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The apostle preached the gospel

II. CORINTHIANS.

without charge to the Corinthians,

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7 Have I committed an offence “in densome unto you, and so will I keep A.M.495. Aunoimp. Neabasing myself that ye might be ex- myself. ronis Cæs. 4. alted, because I have preached to you

10 • As the truth of Christ is in me, the Gospel of God freely ?

‘no man shall stop me of this boastings in the 8 I robbed other churches, taking wages of|regions of Achaia. them, to do you service.

11 Wherefore? because I love you not? 9 And when I was present with you, and God knoweth. wanted, I was chargeable to no man : for 12

12 But what I do, that I will do, that I that which was lacking to me the brethren | cut off occasion from them which desire ocwhich came from Macedonia supplied : and in casion ; that wherein they glory, they may be all things I have kept myself from being bur found even as we.

i may

• Acts 18. 3. 1 Cor. 9. 6. 12. ch. 10. 1.- Acts 20. 33. ch. 19. 13. 1 Thes. 2. 9. 2 Thes. 3. 8, 9. Phil. 4. 10, 15, 16.dch. 12. 14. 16.

• Rom. 9. 1.- Gr. this boasting shall not be stopped in me. - 1 Cor.

9. 15. — ch. 6. 11. & 7. 3. & 12. 15.- 1 Cor. 9. 12.

ness.

God, and not of man. Taking up the subject in this point : at Thessalonica ye sent once and again to my necessity, of view, I see no reason to have recourse to the supposition, Phil. iv. 15, 16. See the Introduction, sect. vi. or fable rather, that the apostle had an impediment in his Verse 10. As the truth of Christ is in me) Esiv ar SELL speech; and that he alludes to this infirmity in the above Xp150u Ev Eldon; The truth of Christ is in me. That is, I passage.

speak as becomes a Christian man ; and as influenced by the Verse 7. Have I committed an offence in abasing my- 'gospel of Christ. It is a solemn form of assederation; if self?] Have I transgressed in labouring with my hands, not to be considered in the sense of an oath. that I might not be chargeable to you? and getting my defi- In the regions of Achuia.] The whole of the Peloponnesus ciencies supplied by contributions from other churches, while or Morea, in which the city of Corinth stood. From this it I was employed in labouring for your salvation ? Does your appears, that he had received no help from any of the other false apostle insinuate that I have disgraced the apostolic churches in the whole of that district. office by thus descending to servile labour for my support ? Verse 11. Wherefore?] Why have I acted thus ? and Well, I have done this, that you might be exalted; that you why do I propose to continue to act thus ? is it because I might receive the pure doctrines of the gospel, and be ex- lore

you not? and will not permit you to contribute to my alted to the highest pitch of intellectual light and blessed- support. God knoweth the contrary: I do most affec

And will you complain that I preached the gospel tionately love you. gratis to you ! Surely not. The whole passage is strongly ; Verse 12. But what I do, &c.] I act thus that I may cut ironical.

off occasion of glorying, boasting, or calumniating, from Verse 8. I robbed other churches] This part of the sen- them the false apostle and his partizans; who seek occasion ; tence is explained by the latter ; taking wages to do you ser- who would be glad that I should become chargeable to you, vice. The word ouwvlov signifies the pay of money and pro- that it might in some sort vindicate them, who exact much visions, given daily to a Roman soldier. As if he had said, from you ; for they bring you into bondage, and devour you, I received food and raiment, the bare necessaries of life, ver. 20. from other churches, while labouring for your salvation. Nothing could mortify these persons more than to find Will you esteem this a crime?

that the apostle did take nothing, and was resolved to take Verse 9. And when I was present with you] The par- nothing ; while they were fleecing the people. It is certain ticle xas, which we'translate and, should be rendered for in that the passage is not to be understood, as though the this place; For, when I was with you, and was in want, false apostles took nothing from the people, to whatever I was chargeable to no man. I preferred to be, for a time, disinterestedness they might pretend: for the apostle is even without the necessaries of life, rather than be a burden positive on the contrary; and he was determined to act so to you. To whom was this a reproach ? to me, or to you? that his example should not authorize these deceivers, who · The brethren which came from Macedoniu] He probably had nothing but their self-interest in view, from exaeting eolf refers to the supplies which he received from the church at tribution from the people ; so that if they continued to boast, Philippi, which was in Macedonia : of which he says, that they must be bound even as the apostle, taking nothing for in the beginning of the gospel, no church communicated with their labours-; which could never comport with their views me, as concerning giving and receiving, but you only: for even lof gain and secular profit.

