« AnteriorContinua »
would have put him to death ; but he took refuge in the tent of an acquaintance of his, named Boerick, who bought bim of the governor for fifty dollars' worth of goods.
Boerick set out next day for Woled Aboussebah, taking Adams with him. They arrived there in nine days. Boca rick was there informed by Abdallah Houssa, a friend of his, « That it was usual for the British consul at Mogadore to send to Wadinoon to purchase Christians, who were pri soners in that country; and that, as he was about to proceed thither, he was willing to take charge of Adams, to sell him for account of Boerick; and at the same time he informed Adams, that there were other Christians at Wadinoon." (p. 61.) Boerick consented ; and they set out next day for Wed-noon. In six days they reached Villa Adrialla, remained there three weeks, and in three days more arrived at Aiata Mouessa Ali. Here they stopped a month, and then departed for Wed-noon, which they reached in five days.
Wadinoon was the first place at which Adams had seen houses after quitting Tudenny. It is a small town, consisting of about forty houses and some tents. The former are built chiefly of clay, intermixed with stone in some parts ; and several of them have a story above the ground-floor.' Adams was, soon after his arrival, sold to a man named Belo Cossim-Abdallah, for 70 dollars in trade; and he discovered to his satisfaction that the Christians of whom he had heard were three of the crew of the Charles ; Stephen Dolbie (the mate), James Davison, and Thomas Williams. There was also a Frenchman there, who had turned Mahometan, and gained his livelihood by making gunpowder.
Adams here met with very severe treatment; and having once refused to work on the sabbath, which was contrary to custom, be was severely beaten, and then put in irons for more than a month. Soon after that, Dolbie was killed by his master; and Davison and Williams, no longer able to endare their hard treatment, consented to become Maho. metans, upon which they obtained their liberty. Adams, however, still continued firm; and it was well that he did: for in a few days a letter was received from Mr. Joseph Dupuis, the consul at Mogadore, assuring the prisoners that within a month he should be able to procure their ransom ; which he accordingly did for Adams, who was taken to his bouse at Mogadore.
He remained at Mogadore eight months, during which time Mr. Dupuis frequently advised bim to come to England,
to give an account of his travels; but as England and America were then at war, he was afraid of being made prisoner by the English. Being unwilling to come to England, Mr. Dupuis sent him to Tangier, from whence he passed over to Cadiz, where he arrived on the 17th of May, 1814,“ making three years and seven months since he was wrecked in the Charles ; during which period, except from the effect of the severe beating he received at Wadinoon, and the weakness produced by his long confinement at that place in irons, he never was sick a single day.”—p. 81.
After remaining fourteen months at Cadiz, Adams was informed that there was an opportunity of returning to America, with a cartel that was on the point of sailing from Gibraltar; where he arrived two days after the vessel had sailed. He therefore engaged himself as a mariner on board a brig bound to Liverpool ; but she was driven into Holyhead, where Adams fell sick, and was put on shore. From thence he begged his way to London; and had slept two or three nights in the streets, when he was met by the gentleman who directed him to the office of the African Committee. It appears
that Adams's calculations of the time that he resided at different places exceed, in the aggregate, the real time that elapsed between his shipwreck and his return, the former amounting to four years and three months, the latter only to three years and seven months. “Deducting, however, his excess of time, in relative proportions, from his stationary periods at Tombuctoo, Woled D'Leim, and other places, the following (says the editor) will be the probable dates of the several stages of his travels : 1810, October 11.-Shipwrecked at El Gazie.
December 13.-Set out on the expedition to Soudenny. 1811, February 5.-Arrived at Tombucioo.
June 9.-Departed from Ditto.
August 11.- Arrived at Woled D'Leim. 1812, March 7.-Departed from Ditto.
June 20.—Departed from El-Kabla.
August 23.–Arrived at Wed-Noon. 1813, September 23.-Departed from Ditto.
October 6.Arrived at Mogadore. 1814, April 22.-Departed from Ditto.
May 17.-Arrived at Cadiz." The two circumstances in the narrative that were objected to principally, besides the elephant's tusks and the courcoo, are those of the sovereign of Tombuctoo being a negro, and
of a great river flowing close by the city. Of these objections, as well as some others of minor importance, the editor takes due notice; observing, that as the facts rest entirely on the evidence of Adams, they must be admitted until further and, fuller evidence can be obtained. With respect to the sovereign of Tombuctoo, he says :
" It is well known that the vernacular histories, both traditionary and written, of the wars of the Moorish empire, agree in stating that, from the middle of the seventeenth century, Tombuctoo was occupied by the troops of the Emperors of Morocco; in whose name a considerable annual tribute was levied upon the inhabitants; but that the negroes, in the early part of the last century, taking advantage of one of those periods of civil dissension and bloodshed, which generally follow the demise of any of the tulers of Barbary, did at length shake off the yoke of their northern masa ters,—to which the latter were never afterwards able again to reduce them. Nevertheless, although the Emperors of Morocco (whose power even to the north of the Desert has been long on the decline) might be unable, at the immense distance which separates them from Soudan, to resume an authority wbich had once escaped from their hands; it is reason: able to suppose that the nearer tribes of Arabs would not neglect the opportunity tbus afforded to thein, of returning to their old habits of spoliation, and of exercising their arrogated superiority over their negro neighbours; and that this frontier state would ihus become the theatre of continuat contests, terminating alternately in the temporary occupation of Tombuctoo by the Arabs, and in their re-expulsion by the negroes.”p. 177, 178.
