Imatges de pÓgina
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MAP.

The heights of the principal mountains in feet are annexed to their

names.

Bye-roads are marked thus

Foot-roads and mountain tracks

The line dividing counties

The dotted lines beyond the coast line indicate the extent

of sand dry at low water.

Churches and chapels are marked with a cross
Waterfalls

CHARTS.

Derwentwater and Bassenthwaite Lake.

Buttermere Lake, Crummock Lake, and Lowes Water
Windermere, Coniston, Grasmere, and Rydal Lakes
Ulleswater, and Hawes Water

OUTLINE VIEWS OF MOUNTAIN GROUPS.

1. Mountains at the head of Windermere, as seen from the north end of Belle Isle

2. Mountains as seen from Bisket How, Bowness

3. Mountains surrounding Grasmere and Rydal Vales, as seen from Red Bank

4. Mountains at the head of Coniston Lake, as seen near Tent Lodge, on the road from Coniston to Ulverston

5. Mountains forming the Skiddaw group, at the foot of Derwentwater, seen from the Inn at Lowdore .

6. Mountains surrounding Derwentwater, seen from Latrigg 7. Mountains on Buttermere and Crummock Lakes, as seen from the Knots, near the Victoria Inn, Buttermere.

8. Mountains on Buttermere and Crummock Lakes, as seen

from the seat in Lanthwaite Wood, Scale Hill

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9. Mountains at the head of Hawes Water, as seen from Burn Banks, near the foot

10. Mountains surrounding Wast Water, as seen from near Strands, at the foot

11. Mountains at the head of Ulleswater, as seen from the Matterdale road, near Lyulph's Tower, Gowbarrow Park

12. Mountains at the head of Ulleswater, as seen from the Slate Quarry at Blowick, near Patterdale

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ON THE LOCAL APPELLATIVES OF THE
LAKE DISTRICT.

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IT has been conceived that a short chapter on the probable derivation and connection of the names of places in the Lake District would prove interesting, not only to the professed etymologist, but in some degree, also, to the majority of travellers in this region. The information attempted to be conveyed is such as most of those visiting a new country desire to possess, inasmuch as it translates unmeaning sounds, having reference to places with which they become on terms of familiar acquaintance, into significant expressions. The pleasure of a traveller in Germany is sensibly increased by even so slight a knowledge of the language as enables him to understand the local names, which, in that country, are compounded, for the most part, of words in common use. Ehrenbreitstein (the broad stone of honour), and Schwarzwald (Black Forest), are well-known instances. The same pleasure, and to the same extent, would probably arise from an elucidation of the names of places in England, were it not for the uncertainty, springing from several causes, which here attends questions of this nature, and for the consciousness of licence thus afforded to a speculative interpreter. We hope, that in giving the following explanations, we shall be found neither to wander beyond the limits of probability, nor to assist by the remoteness, or the fanciful nature

of suggested derivations, to bring ridicule upon a pursuit, which, as cultivated on the Continent, has already assumed the rank of a science, under the name of Comparative Grammar. We have had to support no favourite theory or hypothesis as to the predominance of any one language in the country (though it is singular how many traces of Scandinavian dialects are met with); and the rules which we have observed in drawing up the glossary given below, were the following:

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When various languages contained words, apparently derived from some common root, to which a local appellative seemed allied, we have collected such words, but have not ventured to state positively from which particular one the local name has descended. When several tongues or a single language, offered inconsistent, but equally plausible originals, we have placed the equivocal types side by side. In cases where the derivation is obvious at first sight, or where loose conjectures only have suggested themselves, we have not hazarded the reader's impatience. By way of enlivening a tedious subject, we have illustrated the use of several words by quotations from various writers, ancient and modern.

A

GENERAL TERMS.

BAND; the summit of a minor hill.

Bant, Welsh, a height-Beann, Gaelic, a hill. The word is thought to be allied to Pen, Celtic. Examples-Taylor's Gill Band, Borrowdale; Swirl Band, Tilberthwaite Fell; Randerson Band, Borrowdale. One of the seven summits of Mount Pilatus in Switzerland is called Band. It is worth notice that Band, or Bund, signifies in Hindostanee a mound or embankment.

"Himself ascendis the hie band of the hill."

BARROW; a hill.

Beorh, Beorg, Anglo-Saxon.

DOUGLAS.

Examples-Underbarrow; Latter

barrow.

BECK; a stream, a brook.

Becc, Ang.-Sax.-Beck, Danish-Bach, German. The word is universally used throughout the district. In Switzerland there are the Staubbach, the Reichenbach, &c.

"The bournes, the brooks, the becks, the rills, the rivulets."
POLYOLBION.

BRANT FELL; steep fell.

Example-Brant Fell, near Bowness.

"A man may, I graunte (says old Ascham, in his 'Toxophilus'), sit on a brante hill side, but if he give never so little forward, he cannot stop."

CAM; the ridge or crest of a hill, analogous to the comb of a fowl. Kam, Ger.-Kam, Dan., a crest or comb. Example-Catstycam, otherwise Catchedecam, Helvellyn; Rosthwaite Cam, Cam Fell, near Hawes. The first point of land discovered by ships approaching Cadiz is the Andalusian hill, Cresta de Gallo (Cock's Comb).

COOм, a hollow in the side of a hill.

Comb, Ang.-Sax.-Cumm, Welsh.

Example-Gillercoom, Bor

rowdale. In the south of England the word combe is applied to small valleys:

"From those heights

We dropp'd at pleasure into sylvan combs."

COVE; a recess amongst the hills.

Examples-Red Cove, Keppel Cove, Helvellyn.
"The coves, and mountain steeps and summits."
EXCURSION.

EXCURSION.

FELL;

DEN, Dene; a glen.

Dene, Ang.-Sax., a valley. Example-Mickleden, Langdale. DODD; a hill with a blunt summit attached to a larger hill. Toddi Isl. integrum frustrum vel membrum rei. Examples-Skiddaw Dodd; Hartsop Dodd, Kirkstone; Dod Fell, near Hawes. In Switzerland are mountains named Dodlihorn and Dodi.

DORE; an opening between walls of rock.

Examples-Lowdore, Derwentwater; Mickledore, Scawfell.

In

the Pyrenees the depressions, by which egress from France into Spain is effected, are called Ports, from the Latin Porta. DUN; a hill of secondary importance.

Dun, Ang.-Sax. Hence the Downs of the south.

Dunmallet, Ulleswater; Dunfell.

Examples-

EA; Ang.-Sax., a particle signifying water, entering into composition under various shapes,-a, au, ay, e, ea. The French word eau, is derived, perhaps, from the Latin aqua; and it is certain that the names of the French bathing-towns, Aix, are corrupted from a case of that word. In the Su. Goth., the Danish, and the Swedish languages, the letter A expresses water. Examples-Eamont; Esthwaite; Easdale; Hays-water.

1. bare elevated land, answering in some respects to the wolds, moors, and downs of other parts of the island. 2. A rocky

hill.

FORCE; a waterfall.

Fiaell, Su. Goth., a chain of mountains-Fjeld, Norwegian-Fell, Icelandic, a hill-Fels, Ger., a rock. The word is in common use in every part of the district.

"So bring we thee the earliest of our lambs,
So may the first of all our fells be thine."

BEN JONSON.

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