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with every rock and gulch. To his guidance I stances. When I saw the pure iron thus crop committed myself, confident that he would never out of the earth and stare me in the face I relose his way so long as we had nothing but water turned thanks to Providence that the Apaches as a beverage. had spared my life in Arizona; that I had surCrossing the river a little below our encamp-vived all the disasters of travel in that region to ment, we made a bee line for the Iron Mount- see this blessed day. For here surely was a ain, which is clearly visible from Shimmens's substantial reward for all my sufferings; here Ranch; standing out like a huge cone, isolated was iron enough to make any reasonable man from the adjacent mountains, and easily recog- jingle along merrily through the remainder of nized by its reddish color. life's journey.
I dismounted; fastened my horse to a solid boulder; took a pick, and went to work vigorously to dislodge a mass of the ore. Aided by the energy and muscle of my friend Fanning, it was not long before I had a specimen that would astonish the iron-men of Pennsylvania. There was no room for doubt. It was the purest kind of magnetic iron. I crushed a portion of it with my hammer, and found that it adhered to the face of the hammer in flakes like feathers. A shingle nail which I had in my pocket furnished the next test. The mass of ore bore the weight of the nail without diffi
able quality of iron, but requires to be mixed with inferior ores before it can be made available for use.
The first part of our journey lay across Walker's Valley. At this point the arable lands embrace a width of about two miles, gently sloping from the river to the foot-hills. To all appearance the earth is utterly barren. No sign of vegetation, save the everlasting sage-bush, greets the eye; yet upon a close inspection the soil is found to be composed of a rich alluvial deposit, which only requires irrigation to make it highly productive. Dry as the season now is, the sage-bushes are green, indicating the proximity of water. This is the valley claimed and surveyed by the Walker River Company. We soon reached the first of a series of foot-culty. I believe this is considered a very valuhills, or rather a rolling plain, which extends all the way to the Bullion range of mountains, distant about ten miles from the river. Follow ing a deep winding arroya for several miles, we ascended upon a ridge where we struck an Indian trail. The whole surrounding country was fearfully wild and barren-nothing but gravelly deserts and rugged mountains ahead, and deep gorges in the desolate plain around us. I noticed along the trail projecting carboniferous strata indicating coal, and unmistakable evidences of the proximity of iron. The earth in many places was covered with rust. Boulders of ferrugiferous stone cropped out at intervals; and at one point of our journey we traveled nearly a mile over broken beds of iron, resembling pot-metal. It was light and porous, but strongly metallic, and jingled under our horses' hoofs like the waste fragments of cast-iron lying about a foundry yard.
Seven miles from the river we reached the foot of the Iron Mountain-a rough, barren, conical peak, rising about five hundred feet above the level of the surrounding hills. Deep gorges and ravines render the approach somewhat difficult; but Fanning knew the way, and we encountered no serious obstacle. Rusty boulders and broken masses of iron grew more and more abundant, till we merged into a complete labyrinth of iron ledges. Evidences of floods and drifts and volcanic fires lay around us in chaotic desolation. A few hundred yards back of the main cone we came upon a black ledge, cropping out of the earth to the height of several feet, in sharp points, presenting a smooth, polished surface that glistened in the sun like glass.
Now I beg the reader to understand that I am prejudiced in favor of this magnificent enterprise. I am a thousand feet, more or less, in this mine, but will endeavor to tell as much truth as can be expected under the circum
The vein is about four feet thick where it crops out. From its dip on each side I should judge it must rapidly increase as it descends. I traced it over the surface of the earth for a mile or more, and do not know how much farther it may run. At the top of the mountain it assumes a broken form, appearing over an area of several hundred feet. The probability is the chief deposit lies in the depths of the main cone. As yet no excavations have been made.
We gathered up as many specimens as we could pack on our horses, and, having concluded our inspection, ascended the peak of the Iron Mountain for the purpose of enjoying the view, than which nothing can be finer. Mount Butler lies to the east; Mount Grant to the west. To the south stretches a rugged range of sierras, dotted with pine-trees; and to the north the rich alluvial bottom of Walker River. A fine spring of water is seen about two miles distant, in the Gold Cañon range; rich outcroppings of gold and silver quartz ledges mark the face of the hills; but this part of the country has been but little explored. The day must come when it will be thickly settled by an industrious community of miners.
