Imatges de pÓgina

value and to me, what I part with is of ly chosen, for nothing could have much less. Let me not think you deem so given the reader so powerfully the wretchedly ill of my nation as your com- idea of a period full of bustle and tumons believe. Think ye that I prize these mult-wherein the interest depended sparkling fragments of stone above my li. berty? or that my father values them in so much upon collisions of external comparison to the honour of his only child ? strength, and the disarray of conflictAccept them, lady—to me they are value- ing passions. less. I will never wear jewels more.' One word only before we close,

". You are then unhappy,' said Rowena, concerning the humorous parts of this struck with the manner in which Rebecca novel, in which it will at once be seen uttered the last words. “0, remain with

-our author has followed a new mode us—the counsel of holy men will wean you of composition. Not being able, as in from your unhappy law, and I will be a former instances, to paint from existing sister to you.'

***No, lady,' answered Rebecca, the same nature, and to delight the reader with calm melancholy reigning in her soft voice

a faithful delineation of what was, in and beautiful features that may not be. some measure, already known to him, I may not change the faith of my fathers he is obliged more frequently to resort like a garment unsuited to the climate in to a play of fancy in his humorous which I seek to dwell, and unhappy, lady, dialogue, which generally flows in a I will not be. He, to whom I dedicate my truly jovial and free-hearted style, future life, will be my comforter, if I do His worthy of merry England. Nor is will.'

" . Have you then convents, to one of the flagon or the pasty on any ocwhich you mean to retire ?? asked Rowena. casion spared ; for otherwise it would

“ • No, lady, said the Jewess ; • but be difficult to conceive how his stalamong our people, since the time of Abra- wart friars, archers, and other ableham downward, have been women who bodied characters, could go through have devoted their thoughts to Heaven, the fatigues ascribed to them, or susand their actions to works of kindness to tain such men, tending the sick, feeding the hungry, santness on all occasions -- in the

a genial vein of pleaand relieving the distressed. Among these midst of the knocks and blows which will Rebecca be numbered. Say this to thy lord, should he enquire after the fate

are throughout the tale distributed on of her whose life he saved.'

all hands, with an English fulness There was an involuntary tremor in Re- both as to quality and quantity. This becca's voice, and a tenderness of accent, mixture of cuffs and good cheer, so which perhaps betrayed more than she characteristic of the age, seems to have would willingly have expressed. She has kept up their animal spirits, and rentened to bid Rowena adieu.

dered them fit to move lightly and “• Farewell,' she said. May He, who made both Jew and Christian, shower'down happily in that stormy sphere of acon you his choicest blessings ! The bark tion where force was law. that wafts us lience will be under weigh this Romance will be in the highest

On the whole, we have no doubt e'er we can reach the port.'”

Such is the main thread of the story degree popular here, but still more so of Ivanhoe. It is intermingled with in England. Surely the hearts of our many beautiful accompaniments both neighbours will rejoice within them, of a serious and a ludicrous nature when they find that their own ancient woven with it and each other some- manners are about to be embalmed, as what after the wild phantastic manner we have no doubt they will be in many of Ariosto—all admirable in them- succeeding novels by the same masselves, but for the present forbidden terly hand, which has already conferground to us. The style in which red services in that sort so inestimable the adventures of so many different upon us. individuals are all brought down to- As we hinted at the beginning of gether pari passu, may appear to many this paper, we should not be surprised as a defect--for in these days all read- to find the generality of readers disapers have formed a taste for having pointed a little at first; but their eyes their feelings excited in the strongest will soon become accustomed to the possible manner. And for this pur- new and beautiful light through which pose, it is necessary that their atten- the face of Nature is now submitted tion and interest should throughout to them, and confess that the great be directed and attached to one predo- Magician has not diminished the minating hero. But the style we power of his spell by extending his think has, in this instance, been wise- circle.




(Continued from page 88.)