The character of false apostles.

CHAP XI.

Many glory after the flesh

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13 For such * are false apostles, de- || 17 That which I speak, "I speak A.M. 4061. A. U.C. 810. ceitful workers, transforming them- | it not after the Lord, but as it were Anno imp. Ne ronis Caes. 4. selves into the apostles of Christ. foolishly, 'in this confidence of boast- ronis Cas. 4.

14 And no marvel; for Satan himself is trans-ing. formed into an angel of light.

18 “Seeing that many glory after the flesh, 15 Therefore it is no great thing if his mi- I will glory also. nisters also be transformed as the ministers of 19 For ye suffer fools gladly 'seeing ye yourrighteousness ; whose end shall be according to selves are wise. their works.

20 For ye suffer, mif a man bring you into 16 'I say again, Let no man think me a fool; bondage, if a man devour you, if a man take if otherwise, yet as a fool 5 receive me, that I of you, if a man exalt himself, if a man smite may boast myself a little.

you on the face.

3 Acts 15. 24. Rom. 16. 18. Gal. 1.7. & 6. 12. Phil. 1.15. 2 Pet. 2.1. I Jobn 4. 1. Rev. 2. 2. ch. 2. 17. Phil. 3. 2. Tit. 1. 10, 11. e Gal. 1. 8.

d Ch. 3. 9.. Phil. 3. 19.--ver. 1. ch. 12. 6, 11. Or, suffer.

I Cor. 7. 6, 12.-ch, 9. 4. Phil. 3. 3, 4. 11 Cor. 4. 10. m Gal. 2. 4. & 4. 9.

Verse 13. For such are false apostles] Persons who ver. 1.

ver. 1. As the apostle was now going to enter into a partipretend to be apostles, but have no mission from Christ. cular detail of his qualifications, natural, acquired, and

Deceitful workers] They do preach and labour, but they spiritual; and particularly of his labours and sufferings, he have nothing but their own emolument in view.

thinks it necessary to introduce the discourse once more, as Transforming themselves] Assuming as far as they pos- he did, ver. 1. sibly can, consistently with their sinister views, the habit, Verse 17. I speak it not after the Lord] Were it not manner, and doctrine of the apostles of Christ.

for the necessity under which I am laid to vindicate my Verse 14. And no marvel] Kai ou lavpasov, and no apostleship, my present glorying would be inconsistent with wonder ; it need not surprise you what the disciples do, my Christian profession of humility, and knowing no one when you consider the character of the master.

after the flesh. Satan himself is transformed into an angel of light.) As Verse 18. Seeing that many glory after the flesh] Boast in ver. 3. the apostle had the History of the Temptation and of external and secular things. Fall of man, particularly in view, it is very likely that Verse 19. Ye suffer fools gladly, seeing ye yourselves are here he refers to the same thing. In whatever form Satan | wise.] A very fine irony. Ye are so profoundly wise, as to appeared to our first mother, his pretensions and professionsbe able to discern that I am a fool.-Well, it would be disgave him the appearance of a good angel; and by pretending honourable to you as wise men, to fall out with a fool : you that Eve should get a great increase of light, that is, wisdom will therefore gladly bear with his impertinence and foolishand understanding, he deceived her, and led her to transgress. ness, because of your own profound wisdom. It is generally said, that Satan has three forms under which Verse 20. For ye suffer] As you are so meek and gentle, he tempts men :-1. The subtle serpent. 2. The roaring as to submit to be brought into bondage, to have your prokon. 3. The angel of light. He often, as the angel of perty devoured, your goods taken away, yourselves laid in light, persuades men to do things under the nume of religion, the dust, so that others may exalt themselves over you; yea, which are subversive of it. Hence all the persecutions, and will bear from those the most degrading indignity; then, faggots, and fires of a certain church, under pretence of of course, you will bear with one, who have never insulted, keeping heresy out of the church : and hence, all the horrors defrauded, devoured, taken of you, exalted himself against and infernalities of the inquisition. 2. In the form of heathen you, or offered you any kind of indignity; and who only persecution, like a lion he has ravaged the heritage of the wishes you to bear his confident boasting, concerning matters Lord. And, 3. by means of our senses and passions, as which he can substantiate. the subtle serpent, he is frequently deceiving us, so that often The expressions in this verse, are some evidence that the the workings of corrupt nature are mistaken for the opera- false apostle was a judaizing teacher. You suffer, says the tions of the Spirit of God.

