be con- which they were deposited. Since, stantly increasing

therefore, strata, according to their seNo sooner was the discovery of this niority, would, when deposited, form planetary law announced to the phi- as it were the circumference of a larger losophers of every country, than they globe, and they are now all investing began to apply it to the solution of the same nucleus, and that the nuthose phenomena which till then in cleus of a less, it is evident that the several physical sciences had remain- strata last formed would require to ed problematical. First the spheroidal shift less from their original horizonform of the Earth received a ready and tal position, in order to accommodate certain explication, and then the im- themselves to the present magnitude portant fact was obtained, that the of the globe than strata of a prior formean density of the Earth, from the mation ; that therefore the more ancentrc to the poles, is greater than cient the strata, the more must they from the centre to the equator; and be displaced from their first position ; this fact suggested a new and plausible the primitive strata must have theretheory as to the cause of the polarity fore assumed a posture more highly of the magnet-those numerous and inclined to the horizon than those of a wonderful discoveries which were e- subsequent formation. volved by the compression of mixtures, Third, Why strata, which were ori

ginally soft, are now consolidated; which were deposited when the and why in general they are more in- density of the Earth was greater ; durated as they are the more ancient. since then, the more we recede;

The force which consolidates the from the present period, the denEarth, must also be equal to the con- sity of the globe is always the less, solidation of the strata near the sur- strata would therefore, according to face, where it acts with so much in- their seniority, preserve their horizontensity; and since the solidity of the tal position for a shorter period; they globe is constantly increasing, the con- would consequently be the less consosolidation of the strata must likewise lidated while shifting from that posibe in constant operation; those strata, tion, as they had not been so long subtherefore, which have been the longer jected to the operation of the consolisubjected to the consolidating cause dating cause, they would therefore, acmust be the more indurated, i. e. strata cording to their seniority, be more must be the more indurated according pliant while shifting from that posito their seniority. It must however tion; wherefore, bendings and inflecbe remarked, that the hardening of tions must be more frequent in strata the strata is not altogether effected by according to their seniority. the perpendicular pressure of the par- The shifting of the strata, while acticles; there is besides a constant la- commodating themselves to a globe teral pressure, arising from the circum- diminishing in magnitude, accounted ference of the globe being in a state of for earthquakes. constant decrease; and, by the co- The latent heat which exists below operation of these two forces, the fluid the surface of the Earth, and which which every stratum contains after its must from time to time be expressed deposition must be ultimately ex- as the globe gets more indurated, was pressed.

found to be the primary agent in the Fourth, Why bendings and inflec- production of a volcano, and as there tions are more frequent in strata ac- is a greater pressure at the time that cording to their seniority.

the strata are turning to a more vertiAs the force which consolidates the cal position, it accounted for the fact Earth acts nearly with the same in- of the earthquake and volcano genetensity, whatever may be its density, rally accompanying each other. it is evident that the magnitude of the It was also found, that the subglobe must diminish the faster in pro- stance of a vein was originally diffused portion as the Earth is less dense. throughout the strata which include Those strata, then, which were depo- the vein, and had been expressed from sited when the density of the Earth the strata after the formation of the was not so great, would not preserve fissure which now contains it. C. C. their level position so long as those

(To be continued.)



It seems a fit subject for the curiosity The age to which we belong has purof an age to inquire into the effects sued, with activity and success unupon its character of its own peculiar known before, the investigations of pursuits ; unless it may be thought, physical science ; and with this spirit that, with a people, as in the case of of inquiry there has prevailed also a an individual, too much curiosity of persuasion, that the knowledge thus self-examination may both enfeeble acquired to the human mind was of and mislead the mind. Yet to a peo- high importance, not only for the ple, as well as to an individual, there powers which it added to human art, must be a measure of self-examina- but for its direct influence on the fation that is both justifiable and salu- culties and character of the mind. Its tary; and we conceive, that the ques. influence may be beneficial, but it tioning of those opinions, upon which may easily be over-rated. We bea whole generation is disposed to act lieve, too, it is in danger to exceed with implicit confidence, and some- its just limits. thing like the ardour of passion, may