A.D. 1090.

perfidy,” When the knight heard Character and Anecdotes of Malcolm, these words, being struck as by a thunKing of Scotland.

derbolt, he hastily dismounted from

his horse, and throwing aside his weaAs we have made mention of king pons, fell at the royal feet, with tears Malcolm, I shall take upon me to and trembling. Fear nothing,” said shew, in few words, with what tem- the king, “ for no evil will I do unto per and moderation he was gifted. thee ;" and thereupon, having requirHaving learned from an informer that ed of him only a promise of future one of his principal nobles had con- fealty, to be confirmed by oath, and spired with the enemy for his death, proper pledges for the same, he rem he ordered the accuser to keep silence, turned with him, in good time, to their and waited quietly till the coming of companions, and related to no man the traitor, who happened at the time what had been said or done betwixt to be absent. As soon as he appeared them. again at court, attended by a numerous retinue, to execute his treasonable Foundation of the Monastery of St Osa purpose, the king issued orders to his win at Tinemouth in Northumber: huntsmen to be ready with their dogs

land. before dawn, and, as soon as the morn- About these days, Robert de Mowbrays ing broke, he called all his nobles and Earl of Northumberland, being touchretainers round him for the chase. ed with divine inspiration, and willing When they reached a certain wide to restore the church of the blessed plain, surrounded by a very thick wood Oswin at Tinemouth, which was lately like a girdle, he kept the treacherous become desolate, and to establish there lord by his side, and, while all the rest a society of monks for the service of were eagerly pursuing the game, re- God, and the aforesaid holy martyr, mained with him alone. Then, when by the advice of his friends, addressed no other person was in sight, the king himself unto Paul, abbot of St Albans, stopped short, and looking back upon earnestly and devoutly entreating that the traitor, who was behind him, said, he would deign to send thither some Lo! here am I now, and thou with of his own fraternity, promising that me; we are alone-we are equally he would abundantly supply them with armed and equally mounted; there is whatsoever things are necessary for nobody that can see or hear us, or food and raiment. The abbot was bring assistance to either of us ; if, not wanting, on his part, to the

prayer therefore, the courage be in thee, if of this petition, but took order that thou be stout enough and bold enough, certain of the monks of St Albans perform that which thou hast propos- should proceed thither accordingly, ed to do, execute for my enemies and whom, when the said earl had enthy confederates that which thou hast riched with manors, advowsons, rents, promised. If it be thy mind to slay fisheries, mills, and all manner of me, when canst thou do it more fairly goods, confirming to them the same -when more privately-when more things by his letters patent, free and manfully? Hast thou prepared poi- exempt from all secular service, he son? Leave that to women. Dost gave unto the aforesaid Paul, the ab. thou lie in wait for me in my bed ? bot, and his successors, and to the That an adultress might do. Didst church of the blessed Alban, the prothou ordain to lie in ambush and at- tomartyr of England, the church of tack me with the sword? No man Tinemouth, with all its appurtenances, doubts that this is rather the office of for his own salvation, and that of all an assassin than of a soldier. Come his ancestors or successors, to be peron then ! body to body-act the part petually possessed by them, in such of a man and of a warrior, so that thy manner as that the abbots of St Albans, treason may at least be without base for the time being, with the advice of ness, although it cannot be without the convent of the place aforesaid, VOL. VI.

2 M

might have free disposal of the priors dence that it was no vain delusion and monks, both in constituting and which he had witnessed, as well by in removing them, as might appear the marks of recent stripes, as by his expedient.

death, which followed shortly after.

A. D. 1092.

A.D. 1099. Vision of the Monks at Fulda. Narrative of the Death of William In those days a pestilence sorely af- Rufus, and the Prodigies which atflicted the monastery of Fulda, by tended it. which, first the abbot, and afterwards In the year of our Lord 1100, William, many of the monks were slain ; but king of England, surnamed “ the red," the brethren who remained alive, be- having kept with great pomp his took themselves to alms-giving and Christmas at Gloucester, his Easter prayers, both for the souls of their de

at Chichester, and his Pentecost at ceased brethren, and for the health of London,-on the day after that of St the living. However, in process of Peter ad vincula, went into the new time (as generally comes to pass) the forest to hunt, when Walter Tyrrell, devotion of the brethren began a little aiming at a stag, unintentionally smote to fail, and the cellarer* ceased not to the king with an arrow, who, pierced affirm that the funds of the abbey through the heart, fell without speakwere not sufficient to maintain so great ing a word, and thus ended a cruel life an expense. He also added, that it by a miserable death. Several prodigies appeared foolish that the dead should also preceded his decease. For the consume what was necessary towards same king, the day before this event, the support of the living ; wherefore, saw in a dream his own blood issue on a certain night, when the cellarer out as from the stroke of a lancet, the had deferred a little his night's rest, stream whereof spouted up to the sky, on account of some necessary business, overshadowing the sun, and darkenand at last, having completed his af- ing the brightness of the firmament. fairs, was hastening to his chamber; As soon as he was awakened, he called behold, as he passed the door of the on the Virgin Mary, and having a chapter-house, he saw the abbot and light brought, and forbidding those all the brethren who had departed that of his chamber to depart from him, year, sitting in the chapter-house, ace he passed the rest of the night withcording to custom. The cellarer, af- out sleep. But in the