Should the iron and coal veins of Walker River prove valuable, no estimate can be formed of their importance to the industrial interests of Nevada. The cost of freight across the mountains is now a serious drawback. Machinery must be transported at enormous expense. The price of labor is high, owing to the cost of provisions, and it is clear to my mind that mining will never be profitable in Nevada until it can be carried on with greater economy. At preserft it costs a mine to work a mine." The products of the best mines are consumed in expenses.
HOW TO REDEEM WOMAN'S PROFESSION FROM DISHONOR.
N this Magazine for November, 1864, it was lamentation over the decay of the female con
as and the ruined of women
cludes three departments-the training of the mind in childhood, the nursing of infants and of the sick, and all the handicrafts and management of the family state. With perhaps the exception of the school training of children, it was claimed that the profession of woman is socially disgraced, so that no woman of culture and refinement, in the wealthy classes, would resort to cooking, chamber-work, or nursing infants and the sick for a livelihood, scarcely any more than their brothers would resort to burglary or piracy.
It was shown also that women are not trained for their profession as men are for theirs; that there is no provision made for it in public or private schools; and that every school, as well as other social influence, tends at once to disgrace woman's profession and to destroy her health.
Woman, as well as man, was made to work; and her Maker has adapted her body to its appropriate labor. The tending of children and doing house-work exercise those very muscles which are most important to womanhood; while neglecting to exercise the arms and trunk causes dangerous debility in most delicate organs.
Our early mothers worked and trained their daughters to work, and thus became healthy, energetic, and cheerful. But in these days, young girls, in the wealthy classes, do not use the muscles of their body and arms in domestic labor or in any other way. Instead of this, study and reading stimulate the brain and nerves to debility by excess, while the muscles grow weak for want of exercise. Thus the whole constitution is weakened.
and girls. At the same time vast numbers are without honorable compensating employment, so that in the wealthy circles unmarried women suffer from aimless vacuity, and in the poorer classes from unrequited toil and consequent degradation and vice.
It is believed that the remedy for all these evils is not in leading women into the professions and business of men, by which many philanthropists are now aiming to remedy their sufferings, but to train woman properly for her own proper business, and then to secure to her the honor and profit which men gain in their professions.
A young man finds endowed institutions all over the land, offering a home and a good salary for life for teaching only one or two branches to only one class for one or two hours a day. Is there any reason why his highly-educated sister should not have similar opportunities if she does not marry or is a widow?
The public and private high schools have filled the country with women of high culture. The unequal distribution of the sexes and a dreadful war must enforce a single life on many thousands. Many are widows with families; many others would gladly rear the orphan children of relatives and friends or of our slaughtered heroes. Why should not such have as good advantages to do so as if they were men?
Each department of woman's profession is a science and art as much as law, medicine, or divinity. They are equal also in importance. Why should they not be equally honored by a liberal course of training and competent emolu
In consequence of this there is a universal ment?
When men seek to elevate their own profession they endow professorships so as to secure men of the highest culture to study and teach it as a science and art.
To raise it to an honored art and science, endowments have been given to sustain men of culture and learning to lecture, practice, and teach; and now this business is taking rank as an honorable and remunerative profession.
qualified for such domestic duties, could soon command prices equal to artists in music, dancing, and drawing, and an equal social position. To secure all this, there needs only system
At one time the farmer's profession was with-atic plans and efforts such as American women out skill, honor, or liberal reward. are fully competent to organize and carry into successful operation. Institutions should be established where women will be trained to be scientific, healthful, and economical cooks; to be intelligent, loving, and careful nurses of young children; to be skillful seamstresses and mantua-makers, and yet prepared so to aid in the active family work as not to injure their health by exclusive sedentary employments.
So, too, there should be institutions to educate women not only as physicians for their own sex, but to be skillful and tender nurses of the sick. And when all these important offices of
Let woman's profession be thus honored and its disgrace would speedily be ended. Let endowed institutions be provided to sustain women of high culture to study, practice, and teach all the branches included in woman's profession properly. Let each of our large cities and towns have at least one institution so endowed, and then there would be created a liberal pro-women are filled, and our school-rooms well fession for highly-cultivated women suited to their nature, and meeting the wants of those who are unmarried or widowed; such a profession as their brothers and fathers now enjoy as college professors in educating men.
supplied, there will be few women remaining to urge into the professions of men.
This project will, of course, be met with the inquiry, How can this kind of training be carried on in schools? Is it not the part that belongs to mothers in the family, and not to the school?