The effect upon the mind, of applifall within this reasonable measure. cation to physical science, will vary

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with the character of science itself. and the deep delight with which they For science may be exceedingly spe- proved their power at times to lift the culative, or it may rest almost en- veil

, was mingled with trepidation. tirely in a sort of practical demon- We rank these feelings with the sustration. In our own country, we ap- perstitions that are gone. But it would prehend, for the last half century, it be much to say, that they were altohas borne this last character. The gether the work of superstition. The science which has chiefly flourished feelings which superstition seizes on, amongst us, which may be said almost and magnifies, may be legitimate in displacing all others, to overspread the our nature ; and we are not to con land, the science of the intimate ana- clude, because we know no such awe, lysis of natural bodies, perhaps by its we who are familiar with all speculaready application to the arts of life, tion, we on whose childhood the lights perhaps by its own inherent tendency of knowledge are showered before our has eminently assumed this practical understanding is even awake to recharacter. Of the more ancient state ceive them-that therefore there is noof the science, of the researches, by thing but fantasy and illusion in those such analysis, into the properties and strong and agitating impressions which powers of nature, which were pursued have accompanied heretofore the inwith such avidity of hope, and such vestigation of the secrets of nature. If intense application of thought by the Maclaurin has said that he never read elder alchemists, we seem now to the questions of Sir Isaac Newton know little or nothing. Their spe- without feeling his flesh creep, if Malcific results are scarcely regarded, lebranche, when he first opened a voand their effect upon the minds of lume of Descartes, found his eyes those inquirers, and through them burst into tears and the book drop more generally upon society, seems from his hands, we may be assured still more remote from touching us. that there are strong feelings and A chemistry of our own, a new created strange emotions annexed in the conscience, has sprung up to our age, stitution of our nature, to such high eclipsing by its splendour, the dim and investigations. And if we recognize feeble lights of preceding time; and them no longer in ourselves, we may still more, by the importance and mag- be rather led to apprehend, that by nitude of its practical consequences, oc- some ill-husbanding of our own we cupying the minds, and giving occupa- have thrown away a power we were tion to the lives, not only of men edu- endowed with, than to exult in our cated to science, but of numbers with liberation from prejudice and error whom such results alone could give it which hung upon the faculties of less interest and favour. Of that che- enlightened inquirers. mistry we would venture to speak ; and I conceive, that in the original imof whatever other sciences, that lending pulse which bent the mind of men to themselves in like manner to the prac- these speculations, which urged them tical uses of life, have obtained an im- to explore the powers and the secrets of portance in the national mind, distinct nature, there was in fact much more from, if not exceeding, the pure in- of mysterious imagination, and of deep terest of scientific inquiry.

unwonted emotion, than of mere inThe spirit which originally impels tellectual gratification. And I suspect men to the investigation of nature, that the language in which Lucretius seems to arise, not merely out of their has described the state of the mind intellectual capacity and dispositions, borne in the consciousness of its power but to hold a yet deeper seat in ima- into unknown worlds, gination. Wonder and fear are the

-me quædam divina voluptas feelings with which, in the more pri- Percipit, atque HORROR mitive states of society, men approach does more truly discover to us that to such inquiries. They can perceive natural conformation of our minds a mysterious darkness shrouding the which calls us to such speculations, secrets of nature; and that ungovern- than any thing which now appears in able curiosity which to the vulgar has our own pursuit of them. seemcl impiety, may have been felt The blending of the knowledge of Naas questionable daring, by the minds ture by the earliest ages with their mythat obeyed its impulse. The awe of thology, and somewhat later, with thetr that mystery lay upon their souls; most solemn and impassioned poetry,

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