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Some from the green-house ranged exotics round,
To bask in open day on English ground;
And 'midst them in a line of splendour drew
Long wreaths and garlands, gathered in the dew,
Some spread the snowy canvas, propp'd on high
O'er sheltered tables with their whole supply.
Some swung the biting scythe with merry face,
And cropp'd the daisies for a dancing space.
Some rolld the mouldy barrel in his might,
from prison'd darkness into cheerful light,
And fenc'd him round with cans; and others bore
The creaking hamper with its costly store,
Well cork’d, well flavour'd, and well tax'd, that came
From Lusitanian mountains, dear to fame,
Whence Gama steer'd and led the conquering way
To eastern triumphs and the realms of day.
A thousand minor tasks fill'd every hour,
Till the sun gain'd the zenith of his power,
When every path was throng’d with old and young,
And many a sky-lark in his strength upsprung
To bid them welcome. Not a face was there
But for May.day at least had banished care.
No cringing looks, no pauper tales to tell,
No timid glance: they knew their host too well.
Freedom was there, and joy in every eye.

Such scenes were England's boast in days gone by.' Of the songs and recitals, we have been best pleased with “ The Soldier's Home,” and “ Alfred and Jennet." The latter is a very simple and interesting little tale, written to shew that it is not impossible for a blind man to fall in love.' It is so much the best thing in the volume, that we hardly do justice to the Author in not giving an extract from it; but we could not detach any passage from the narrative without disadvantage.

Art. VIII. Reflections on Gall and Spurzheim's System of Physiog

nomy and Phrenology. Addressed to the Court of Assistants of the Royal College of Surgeons, in London, in June 1821. By John

Abernethy, F.R.S. 8vo. pp. 75. London. 1821. THE "HERE is no erroneous doctrine or theory which has for any

length of time obtained an extensive currency, but will be found to have been indebted for its success to some portion of truth imbodied in it. And the force of truth is in nothing more manifest, than in its procuring a reception for the errors in which it is enveloped. `Had the speculations of Spurzheim been wholly baseless and unreasonable, had he been not simply a theorist but an impostor, no argument would have been necessary to disprove his Craniological reveries, Nor would even

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is a question for after-consideration. That they le brute, is a familiar fact: in them they assume the

a salutary and often astonishing instinot. And man, on with the animal creation, is the subject of various ions of what, in him also, we recognize as instióct. e of a mother for her infant, and the principle of n in children, are unequivocal exhibitions of instinctive ity. And these propensities, though common to the , yet exist in different individuals, in various degrees. perate without the influence of reason; (for this is our of instinct :) yet, in man, they are susceptible of being ted by reason; a circumstance which sufficiently discri es the rational subject of such propensities from the brute 11. Now, there is nothing irrational, nothing necessarily atory to either the dignity or the free agency of man, in supposition, that he may possess other instinctive and nt propensities in common with the brutes, besides those to h we have adverted; for instance, a strong propensity to ruct things, and an aptitude for such employment, a prosity to combat,-or to hoard ; that he may possess partial ndividual propensities besides those which are common to jan nature. Such predispositions make their appearance y early, and we call them turns of mind. We have seen int mechanics, infant arithmeticians, infant heroes. The ks of hereditary temper and disposition also are discernible he earliest stage of mental development. Whether these ngs are indicated by knobs or lines, or not, they exist, and y soon be detected. l'he causes which determine the instinctive propensities of

brute, are not less mysterious than those which originate milar constitutional tendencies in man. There seems no reason doubt that organization has much to do with them. Organiion is at least a collateral cause, as it is adapted to the Culiar instincts of different animals, Yet, Mr. Abernethy -tly remarks that, as in the instance of the propensity to conict in birds and insects, le occasional, perhaps annual recurrence of this propensity, renders it able that it is not organization merely which creates it, but tbat it s from temporary actions occurring in peculiarly organized parts; he rare occurrence of this instinct shews how long such actions may pended so as to render organization of no effect. admitting (then) that man, like animals, possesses in various degrees ral propensity and talent for construction, yet, no blind impulse 's his labours; he constructs what his reason directs, or his fancy *; he forms previous plans or designs, and alters them till the