apostle, if a man xatadouros, bring you into bondage, pro. Verse 15. Whose end shall be according to their works.] A bably meaning to the Jewish rites and ceremonies, Gal. iv. 9. bad way leads to a bad end. The way of sin is the way to hell. ver. 1. If he devour you-as the Pharisees did the patri.

Verse 16. Let no man think me a fool) See the Note onmony of the widows; and for a pretence made long prayers; The apostle's privileges

II. CORINTHIANS.

and sufferings.

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21 I speak as concerning reproach, 23 Are they ministers of Christ?

as though we had been weak. How-(I speak as a fool) I am more; è in A 0.16.816. ronis Cæs. 4. beit "whereinsoever any is bold, (1 labours more abundant, “in stripes speak foolishly,) I am bold also.

above measure, in prisons more frequent, 'in 22 Are they Hebrews ? so am I. Are they deaths oft. Israelites ? so am I. Are they the seed of Abra- 24 Of the Jews, five times received I forty ham? so am I.

stripes save one.

* Ch. 10. 10.---- Phil. 3. 4.-Act22. 3. Rom. 11. 1. Phil. 9. 5.

d 1 Cor. 15. 10.

• Acts 9. 16. & 20. 23. & 21. 11. ch. 6. 4, 6.1 Cor. 15. 30, 31, 32,

ch. 1. 9, 10. & 4. 11. & 6.9. - Deut. 25. 3.

if a man tuke of youexact different contributions ; pre- In labours more abundant] Far from sitting down tendedly for the temple at Jerusalem, &c. If he exalt him. take my ease in a church already gathered into Christ: I self-pretending to be of the seed of Abraham ; infinitely travel incessantly, preach every where, and at all risks, in higher in honour and dignity than all the families of the order to get the heathen brought from the empire of darkness Gentiles: if he smite you on the face-treat you with indig- into the kingdom of God's beloved Son. nity, as the Jews did the Gentiles; considering them only as In stripes above measure] Being beaten by the heuthen, dogs, and not fit to be ranked with any of the descendants' who had no particular rule according to which they scourged of Jacob.

criminals : and we find from Acts xvi. 22, 23. that they beat Verse 21. I speak as concerning reproach] Dr. Whitby Paul unmercifully, with many stripes. See the Note on the thus paraphrases this verse :-“ That which I said of smiting

above passage. you upon the face, I speak us concerning the reproach they in prisons more frequent]

In prisons more frequent] Sze Acts xxi. 11. and the cast upon you, as profane and uncircumcised, whereas they whole of the apostle's history; and his long imprisonment, all profess to be a holy nation; as though we had been weak, of at least two years at Rome, Acts xxviii. It does not apinferior to them in these things, not able to ascribe to our. pear that there is any one instance of a false apostle having selves those advantages as well as they." Horebeit, wherein- been imprisoned for the testimony of Christ; this was a badge soever any is bold, and can justly value himself on these ad of the true apostles. vantages, I am bold also, and can claim the same distinctions, In deaths ofr.] That is, in the most imminent dangers. though I speak foolishly in setting any value on those things ; See 1 Cor. xv. 31. chap. iv. 11. And see the apostle's his. but it is necessary that I should shew that such men have not tory in the Acts. even one natural good that they can boast of beyond me. Verse 24. Of the Jews five times received I forty stripes

