Imatges de pÓgina
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expenses of the ten Madegasse youths who were to be sent to England. The treaty was accordingly agreed on, a cabar con vened, the proclamation issued, and despatches forwarded to the different districts, to put an entire stop to the selling of slaves for exportation. Thousands of natives were assembled round the palace,' awaiting, in anxious suspense, the determi, nation of the conference. As soon as the happy result was announced, and the British flag hoisted in union with that of Madagascar, a burst of transport,' says the Narrator, the • spontaneous tribute of a grateful and feeling, people to their • monarch for the gift of liberty, shook the palace, and over

powered the thunder of the cannon which were firing on the 6 hill. The slaves who had been conveyed to the coast, were, on the promulgation of the treaty, sent back into the interior, to be employed in husbandry and domestic services; and such, it is added, was the vigilance of the officers appointed superintend the observance of the proclamation, that not a slave was sold or sent out of the country, and the European

slave-dealers were constrained to retire confounded and dis6 mayed at their disappointment.'

A few days after, the selection took place of the young persons to be sent to England and the Mauritius for education. A great competition ensued as to whose children should have the king's permission to go, it being considered a very high honour. Such was the eagerness manifested, that one person said he would give three thousand dollars for permission to send his child.“ Well,” said the king, "give me fifteen hundred and he shall go.' After a little hesitation, the man answered he would give that sum. “ Well,” rejoined the king," as you are in earnest, and sincere in your request, he shall go for nothing." The selection was made from amongst the children of the richest and most respectable people in the capital. Princes Rataffe and Endrian Semisate, brothers-in-law to Radama, were deputed to conduct these youths to their destination ; the former to England, and the latter to the Mauritius.

The Madegasse youths who accompanied Prince Rataffe to this country, are at present under the care of the British and Foreign School Society. When they have completed their education, they are to be placed under proper masters, to be instructed in various trades and manufactures. Immediately after the affair of the Slave-trade had been disposed of, Mr. Jones, the nature of whose mission had been previously explained by Mr. Hastie, was admitted to a conference with the king. Radama assured him, that he had nothing so much at heart as the instruction of his people, and requested him to inform the Directors of the Missionary Society, that his pro;

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bongo tection and support should be extended to any missionaries they might think proper to send. sauganet tredenog turiSBE slag te Help me," said he, « to enlighten and civilize my subjects, and you will for ever bind me to the British nation." The Queen-mother also assured Mr. Hastie, that this alone was the basis of the treaty just concluded. Had money," said she, « been the object, I would never have agreed to it; but I will now support the plan with all my might."

Os 296 In August last, the Directors of the Missionary Society sent out the Rev. Mr. Jefferies in the quality of missionary, with

four other persons as mechanics. Mr. Jones also continues to reside at the court of Radama, and has sixteen children placed under his care by the king, for the purpose of receiving an English education, among whom is the heir apparent. The British Government, with a liberality that does them honour, have declined interfering with the views and proceedings of the Missionary Society. It is greatly to the credit of Radama, that while he is perfectly willing that his subjects should be instructed in the Christian religion, and declares that he has himself no faith in the superstitions of his country, he is peculiarly anxious that no violence should be offered to the re"ligious prejudices of his people, and has no idea of exerting his royal authority to compel them to become converted. Un der these favourable circumstances has Christianity obtained an introduction into this vast island, one of the largest in the world, having the patronage of the king and his nobles, not, remarks the Writer, as a matter of court policy, as is too fre

quently the case in polished nations, but in the honest simplicity and sincerity of their hearts, because they are con

vinced of its superiority over their present system of res ligion.'

regiated: 3338 » What effect the example of Radama may have on other African states, it is impossible to say. To have annihilated one depôt of slaves, and to have proved the practicability of abolishing the traffic by the introduction of civilization, are great points gained. One of the first results of the efforts of the Missionaries will be, we may reasonably présume, the cessation of infanticide, which has hitherto prevailed, under the direction of their magicians, or astrologers, to a horrid extent; the fate of the new-born infant being determined by the aspect of the planets or some other omen, or by the lucky or unlucky cha

raeter of the month or day of the month, on which it is born. The superstitions of the Madagasses are, in many respects, peculiar. Their

religion appears to be a sort of mongrel Mohammedanism, either derived from the Arabs with whom they have


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Copland's History of Madagascar. காpiaaila aம் been in constant intercourse, or grafted on some more ancient traditional faith. Circumcision is practised among them universally; and the rite is celebrated with great solemnity. This circumstance, together with the appellation by which one class of the natives are distinguished, of Zafe Hibrahim, or descendants of Abraham, is the foundation of the opinion which

ascribes the origin of the Madagasses to the Jewish nation. But Mr. Copland remarks, that there is no other point of similarity between either their religious or their civil habits, and those of the Jews; they have neither customs, traditions,

rites, nor ceremonies sufficiently analogous to justify the * hypothesis ; and there are some points of marked contrai riety. They make no use of any animals as beasts of burthen, and have no kind of vehicle on wheels.


The use of letters, too, was unknown till within the last three hundred and fifty years, when it was introduced into some of the provinces by the Arabs who eonquered the Island. And, to conclude this negative evidence, the language which

is spoken universally throughout the Island, (with only a provincial difference,) bears no analogy to the

Hebrew, but is “a mixture of Arabic and Greek, being agreeable to the 1 latter in the manner of speaking, in the order and conjunction of nouns

and verbs active, and in being extremely copious.". ... The learning of h the Island is principally confined to the Ombiasses (or magicians), and ed the Arabic character is the only one in use with them. These were in#troduced by the Zafe Ramini; (or Rahimini ; that is, children of Imina,

the mother of Mahommed, from whom they boast of having descended ;)

they are twenty-four in number, written from the right to the left, but the pronunciation of some of them differs from that of the Arabic??