ms to-accord with his intentions ; sand yet, none of his works his acknowledged abilities, his professional eminence, and the benevolence and candour which distinguish his character, have long rescued assumptions wholly gratuitous from the contempt of all men of science. There can be no doubt that Dr. Spurzheim was actuated by a genuine and not unintelligent enthusiasm; and he thought that he had collected facts sufficient to warrant the inferences he deduced from them. We give him full credit for believing that he had new and important information to communicate relative to the nature of man; and we wholly acquit him of any insidious intention. Between the doctrine of knobs or bumps and an atheistic Materialism, there is no more necessary connexion than between the physiognomical speculations of the amiable and pious Lavater, and the doctrine of a mechanical Necessity. We admit with Mr. Abernethy, that much mischief might arise from a persuasion on the part of an individual, that he had such and such protuberances, which rendered certain tendencies irresistible. But Dr, Spurzheim no where maintains that physical tendencies are irresistible. A more rational line of conduct on the part of the believer in Craniology, who should discover in himself any knobs of bad omen, would be, to direct all his efforts to the watchful and sedulous counteraction of that organic propensity. Again, Mr. Abernethy objects, that

• If an unbenevolent and inconsiderate man who bad never studied human nature, were at once to decide from the form of the head, and suspect or believe all those who happen to be broad across the temples, of being covetous or crafty, he would surely injuriously mistake the character of many persons.'

But this objection would equally apply to physiognomy. A man's misapplying its rules, does not prove that those rules have no foundation in nature, but only that they are liable to misapplication. Since, however, it is native tendencies only, which either the lines of the face or the inequalities on the surface of the cranium are supposed to indicate, the man who should peremptorily decide on another's character, (that character which is the complex result of temperament, education, social habits, and moral discipline,) from the physical propensities of the individual merely, leaving all the other circumstances out of consideration, would but discover a craniological deficiency, not to say, a moral defect, in himself.

Leaving the doctrines of Lavater and of Spurzheim out of the question, the existence of certain intellectual and animal propensities in different individuals, cannot, we think, be rationally, questioned. In what part of the organization these propensities reside, or by what, if by any, external signs they are

- Indicated, is a question for after-consideration. That they

exist in the brute, is a familiar fact: in them they assume the : shape of a salutary and often astonishing instinot. And man,

in common with the animal creation, is the subject of various modifications of what, in him also, we recognize as instinct. The love of a mother for her infant, and the principle of imitation in children, are unequivocal exhibitions of instinctive propensity. And these propensities, though common to the species, yet exist in different individuals, in various degrees. They operate without the influence of reason; (for this is our notion of instinct ;) yet, in man, they are susceptible of being regulated by reason; a circumstance which sufficiently discria minates the rational subject of such propensities from the brute animal. Now, there is nothing irrational, nothing necessarily derogatory to either the dignity or the free agency of man, in the supposition, that he may possess other instinctive and urgent propensities in common with the brutes, besides those to which we have adverted; for instance, a strong propensity to construct things, and an aptitude for such employment, a propensity to combat,-or to hoard ; that he may possess partial or individual propensities besides those which are common to human nature. Such predispositions make their appearance very early, and we call them turns of mind. We have seen infant mechanics, infant arithmeticians, infant heroes. The marks of hereditary temper and disposition also are discernible in the earliest stage of mental development. Whether these things are indicated by knobs or lines, or not, they exist, and may soon be detected.

The causes which determine the instinctive propensities of the brute, are not less mysterious than those which originate similar constitutional tendencies in man. There seems no reason to doubt that organization has much to do with them. Organization is at least a collateral cause, as it is adapted to the peculiar instincts of different animals, Yet, Mr. Abernethy justly remarks that, as in the instance of the propensity to construct in birds and insects,

the occasional, perhaps annual recurrence of this propensity, renders it probable that it is not organization merely which creates it, but that it arises from temporary actions occurring in peculiarly organized parts; and the rare occurrence of this instinct shews how long such actions may be suspended so as to render organization of no effect.

• Admitting (then) that man, like animals, possesses in various degrees a natural propensity and talent for construction, yet, no blind impulse regulates bis labours; he constructs what his reason directs, or bistancy

he forms previous plans or designs, and alters them- till the twhole seems to accord with his intentious ; and yet, bone of his works

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