Verse 22. Are they Hebrers?] Speaking the sacred save one.] That is, he was five times scourged by the Jews language, and reading in the congregation from the Ilebrew whose law, Deut. xxv. 3. allowed forty stripes; but they, preScriptures ; the same is my own language.

tending to be levient, and to act within the letter of the lar, Are they Israelites.?] Regularly descended from Jacob, inflicted but thirty-nine. and not from Esau ; I am also one.

To except one stripe from the forty, was a very ancient canci Are they the seed of Abraham?] Circumcised, and in among the Jews, as we learn from Josephus, Antiq. lib. it. the bond of the covenant? So am 1. I am no proselyte, ch. viii. sec. 21. who mentions the same thing, Tay/25 juta but I am a Hebrew of the Hebrews, both by father and mo. NEIT. 205YS TE Toacazovto, forty stripes, excepting one. ther; and can trace my genealogy through the tribe of Ben- The Mishna gives this as a rule, Mish, Maccoth. fol. jamin, up to the father of the faithful.

22. 10. 66 Hlow often shall be, the culprit, be .mitten? Aas Verse 23. Are they ministers of Christ.?] So, we find 978900 '99forty stripes, wanting one : i.e. with the nonthat these were professors of Christianity : and that they ber which is nighest to forty.” Frequently a man was sceused were genuine Jews, and such as endeavoured to incorporate according to his ability to bear the punishment : and it is a both systems; and no doubt to oblige those who had believed, canon in the Mishna, “ that he who cannot bear fert; to be circumcised; and this appears to have been the bondage stripes should receive only eighteen, and yet be considered into which they had brought many of the believing Corinthians. as having suffered the whole punishment.”

I am more] More of a minister of Christ than they are, | They also thought it right to stop under forty, lest the perand have given fuller proofs of it. I have suffered persecu- son who counted should make a mistake, and the crimina. tion for the cross of Christ, and of the Jews too ; and had I get more than forly stripes, which would be injustice; as the preached up the necessity of circumcision, I should have been law required only forty. as free from opposition as these are.

The manner in which this punishment was inflicted is de

The apostle's privileges

CHAP. XI.

.

and sufferings.

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25 Thrice was I beaten with rods, the sea, in perils among false breA. U. c. 810. "once was I stoned, thrice I suffered thren; Auno Imp. Ne

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. 1. shipwreck, a night and a day I have 27 In weariness and painfulness, fin ronis Cæs. 4. been in the deep ;

watchings often, sin hunger and thirst, in fast26 In journeyings often, in perils of waters, inings often, in cold and nakedness. perils of robbers, 'in perils by mine own coun- 28 Beside those things that are without, that trymen, 'in perils by the heathen, in perils in which cometh upon me daily, "the care of all the the city, in perils in the wilderness, in perils in churches.

& Acts 16. 22.- Acts 14. 19.- Acts 27.41.- Acts 9. 23. & 13.

50. & 14. 5. & 17.5. & 20. 3. & 21. 31. & 23. 10, 11. & 25. 3.

• Acts 14. 5. & 19. 23. Acts 20. 31. ch. 6. 5. -8 1 Cor. 4. 11.

See Acts 20. 18, &c. Rom. 1. 14.

scribed in the Mishna, fol. 22. 2. “ The two hands of the doubt the apostle in his frequent peregrinations was often criminal are bound to a post, and then the servant of the attacked; but being poor, and having nothing to lose, he synagogue either pulls or tears off his clothes, till he leaves passed unhurt, though not without great danger. his breast and shoulders bare. A stone or block is placed In perils by mine own countrymen] The Jews had the behind him, on which the servant stands; he holds in his most rooted antipathy to him, because they considered him hands a scourge, made of leather, divided into four tails. an apostate from the true faith ; and also the means of perHe who scourges lays one third on the criminal's breast, verting many others. There are several instances of this in another third on his right shoulder, and another on his left. the Acts; and a remarkable conspiracy against his life is reThe man who receives the punishment is neither sitting norlated, Acts xxiii. 12, &c. standing, but all the while stooping ; and the man smites In perils by the heathen] In the heathen provinces whiwith all his strength, with one hand.” The severity of this ther he went to preach the gospel. Several instances of punishment depends on the nature of the scourge, and the these perils occur also in the Acts. strength of the executioner.