Woman's business being thus honored and taught in the higher institutions the lower schools would follow, and thus women of the To this it is replied that mothers have not poorer classes also would be properly trained been trained themselves, and so can not teach for their proper business. And when thus properly. Moreover, with poor servants, feeble trained they would find abundant and compen-health, and multiplied cares, they can not do it. sating employment; for the universal complaint If a house is built for servants, and servants of all who try to find employment for poor wo-employed, it is as much as a woman can do to men is, that they are not trained to do any kind of woman's work properly, and that this is the fatal difficulty.*
There is as much need for training women for the distinctive duties of the family as there is of training boys for their different trades. A housekeeper or a cook, who has been taught to economize in using and preserving family stores and fuel, can supply a table at half the expense incurred by an untrained, inexperienced hand.
A properly trained nurse for young children would relieve a mother of half her care as to the health and training of her children; while an ignorant, unfaithful one rather adds to her responsibilities.
A well-educated, gentle, and faithful nurse for the sick is a treasure in any community as rare as it is valuable.
superintend all the complicated duties of wife, mother, and housekeeper, without attempting to teach what she herself never was properly taught to do. Moreover, when there are servants enough to do the work, the daughters of a family can not be made to take their places. How can the parents turn off the servants and put the daughters in their places? Every mother who superintends a family of children and servants in the present style of living in the more wealthy classes, will say it is impossible for her to train her daughters properly in all branches of woman's business.
But whatever ought to be can be done, and American women, if they undertake, can discover the best way.
Queen Victoria set up schools for young women to be trained not only to read and write, but to perform all the work of woman in a thorough and proper manner. Her nobility followed her example, and with success.
A woman of education and refinement who can cut and fit dresses, make bonnets, make and mend all household stuffs economically, and American women can do the same, and in a at the same time help in cooking, and in keep-way adapted to our democratic system, as the ing chambers and parlors in tasteful order, is a Queen's is adapted to the aristocratic. In an treasure that wealth rarely can command at any aristocracy it is assumed that one class is to price. work for the benefit and enjoyment of an upper Women of good sense and culture, if highly class. In a democracy it is assumed that every A lady at the head of one of the largest mantua-mak-class is to work for their own welfare and ening establishments in New York, employing over one hundred and fifty women and girls, informed the writer that her greatest difficulty is in finding women taught to work properly, and that, in her finishing-room, of twenty-five of her best hands not more than four could be trusted to complete and send off a dress without her standing by to
joyment. In an aristocracy work is dishonored, in a democracy it is honored. In an aristocracy it is assumed as a distinctive mark of rank not to work, but to live to be waited on and worked for by a subordinate class. In a democracy it is assumed that both rich and poor
are to work, and that to live a life of idle pleasure is disgraceful.
When, therefore, the attempt is made to introduce industrial training into our schools, we are simply aiming to carry out practically the true democratic principle.
But there is a still higher aim. It will be found that the democratic principle is no other than the grand law of Christianity, which requires work and self-sacrifice for the public good, to which all private interests are to be subordinate.
Children are to be trained to live not for themselves but for others; not to be waited on and taken care of, but to wait on and take care of others; to work for the good of others as the first thing, and amusement and self-enjoyment as necessary but subordinate to the highest public good. The family is the first commonwealth where this training is to be carried on, and only as a preparation for a more enlarged sphere of
Jesus Christ came to set the example of selfsacrificing labor for the good of our race; and family training and school training are democratic and Christian only when the great principle of living for others more than for self is fully recognized and carried out.
It is clear that great changes are to be made in all the customs and habits of our nation, especially among the wealthy, before the true democratic and Christian principle will triumph over the aristocratic and unchristian.
by simply educating them properly for their proper business.
Many wealthy ladies would as readily endow institutions for their own sex as for men, were they aware of what might thus be accomplished. Few know what woman has done to aid men in elevating their professions. To gain authentic information on this point, the writer wrote to the Treasurers of only six colleges and professional schools, and gained these facts: Miss Plummer, to Cambridge University, to endow one professorship, gave... Mary Townsend, for the same...................................... Sarah Jackson, ditto Other ladies, in sums over $1000, to the same, To Andover Professional School of Theology ladies have given over
And of this $30,000 by one lady.
Illinois, Mrs. Garretson has given to one Pro
In Albany, Mrs. Dudley has given for a Scientific
Institution for men..
To Beloit College, Wisconsin, property has been
Thus half a million has been given by women to these six Colleges and Professional Schools, and all in the present century. The reports of similar institutions for men all over the nation would show similar liberal benefactions of women to endow institutions for the other sex, while for their own no such records appear. Where is there a single endowment from a woman to secure a salary to a woman teaching her
One of these changes will be in the style of own proper profession? house building.
