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which the Diet was held at Worms. Sapidus had once nine hundred scholars, some finely instructed fellows, who afterwards became doctors and celebrated men.
Now, when I went to school here, I knew little, could not even read Donatus, and yet was eighteen years old ; so I seated myself among the little children, like an owl among chickeus. One day Sapidus read a list of his scholars, and spoke : “I have many barbara nomina, and I must make them Latin.” And when he read the new names afresh, he had converted me into Thomas Platerus, and my comrade, Anthony Venetz, into Antonius Venetus, and said, “Who are these two ?”
When we stood up, he said, “Fie! those are two scabby sheep, and yet have such fine names.
After staying here from autumn to Whitsuntide, and still more scholars came in from every side, we could no longer support ourselves comfortably, and so went to Solothurn. There was a tolerably good school and better food, but we had too much time to waste in the church, and therefore went home.
The next spring I left my country again with two brothers. When we took leave of the mother, she wept, and said, “ God be merciful to me, that I should see three sons going into misery!" I never saw my mother cry before, for she was a brave, manly woman, but rough ; otherwise honest, pious, and industrious, as every one said of her, and praised her.
So I came to Zurich, and went to the school at the Frauenmünster; the preceptor was Master Wolfgang Knöwel, from Bar, near Zug, master of the University at Paris, where he had been christened “Le Grand Diable." He was a tall, upright man, but cared little about the school, for he spent his time looking after the pretty girls. But I would will. ingly have studied, for I was beginning to see that it was high time.
About this time it was said that a schoolmaster would come from Einsiedel, a learned and faithful man, but cruelly whimsical. pared myself a seat in a corner not far from the schoolmaster's chair, and thought: “In that corner thou wilt study or die.” When my good father Myconius walked in, he said, “ This is a handsome school” (it had recently been rebuilt), “but I fancy they are clumsy lads ; well, we shall see, there is nothing like industry." I know that, if it had cost me my life, I could not bave declined a word of the first declension, and yet I knew Donatus by heart, for when I was at Schlettstadt, Sapidus had a bachelor who bothered the Bachants so with Donatus, that I thought, “ If that is so good a book, thou wilt learn it by heart;" and, by repeatedly reading it, I did so. This did me a service with Father My. conius : he read Terence to us, and we were obliged to decline and conjugate every word in a whole comedy, and he often bullied me so that my shirt was wet through; but he never beat me, except once with the back of his hand on the cheek.
Myconius was obliged to go with his scholars to church at Our Lady's Cathedral, sing vespers, and mass, and regulate the choir. Thus he said once to me,
“Custos, I would sooner give four lectures than sing a bass. My dear boy, represent me sometimes when low masses, requiems, &c., are sung, and I will pay you.” I was satisfied with this, for I was used to it already, and everything was still arranged in the papal fashion. As
So I pre
Custos, I had often no wood for firing, so I paid attention which of the laymen who came to the school had wood lying before their houses, and went there at midnight, and carried wood secretly to the school. One morning I had no wood. Zwingli was going to preach before daybreak, and when the bell rang, I thought, “ Thou hast no wood, and yet there are so many images in the church about which no one cares. So I went to the nearest altar, seized a St. John, and shoved him into the school stove, saying, “ Jögli, look out ! thou must go through purgatory." When he began to burn, the paint made a terrible crackling. I thought to myself, “ Keep quiet; if you stir, which you won't do, I shall shut the stove door. You shan't come out unless the devil fetch you.” In the mean while came Frau Myconius, who was going to the sermon, and said as she passed, “God grant thee a good day, my child. Hast thou filled the stove ?" I closed the door of the stove, and said, “ Yes, mother, I have warmed up;” but I would not tell her how, for fear she might gossip, and, had it come out, it would have cost me my life at that time. And Myconius said during the lecture, “ Custos, thou hast had good wood to-day.” But when we were going to sing the mass, two priests began quarrelling, and the one to whom the John had belonged said to the other, “Thou rogue, thou hast stolen my John." And so they went on for a good while.