In perils in the city] The different seditions raised against It is also observed, that the Jews did not repeat scourgings, i him, particularly in Jerusalem, to which Ephesus and Da. except for enormous offences. But they had scourged the muscus may be added. apostle fire times; for with those murderers, no quarter Perils in the wilderness] Uninhabited countries through would be given to the disciples, as none was given to the which he was obliged to pass, in order to reach from city to Master. See Schoettgen.

city. In such places it is easy to imagine many dangers Verse 25. Thrice was 1 beaten with rods] This was un. from banditti, wild beasts, cold, starvation, &c. der the Roman government, as their lictors beat criminals in Perils in the sea] The different voyages he took in narthis way. We hear of the apostle's being treated thus once, row seas, such as the Mediterranean, about dangerous coasts, namely at Philippi, Acts xvi. 22. See sect. 9. of the land without compass. Introduction.

False brethren] Persons who joined themselves to the Once was I stoned] Namely, at Lystra, Acts xiv. 19, &c. church, pretending faith in Christ, but intending to act as

A night and a day have I been in the deep] To what this spies; hoping to get some matter of accusation against him. refers, we cannot tell; it is generally supposed that in some He no doubt suffered much also from apostates. shipwreck not on record, the apostle had saved himself on a Verse 27. In weariness and painfulness] Tribulations plank, and was a whole day and night on the sea, tossed of this kind were his constant companions. Lord Lyttleton about at the mercy of the waves. Others think, that Bugos, and others have made useful reflections on this verse : “How the deep, signifies a dungeon of a terrible nature at Cyzicum hard was it for a man of a genteel and liberal education, in the Propontis, into which Paul was cast, as he passed from as St. Paul was, to bear such rigours, and to wander about Troas. But this is not likely.

like a vagabond, hungry and almost naked; yet coming into Verse 26. In journeyings often] He means the particu- the presence of persons of high life, and speaking in large lar journies which he took to different places, for the pur- and various assemblies, on matters of the utmost importpose of propagating the gospel.

ance !” Had not St. Paul been deeply convinced of the In perils of waters] Exposed to great dangers, in crossing truth and absolute certainty of the Christian religion, he rivers ; for of rivers, the original Totajwv, must be under- 1 could not have continued to expose himself to such hardships. stood.

Verse 28. Beside those things that are without] Indeof robbers] Judea itself, and perhaps every other coun-pendently of all these outward things, I have innumerable try, was grievously infested by banditti of this kind : and no troubles, and mental oppressions.

The apostle's great care

II. CORINTHIANS.

and concern for the church.

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29 Who is weak, and I am not

31 « The God and Father of our A.U. G. 810.. weak? who is offended, and I burn Lord Jesus Christ, which is blessed 4.0.0.810. Anno Imp. Ne not?

for evermore, knoweth that I lie ronis Cæs. 4. 30. If I must needs glory, 'I will glory of the not. things which concern mine infirmities.

32 In Damascus the governor under Are

Tovis Cæs. 4,

* 1 Cor. 8. 18. & 9. 22.

ch. 12. 5, 9, 10.

Lo Rom. 1. 9. & 9. 1. Ch. 1. 23. Gal. 1.2. 1 Thes. 2. 5.-— Rom. 9.5.-7 Acts 9. 24, 25.