When houses are built on Christian principles women of wealth and culture will work themselves, and train their children to work, instead of having ignorant foreigners to ruin their food in a filthy kitchen, and ruin their children in the nursery.
When houses are built to honor woman's profession, and to secure the beauty, order, and comfort of a perfected house, the kitchen, as it usually exists, will be banished. Instead of the dark and comfortless room for family work, there will be one provided with sunlight and pure air, and well supplied with utensils and comforts in tasteful and convenient forms., So woman's dress will be not only neat and convenient but tasteful, as much so in the working-room as in the parlor.
Woman's work will be honorable and tasteful and agreeable when cultivated women undertake to make it so.
And when women of refinement and culture build houses on the Christian and democratic plan, work themselves, and train their children to work, they will never suffer for want of domestic helpers. Instead of coarse and vulgar servants, who live in the cellar and sleep in the garret, they will have refined and sympathizing friends to train their children, nurse their sick, and share in all their comforts, joys, and sor
American women have abundant power to remedy all the wrongs and miseries of their sex,
But a time will come when women will give as liberally to elevate the true profession of women as the ministers of home, as they have to elevate the professions of men.
The remainder of this article will give drawings and descriptions to illustrate one house constructed on democratic and Christian principles. It is designed for persons in easy circumstances, who begin housekeeping with the true Christian idea of training a young family to work as well as to practice all the other social and domestic virtues.
Every family, as the general rule, includes the parents as the educators, and the children to be trained to Christian life. To these are added aged parents or infirm and homeless relatives.
These are preserved in life after their active usefulness ceases, and often when they would gladly depart, for the special benefit of the young, as the only mode in which, in early life, they can be trained to self-sacrificing benevolence, to reverence for the aged, and to tender sympathy for the sick and unfortunate. Instead of regarding such members of a family as a burden and annoyance, the wise and Christian parents will welcome them as suffering helpers aiding to develop the highest Christian virtues in their children.
This house is planned for a family of ten or twelve, which may be regarded as the average number in healthy families.
The site is a dry spot with a cellar well drained, in an open space, where the health
giving sun falls on every part, and the house so placed that the rooms in common use shall have the sun all day.
A form nearest a square best secures sunlight, perfect ventilation, and economical arrangement. Every projection increases expense and diminishes the chances of sunlight, proper warming, and ventilation.
The close packing of conveniences, so as to save time and steps, and contrivances to avoid the multiplication of rooms to be furnished, cleaned, and kept in order, is indispensable to economy of time, labor, and expense. In many large kitchens, with various closets, half the time of a cook is employed in walking to collect her utensils and materials, which all might be placed together.
The plan given above is rather a hint to be farther wrought out than a completed effort. The house is fifty by thirty on the outside (excluding the projections of the back and front entrance). It faces south, giving to the two large rooms the sun all day.
The entrance hall is finished with oiled chestnut and black walnut mouldings, being handsomer, cheaper, and easier to keep in order than painted wood. All the inner doors of the hall finished with Gothic arches to correspond with the outside door. Niches for busts and flowers, each side of the front-door, with small closets under the niches for over-shoes and
Small windows open
on one side to the conservatory, and on the other to the veranda. A close staircase, and under it a large closet for overgarments.
When the house has bathrooms and water-closets in the second story there is no need of back stairs. But if they are desired, a narrow flight can descend from the broad stair to the back entry by giving up the recess and the closet of the Family Room.
The East Room, called the Family Room, is for the family eating and sitting room. A working room should always have the pleasant morning sun. It is 18 feet square, and opens with sliding-doors to the cooking-stove A, cooking closet B, with the cooking-form. In the drawing of the cooking closet, given below, is an illustration of the
close packing of conveniences.
In front of the window is the cooking-form. The door, F, admits a barrel of flour, and a lid on the top, G, is to raise when using flour. In the barrel a scoop and sieve. On the left of this is the moulding-board C, where bread is made, and other articles for baking prepared on a board which may be turned on one side for cooking, and the other side for other uses. Next to the flour closet are large drawers, the under ones running on rollers, in which are stored the Indian and Graham flour, the rye, tapioca, rice, etc., and two kinds of sugar used in cooking. On front and at the side are shelves, on which are stored every utensil and every article used in cooking.
Still farther to the left hand of the flour closet is the form, x, for preparing meats and vegetables, on the top a board turned on one side to
VOL. XXXI.-No. 186.-3 B