morning, when frighted at such a vision, began to fly, the day broke, a certain monk, a fobut at the abbot's command he was reigner, who followed the royal court seized by the brethren, and brought on the business of his church, related into the chapter-house. He was first to Robert Fitzhamon (a man of inreproved for the sin of avarice, and fluence, and a familiar of the king's) then severely beaten with scourges, a wonderful and terrible vision which after which the abbot said, with a stern appeared to him the same night. For countenance, “ It is too presumptuous in his sleep he saw the king enter & in any one to seek after the profit to certain church, and, with a haughty arise from the death of another, espe- and insolent mien, as he was wont, cially as death is common to all;" and look on the standers by; then seizing added, “ that it was an impious thing a crucifix with his teeth, he began when a monk had passed all his days gnawing the arms and legs till he had in holy offices, that he should be de- almost destroyed them; all which the prived, after his death, of the neces- crucifix endured for a time, but at last sary nourishment of a single year. struck the king with its right foot, inHe then said, “ Depart, for thou shalt somuch that he fell backwards on the soon die, and reform all the monks pavement—and he then beheld a flame whom thy avarice has corrupted by issue from the mouth of the prostrate thy example.” The monk therefore king, which extended itself so widely, went to his companions, and gave evi- that the cloud of smoke, like a great

* Cellarer. This was the appellation given to an officer, " who was to be the father of the whole society, had the care of every thing relating to the food of the monks, and vessels of the cellar, kitchen, and repertory.” See Fosbrooke's History of Monachism (page 177), where the duties attached to this office are accurately and minutely detailed." In the original he is called “ Cellarius sive Promus,"


shadow, rolled to the sky. This vi- and the now stiff and stinking corpse sion, when Robert Fitzhamon related was left in the road for those who it to the king, he only laughed, and were so disposed to carry away. redoubling his shouts of laughter, In the same hour, the Earl of Cornsaid, “ he is a monk, and has dream- wall, hunting in a wood two days joured like a monk for the sake of a fee. ney distant, being left by his compaPay him a hundred shillings, that he nions, met a great hairy black goat, may not complain that his was an carrying on its back the king discoempty dream.

loured and naked, and pierced through How beit, the king himself dreamed the body by a grizly wound. And another dream the night before his the goat, being adjured by the Triune death, wherein he saw a most beauti- God to discover what thing it was, ful child laid out upon an altar, and answered, “ I bear away to judgment being hungry beyond measure, and your king, even the tyrant William urged by vehement inclination, he the Red, for I am a malignant spirit, went up and began eating of that in, and the avenger of that raging malice fant's Aesh, which appeared to him with which he persecuted the church delicious when he had tasted it; but of Christ; and it was I who contrived when he was about to indulge still his death, by the orders of Alban, the further his voracious appetite, the blessed protomartyr of England, who child turned towards him with a fierce made his complaint to the Lord, that countenance, and threatening voice, in the isle of Britain, of which he was exclaiming, “hold! you have had too the original sanctifier, this king's evil much already.” The king consulted deeds passed all measure of forgivea certain bishop in the morning on

This adventure the Eari imthe subject of this dream ; and the mediately related to his companions, bishop, suspecting the cause of such and, in the space of three days, he a judgment, admonished him to de- found all things to be true as the visist from persecuting the church; sion had warned him, by means of “ for this," he added, “ was a fore- ocular witnesses. Over and above warning of (Heaven, and a merciful these several prodigies, the earth emite chastisement--neither, as thou hast ted fountains of blood in various quardesigned to do, go to hunt this day," ters, by way of further foretokening The king, slighting this salutary ad- the event which was to take place.monition, went into the wood to hunt, Also Anselm, Archbishop of Canternotwithstanding. And lo! by acci- bury, who had been banished to parts dent, a great stag running before the beyond sea for three years by his tyking, he exclaimed to a knight who ranny, came about the kalends of was by his side, Walter Tyrrell by August from Rome to Marcenniacum name, shoot devil,” whereupon in- to enjoy the converse of St Hugh, the stantly parted from the bow that ar- bishop of Clugny; where, on occarow, (of which it may well and truly sion of some discourse between them be said, as if it had been prophetically concerning King William being had, written,

that venerable abbot bore witness to “ Et semel emissum volat irrevocabile te. the truth in these words, saying, lum.")