Which cometh upon me] H ETIOUSUOIS; this continual | corruption it is never applied. I am afraid what these per. press of business; this insurrection of cases to be heard, solved, sons call their infirmities, may rather be called their strengths; and determined, relative to the doctrine, discipline, state, the prevailing and frequently ruling power of pride, anger, persecution, and supply of all the churches.

ill-will, &c. for how few think evil tempers to be sins ! All his perils were little in comparison of what he felt re- The gentle term infirmity softens down the iniquity; and as lative to the peace, government, and establishment of all the St. Paul, so great and so holy a man, say they, had his infir, churches among the Gentiles; for as he was the apostle of mities, how can they expect to be without theirs ? These the Gentiles, the government of all the churches among should know that they are in a dangerous error: that these fell in some sort on him ; whether they were of his | St. Paul means nothiug of the kind; for he speaks of his own planting, or of the planting of others. See Col. ii. 1. || sufferings, and of these alone. One word more: would not None but a conscientious minister, who has at heart the salva- | the grace and power of Christ appear more conspicuous is tion of souls, can enter into the apostle's feelings in this place. || slaying the lion, than in keeping him chained ? in destroying

Verse 29. Who is weak] What church is there under | sin, root and branch ; and filling the soul with his own persecution, with which I do not immediately sympathize? || holiness; with love to God and man; with the mind, all the or who, from his weakness in the faith, and scrupulousness of holy heavenly tempers that were in himself; than in leaving conscience, is likely to be stumbled, or turned out of the way, these impure and unholy tempers, ever, to lite, and often to to whom I do not condescend, and whose burden I do not bear? || reign in the heart? The doctrine is discreditable to the

Who is offended] Or likely to be turned out of the way, gospel : and wholly anti-christian. and I burn not with zeal to restore and confirm him? This Verse 31. The God and Father of our Lord] Here is a seems to be the sense of these different questions,

very solemn asseveration; an appeal to the ever-blessed God, Verse 30. I will glory-which concern mine infirmities.] || for the truth of what he asserts. It is something similar to I will not boast of my natural or acquired powers, neither in his asseveration or oath in ver. 10 of this chapter: see also what God has done by me; but rather in what I have suf- Rom. ix. 5. and Gal. i. 20. And from these and several fered for him.

other places we learn that the apostle thought it right thus to Many persons have understood by infirmities what they confirm his assertions on these particular occasions. But call the indwelling sin of the apostle ; and say that "he here is nothing to countenance profane swearing, or taking gloried in this, because the grace of Christ was the more the name of God in vain, as many do in exclamations, when magnified in his being preserved from ruin, botwithstanding | surprised, or on hearing something unexpected, &c. and as this indwelling adversary.” And to support this most un- others do, who, conscious of their own falsity, endeavour to boly interpretation, they quote those other words of the gain credit by appeals to God, for the truth of what they apostle, ch. xii. 9. Most gladly therefore will I rather glory in say. St. Paul's appeal to God is in the same spirit as his my infirmities, my indwelling corruptions, that the power of most earnest prayer. This solemn appeal the apostle makes Christ in chaining the fierce lion, may rest upon me. But it in reference to what he mentions in the following verses. would be difficult to produce a single passage in the whole This was a fact not yet generally known. New Testament, where the word as GEVEix, which we translate Verse 32. In Damascus the governor under Aretas] For infirmity, has the sense of sin or moral corruption. The a description of Damascus, see the Note on Acts is. 2. verb acfarew, signifies to be weak, infirm, sick, poor, des- || And for the transaction to which the apostle refers, see picable through poverty, &c. And in a few places, it is | Acts ix. 23. As to king Aretas, there were three of this applied to weakness in the faith, to young converts, who are name. The first is mentioned 2 Maccab. v. 8. The second • poor in religious knowledge; not yet fully instructed in the by Josephus, Antiq. 1. xiii. c. 15. sec. 2. and l. xvi. c. 1. sec. 4. nature of the gospel, Rom. iv. 19. xiv. 1, 2. Apd it is ap- The third, who is the person supposed to be referred to here, plied to the works of the law, to point out their inability to was the father-in-law of Herod Antipas, of whom see the justify a sinner, Rom. viii. 3. But to inward sin and inward || Notes Açts ix, 23, &c.

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