Besides the two distinct races above mentioned, the Zafe Ramin, and the Zafe Hibrahim, both of which are whites, and the former of which, at least, is an intrusive race, there are 'the indigenous blacks, who are supposed to be the aborigines. These are divided into four classes, the first of whom, the Voad

ziri, are said to trace their origin to the ancient sovereigns of sa the Island. Their wealth in slaves and cattle is considerable,

and they retain the possession of several villages. Although superseded in the sovereignty by the race of Ramini, the natives still hold them in veneration. The lowest class, the Ondeves, are slaves by extraction, and are kept in entire subjection,—the Pariahs of the social system.

There can be no doubt that these several races are of distinct origin, Some of the olive-coloured natives, who are of small stature, with lank, smooth hair, bear a strong resemblance to the


NY * Their colour is stated to be similar to that of the Egyptians and the Abyssinians : some, however, are copper-coloured, but the greater num. ber. ace of an olive colour..


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Malay Indians. These probably are the class referred to as having sprung from the sailors who came over with the Zafe Rakimini,' or from the ancient pirates, and as subsisting chiefly by fishing. Others' are described as tall and well proportioned, with crisped locks, large and beautiful eyes, an easy carriage, and an open, unreserved countenance, their

colour nearly black,' and as differing but little from the natives on the Malabar Coast. The Anacandrians, a branch of the Zafe Ramini, are distinguished by long hair, hanging down in curls, and by a reddish complexion. The woolly hair of the blacks marks their affinity to the Caffres, or Mozambiques. In the language, M. de Pagés thought he perceived some inflexions of voice which occur in that of the Philippine Isles. It has also received a mixture of Portuguese. The probability is, that the Island, if it was not originally, as some have supposed, sa part of the Continent, was peopled from the opposite coast, "and that the Whites,' are all of Asiatic extraction. Their traditions, their notion of a day of rest, the abhorrence of swine's flesh, and other peculiarities of the Zafe Hibrahim, their necre mancy and astromancy, as well as their written language, may all, perhaps, be referred to the Arabs and the Moors, and chiefly to the comparatively modern colony of the Zafe-Ramini; one class of whom, it is remarkable, is called Ontampassemaca, or people from the sandy deserts of Mecca.?

Mr. Copland's “ history" is a very respectable compilation, and contains more information on the subject than could be obtained from any one previous work. He has spared no pains in collecting

materials, and the works from which he has drawn most of his information, are but little known to general readers. His chief authorities are, Flacourt's History of Madagascar; M. de V's Voyage to Madagascar; Voyages of the Dutch East India Company; Drury's Narrative; Rochon's Voyage; Benyowsky's Memoirs ; Wadstrom’s Essay on Colonization; and the Missionary Accounts. M. de Pagés, whose

Travels 'round the World" contain a very full description of the Madagasses, is not referred to; and we suppose that M. Copland had not seen the work. Mr. C. states the Island to be 900 miles long from North to South, and 300 broad in its widest part. De Pagés gives its length as about 900, and its breadth 100. Pinkerton, who chiefly follows Rochon, states its * length to be about 840 G. miles by about 220 of medial breadth,

and describes it as abounding with grand and beautiful scenery. Mr. Copland's professed object is, to excite a more gene: ral interest on behalf of the people who have, in so remarkable a manner, placed themselves under the protection, or rather, • tuition of Great Britain.' This interest, their history cannot fail to inspire, and the volume will be found by no means deficient in entertainment.

Art, Vil. An Account of the Abipones, an Equestrian People of Paraguay

From the Latin of Martin Dobrizhoffer, In 3 Volumes. 8vo. pp. 1300. Price 11. 16s. London, 1822.

ice 11. 165

. THIS publication has, we believe arisen out of Mr. Southey's it, voluminous and valuable, though somewhat heavy history of the Brazils. It contains the text and commentary of an eighteen years residence in the capacity of a Jesuit missionary, among the savage inhabitants of South America, and while it bears some rather fatiguing marks of the lengthy and undiscriminating garrulity of an old man, pleasantly occupied in renewing the recollections of his past labours, it is, on the whole, an interesting book, containing much novel and amusing information respecting the habits and impulses of savage life, and throwing considerable light on the character and distribution of the interior tribes of Paraguay. --- The Writer was, as far as personal knowledge and experience might be concerned, well furnished for the business of de<scription; since he had been long and intimately conversant with the individuals and the localities which are the subjects of his narrative. He was born at Gratz in Styria, on the 7th of September, 1717. At the age of nineteen, he was admitted ; into the order of the Jesuits; that 'injured society, whose extinction, in the opinion of Mr. Southey, (if the superintendence of this publication be rightly ascribed to him,) was, so

unjust and impolitic. We shall take the liberty of questioning if it were either, Impolitic it was not, either on the part of the monarchs whose authority was endangered by the Jesuitic institute, or on that of the Pope, who yielded only to a more urgent and imperious policy than that which dissuaded from the disbanding of his Janizaries. Unjust it can appear only to those who are either unacquainted with the morality of the Jesuits, or determined resolutely to close their eyes to the spirit and tendency of the system by which the movements of the order were controlled and directed.

In (1749, Martin Dobrizhoffer was sent, on a mission to South America. He was first stationed in the Guarany Reductions, and afterwards among the Abipones; a wild race by whom the advantages of civilization were as yet but imperfectly recognised. When the Jesuits were expelled from the Spanish colonies, he returned to Europe, and resided at Vienna until his death in July, 1791. He is said to have been much in the favour of Maria Theresa, who used frequently to send for him, that she might hear from his own lips the details of his allventurous life. Thus qualified, he published, in 1784, the Latin original of these volumes, with a

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