So far Thomas Platter. For a long time his struggle with life went on. He was obliged to learn the trade of ropemaker, so as to gain a living. He studied during the night, and when the printer Kratander, of Basle, presented him with a copy of “Plautus,” he fastened it to his frame and read while at work. Afterwards, he became reader, then citizen, printer, and rector of the Latin school at Basle. Still his irregular life had a permanent effect on his behaviour, although most industrious. All his undertakings wanted energy and
perseverance. Among the thousands who, like the lad Thomas, proceeded to the Latin schools, the new movement gained its most zealous novices. These children of the people were indefatigable in bearing new and fresh ideas from house to house. Many of them could not proceed to the universities, but sought their livelihood as private teachers and readers to the printers. The majority of the town and village schools were filled with such lads, who read Virgil, and understood the bitter humour of the letter de miseriâ plebanorum. So large did their number grow, that the Reformers soon gave them the earnest advice to learn a trade and support themselves honourably. And not a few guilds were thus enabled to supply glossaries to the papal bulls, and subtle theological questions were passionately discussed in their rooms. Enormous was the influence that such men exercised over the lower classes. Ere long these роог
scholars spread through Germany as preachers, and paved the way for the Reformation by representing the Pope as Antichrist in the popular plays, holding speeches in the camps of the insurrectionist peasants, or by inditing pamphlets, songs, and coarse dialogues which assailed the old Church.
THE STORY OF FRANCESCO NOVELLO DA CARRARA.
AN EPISODE IN ITALIAN HISTORY.
V. VENICE, with a subtlety very far from foreign to her nature, had supplied Carrara with money and arms to regain his rights, whilst outwardly she pretended to observe her neutrality. The fear of Giovanni Galeazzo had driven the republic to favour the son of a prince they had aided to destroy. It was for the protection of Venice against Milan that they rejoiced with Carrara in his success. His reinstalment in Padua was a step towards retrieving the grievous error they had originally committed, and they saw its accomplishment with joy. The outwork between them and Galeazzo was again raised, and it was for their interest to aid Carrara to retain what he now held in his possession.
Anxious to encourage friendly relations with Venice, and ignorant, perhaps, of the full extent of the selfishness of their policy, Carrara repaired in the spring of 1392 to Venice, that he might return thanks in person for the valuable aid he had received in a moment of such critical importance to himself. On his arrival at Fusina, he was greeted by the Bucentaur, and
conducted to the capital by the gondolas of numerous noblemen.
The Doge Veniero was awaiting his landing upon the Piazzetta, and when Carrara perceived him, he advanced, leading his eldest son by the hand, and cast himself upon his knees before the Doge, giving vent to his feelings of deep gratitude for the assistance he had already received at the hand of Venice, and expressing his ardent hope that all bygone offences had been forgotten, and that ancient animosities should never be revived. He implored the seigniory to receive him and his family as their children, and expressed in flowing language the duty and the love he felt for them, even as that which a son feels for a father!
Veniero raised him, and embraced him affectionately; then conducting him to the palace, he delivered a most gracious answer from the throne, which fully coincided with Carrara's desires.
Some days were spent in festivity, and Carrara was treated with every mark of distinction, which was calculated to assure him of the good will of the republic. He then returned to Padua, and, feeling secure in his position for the first time since his re-establishment, he sent for the Lady Taddea to join him, that she might share the luxury which was once more his.
A reconciliation had taken place between the Houses of Padua and Milan, but Carrara had not been able to obtain his father's release, and he remembered with alarm the prediction of the sibyl, whose strange power in foretelling events seemed attested by all that had happened to him since that time, when he had been induced to consult her.
Carrara might well fear, for her last, most direful prophecy, was even then about to be accomplished.
Francesco Vecchio fell ill, and in spite, or perhaps in consequence, of five physicians in attendance upon him, he died on the 6th of October, 1393. Suspicion was very naturally aroused by this somewhat sudden death. Poison had so often freed Giovanni Galeazzo of his prisoners, that it is not difficult to conclude that the magical liquors employed by these skilful physicians contained in their ingredients the surest means of ridding their patient of all earthly ills.
Galeazzo, when informed of the death of his victim, ordered that his body should be embalmed, and that it should lie in state at Milan. It was accordingly removed under an escort of sixty horsemen arrayed in black, and carrying banners and huge wax-lights. They arrived in due time at Milan, where the body, after having been splendidly habited in cloth of gold, and girt with a sword, was extended on a bier covered with crimson velvet and lined with vair. This done, some knights of noble descent approached and bore it from the castle to the church, where the corpse of the unfortunate lord was exposed to the gaze
of all, arrayed in mock grandeur, with golden spurs fastened on his feet, and rings shining upon his fingers.