“ last night I beheld that same king and glancing against a tree which sent brought before the throne of God, and it back in an oblique direction, it accused, and heard the sentence of pierced the heart of the king, who fell damnation pronounced against him.” dead to the earth at the same instant. But in what manner these things had The people who were with him fied come to his knowledge, neither the different ways, that unfortunate knight archbishop, nor any that were there being foremost. But a few of them present at that time inquired, such returning, found the body lying bath- was the awe with which the abbot's ed in its own blood, and beginning to eminent sanctity inspired them. The mortify, and placing it on a miserable following day the archbishop, having coalman's car which happened to pass departed thence, proceeded to Lyons ; that way, drawn by a half-starved and the next morning, while the horse, compelled the poor peasant to monks were singing the matin-song convey it to the city. On its way in his presence, lo! a youth delicately thither, passing through a deep and attired, and of a serene countenance, clayey road, the carriage broke down, stood by the side of one of the archbishop's clerks, as he lay in bed near the clerk, becoming more alert, raised the door of his chamber, and had close his head, but when his eyes were open ed his eyes, but was not yet asleep- could see nobody.--The night after, “ Adam!” he cried, “ sleepest thou ?” as one of the monks belonging to the Whereto the clerk answered that he same archbishop's company was chantdid not. “ Wilt thou hear of things ing his matins, behold! one offered that are new," said the vision; and him a scroll of parchment to read, the clerk said, “willingly.” Where- whereon he saw these words written, upon straightway the vision replied, « obiit Rex Willelmus." And, when “ know then this thing for certain- he looked up, he saw none besides his the discord which has fallen out be- companions. In a very short time aftween the archbishop and King Wil- terwards the king's death was anliam is at rest for ever.” At this nounced to the archbishop.

Transactions of the Dilettanti Society of Edinburgh,

No II.

Viator's Letters on the History and Progress of the Fine Arts.



his own way, the conception which he With your permission I will now re- formed of his subjects, but even to sume my observations on the history choose whatever subject seemed most and progress of the fine arts.” It has agreeable to his particular taste and often been remarked, that many other fancy. The dispute on the sacrament circumstances besides the endowment and its companion, the school of Athens, of genius are requisite to form a great he painted before he had attained his man, whether in arts or arms, in bu- twenty-eighth year,—and I know not siness or in policy. What these are two works, either in art or in literature, with respect to artists I shall not, at that evince a more clear perception of present, stop to inquire, nor is it, in- human nature than these truly masdeed, necessary; for the sketch which terly productions. Placed at Rome I gave in my last letter, relative to in the centre of a splendid and refined the progress of the arts prior to the court, surrounded by the intellectual appearance of Raphael, contains a suf- and the powerful, the roverend and ficient comment on the subject. But the honourable of the earth, he seems all favourable circumstances are, with- to have contemplated, with singular out patronage, nugatory; and the ge- faculties of discernment, the grand of nius of Raphael would have languish- the human character, and to have ed and expired—“sunk into the grave transferred the result of his observaunpitied and unknown," had he ap- tions to his canvas with the felicity of peared in any other province of Chris- a creative hand ; and yet in the midst tendom but Italy. In that country of this effulgence of superior genius, alone, at that time, the arts were stu- we may trace the skilful adaptation died in their true spirit, and applied of great professional learning, showto their proper purpose, not merely ing with what care he studied the as the decorations of grandeur, but in works of his predecessors, and with the visible illustration of religion and what industry he must have previoushistory.

ly devoted himself to the imitation of The munificence of the priesthood their beauties. drew forth the latent energies of ta- In the upper part of the dispute on lent for the one, and the pride and the sacrament, something may be distaste of the nobility fostered the effects covered of the superb taste of Bartholodirected to the other. It was, how- meo in drapery with that hardness of ever, the good fortune of Raphael, outline which the artist had acquirwhile he met with a degree of en- ed from his first master Perugino, couragement, such as few artists ever but in the general aggregate of the obtained, to be allowed the free exer- work we perceive the power and hapcise of his genius, to embody, notonly in piness of his own peculiar genius. The

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