Although a great deal of information is not to be obtained from this publication, it is by no means uninteresting. Adams's own narrative does not occupy more than a third of the volume; the remainder being filled with notes (the greater part of them by Mr. Dupuis); some concluding remarks; and two Appendixes, one relating principally to the course of the Niger, the other to the population of Barbary. On the whole, we cannot but recommend the work to the attention of our readers ; hinting, at the same time, that it is published for the benefit of Adams, wbom it would be well to console for the perils be bas undergone.
ART. IX.-An Historical Inquiry into the Ancient Eccle
siastical Jurisdiction of the Crown : commencing with the Period in which Great Britain formed a part of the Roman Empire. By JAMES Baldwin Brown, Esq. of the Inner Temple, Author of an Historical Account of the Laws enacted against the Catholics both in England and Ireland. Part I. 8vo. pp. 236.
(Continued from No. XIV. page 656.) THE
HE part of the work now before us, embraces that period during which Great Britair formed a part of the Roman empire.
" The second,” says the author in his preface, “would commence with the arrival of the Saxon, and close with that of the Norman invaders of this country,
« The third would embrace the history of those reigns of which we have no existing statutes: and
“ The fourth would contain the provisions of the statute-law, and a detail of the other proceedings connected with the object of inquiry, from the statute of Merton (20 Henry III.) to the parliamentary recognition of the king's ecclesiastical supremacy, by 26 Henry VIII. c. 1. in England, and by the 28th of the same reign, c. 5. in Ireland.
“ Each part would be subdivided into sections, as the case might require, and each section, or the history of each reign, as might be inost convenient, would be closed by a summary of the proof it contained of the exercise of ecclesiastical jurisdiction by the crown, and of the alterations introduced into that jurisdiction, during the period which it embraced, illustrated by frequent references to the cotemporary proceedings of other states."
From a preceding part of the introduction it appears that the first of the two chapters now presented to the publie was drawn up at the request of an honorable and learned member of the House of Commons, with a view to its being printed by the order of the house, amongst other documents, for which he has since moved. This design, however, was not carried into execution, from the non-official character of the report, and recourse was therefore bad to the mode of publication, which we cannot do better than allow Mr. Brown himself to explain.
" At the earnest request of that gentleman, and of others, to whom the plan has been communicated, and with the acquiescence of the noble viscount, in whose office the original report is placed, recourse has been
had to the present method, as being, under such circumstances, the best calculated to procure for the inquiry, a degree of publicity which may chance to render it useful in promoting that spirit of mutual concession, the furtherance of which was a principal motive in actuating its author to devote as much of his time as his professional pursuits would allow to its composition.
“ Under the influence of such motives, he trusts that, without subjecting bimself to the imputation of vanity, he shall be allowed to avail himself of the parliamentary testimony borne to the utility of this work, by the honorable and learned member, to whom allusion has already been made, on moving the printing of some official documents connected with the Catholic question. I am sorry,' said Sir John Hippesley, upon
that occasion, * that I cannot afford the House the same facility in consulting a most valuable report on the Ancient Ecclesiastical Jurisdiction of the Crown, by Mr. Brown, of the Temple. A copy of that document has been deposited in the office of the Secretary of State, for the Home Department, which every gentleman would do well to consult, before he gives a vote upon the important question which it so pointedly illustrates. It only remains to be observed on the execution of that part of the plan which is now presented to the public, that the portion of the treatise thus favourably spoken of by the honourable and learned Baronet, with whom, as I have already more than once acknowledged, that treatise originated, has received several additions since it was put into the hands of the noble Viscount, who has so kindly encouraged its publication, and that I have spared no. exertion to prevent the second chapter (as I shall spare none to prevent those which will succeed it) from disgracing the encomiums which I fear have but too undeservedly been bestowed upon the first. In the body of the work, it has been my study to present a view of the ecclesiastical transactions of the reign of the first Christian emperor, as far as they involve the interference of the secular magistrate with the doctrines or disciplines of the church, so concise, yet comprehensive, as to omit nothing of importance to be known, nor to include any thing pot immediately connected with the object of research. In the notes, it bas been my endeavour coolly to investigate every controverted point of jurisdiction, which these transactions have been contended by others, or appeared to myself to illustrate; whilst by the collection of authentic documents appended to the whole, I have sought to furnish my readers with the means of judging for themselves, how far my deductions are supported by direct evidence, or warranted by the rules of fair and legitimate interference. These I have accompanied with such observations on their authenticity, scope, and intention, as naturally arise out of the terms in which they are conceived, or the comments which various writers have made upon them. And fure ther, to give to every part of the work all the character of impartiality and correctness in my power to bestow, a table of the edition of every book quoted in its progress, will be added to each volume, in order that, if any one should feel disposed to question the accuracy of my citations
not one of which has been made without actual consultation of the authority ada duced, producing, I trust, a correct reference to its pages-they may be enabled to satisfy their scruples, without being exposed to the inconveniences which I have frequently experienced, from the want of such assistance." (p. x. xii.)
We cannot too highly commend the laudable anxiety