At the urgent demand of Francesco Novello, Giovanni Galeazzo gave permission that the body of his father should be conveyed to Padua, and for this purpose it was deposited in a chest of lead within one of cypress wood. At Piacenza, Carrara had ordered a vessel to be in readiness to receive it, and one was accordingly in waiting covered with black cloth, and having two bishops and a large number of priests on board. The Comte de Vertu, however, had expressly commanded that the body of the elder Carrara should be conveyed as far as Mantua in a vessel provided at his own expense, and it was, therefore, not delivered over to the Paduan bishops till after they had reached that town.
On the 18th of November, and at midnight, the mournful cortege arrived in Padua, and the body of the former lord of the town was deposited in what had once been his palace. Five years of suffering had passed since he last quitted Padua, and now he returned to it an embalmed corpse, surrounded with splendour of which he could know nothing.
The coffin was opened at Carrara's desire, and he took this occasion to address his children in the following manner:
“ This was your grandfather and my father, who was once victorious over others, but who now is himself vanquished."
The funeral of the old lord was of the most sumptuous description, and well calculated to impress the beholders.
Very early on the morning of the 20th, the palace square was filled with expectant citizens dressed in mourning-namely, in long black cloth gowns reaching to the ground. As the appointed hour drew near, and the priests began to issue from the palace, filing off to wait till the procession should move, many an eager neck was stretched out to gain a better view of what was going forward.
First in the procession walked the clergy, and many a dignitary of the Church was there; next came a hundred horsemen in sable housings, some of silk, some of cloth, and all wearing the “del carro” arms.
Each horseman was attended by his squires, and followed by two poor
age, was carried.
persons habited in
and bearing torches. Their banners were either black or white, and from their necks hung their shields, with the same armorial bearings. After these came a mixed crowd carrying waxlights, and close behind them followed Francesco Novello, with downcast head, and evidently suffering deeply. He was habited in black garments.
Francesco Terzo walked with the Venetian ambassadors, Giacomo and Nicolo with those of Florence and Bologna, whilst Ubertino, being only four years
of The body of the ancient lord of Padua was deposited in the chapel of St. John the Baptist, in a sarcophagus of red marble resting on four pillars.
A funeral sermon was preached upon the solemn occasion by Lambertazzi, and an oration written by Zarabolla.
Gataro gives a full account of this magnificent funeral, and appears to dwell upon it with infinite pleasure.
Several years of comparative tranquillity now passed by, and we find little to chronicle relating to the Carrarese. It is the only interval of rest and prosperity which we can recal, and doubtless the unfortunate lord of Padua made the best use he could of it.
The Venetians were fully engaged in a disastrous conflict in the East against Bajazet, the fourth Ottoman sultan, and Giovanni Galeazzo was steadily increasing his power and his magnificence.
Nought but the title of duke would now satisfy his ambition, and the tempting bribe of 100,000 florins soon induced the avaricious Emperor Wenceslaus to raise Milan into a duchy and an imperial fief.
The coronation took place with unwonted splendour on September 5, 1395. Galeazzo invited the ambassadors of all the Italian states to be present on the occasion. Florence, and all who were in league with that republic, sent deputies, and the chroniclers tell us that, besides the
representatives of all the Christian powers, there were those of Bajazet, of the King of Tartary, of the Soldan, of the great Tamerlane, and many others. The expense of their entertainment devolved entirely upon Milan, but in return presents of the most costly description were brought to the newlycreated duke, which were estimated at more than a million of gold.
Carrara's two sons, Francesco Terzo and Giacomo, repaired to the court of Visconti to convey to him the congratulations of their father, and they were received by him with marks of the greatest distinction. He even went so far as to advance ou foot to meet them, and embracing them cordially, he kissed their foreheads, and, taking each by the hand, walked between them to the palace, where they and their train of five hundred horse were most sumptuously lodged.
Such magnificence is quite unknown in later times, but Galeazzo seemed bent upon marking his installation as duke with a splendour and profusion which might long be remembered with awe by the nobility; and we doubt not that it was remembered with pain by his poor subjects, who had to provide out of their indigence for the extravagance of their lord.
The ducal bonnet was placed on the head of Galeazzo with great ceremony by the imperial ministers, and he was declared Duke of Milan. This done, he removed the ponderous ornament from his head, and,