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ed British Columbia with hardy advent- five cents was the usual charge. During urers in search of the precious metal. this state of affairs great distress could It was then that Victoria reaped her not fail to exist in the town. Profesharvest. The Hudson's Bay Company, sional men were glad to get the most finding their post the chief base from menial occupation, Lawyers, doctors, which to furnish supplies for the new and clergymen could be found at work mines, laid out at that point the present in the kitchen, or humble dependents town, and sold lots to an eager army of upon the favors of those more accustraders and speculators for the nominal tomed to manual work. The gold-bubprice of fifty dollars each. The com- ble had burst; with it went the dream pany made a handsome figure by the of Victoria's immediate greatness. The transaction, but their first purchasers millionaire in city - lots in September reaped a much greater profit. Desira- found his property comparatively valble business - lots soon ran up in value ueless in March. to thousands of dollars, buildings were The gold - fields of the Frazer were erected with marvelous rapidity, and the found to be limited in area and irregusanguine investors were confident that lar in their yield. Instead of giving San Francisco would fade into insignifi- wealth to an army of a hundred thoucance before the rising splendor of their sand miners, it was found that they new metropolis of the North-west. would not support a twentieth of that
But a few short months sufficed to number. The disappointment was a bitchange the entire prospects of Victoria. ter lesson to the multitude who were conWith the approach of winter thousands gregated at Victoria, but it was a wholeof disappointed miners flocked back to some one. It gave an experience which the town, penniless, and cursing the folly went far to check the tendency of Caliwhich had led them to abandon a cer- fornians at that time to swarm from tainty of plenty in California for the hard point to point in whichever direction vicissitudes of a northern winter, and gold was rumored to be found. had left them beggars in a strange land. To the American from the United They were as anxious to get back as States visiting Victoria, the distinctive they had been to leave the Golden State. English character of the place is par
In December, 1858, and January, 1859, ticularly noticeable. As compared with Victoria was estimated to contain near- the Pacific Coast towns within the limly 40,000 people, the greater part of whom its of his own country, with their rest. were destitute of resources and eager to less, energetic, driving people, who seem do anything to ward off starvation or se- hardly to know what rest and recreation cure a passage back to their homes. Be- mean, Victoria seems almost lifeless in sides the difficulty the multitude found its business. But a residence of a few in obtaining food, the supply of water days in the town will generally show was limited and in the hands of a few, the stranger that the Victorians, though who doled out the indispensable ele- quiet in their way, do an amount of trade ment at extortionate rates. Owing to far surpassing that of many larger and the rocky nature of the soil and the more showy places. difficulty of digging wells, most of the The people of the town seem to live water used was gathered in broad shal- for the sake of enjoying their journey low pits which collected the surface- through this world instead of rushing drainage after the rains. For the prive through existence like a rocket. Their ilege of drawing a bucketful of muddy homes are plain, comfortable, and inex. water from one of these pits, twenty- pensive. Their social life is pleasura
IMPORTS FROM BRITISH COLUMBIA TO SAN FRAN
bly cultivated, while the savings - banks indicates the growing immensity of the statistics prove that their business is coal-trade of the North-west. not neglected. The banks of Victoria Nearly all the gold - yield of British show a total of over $700,000 deposits Columbia figures in the custom - house of the working-class and small traders. returns of San Francisco. The gold The religious life of the town is strong, and silver coin and bullion which passjudging from the number of churches ed through the San Francisco Customsustained, there being some twelve re- house from the province in 1874, amountligious societies. The place has a pop- ed to $1,265,019, against $726,095 in 1870 ulation of about 5,000, which may be di- -an increase of about seventy-four per vided as follows: English, 2,500; Amer- cent. in four years. From the port last icans, 1,000; Indians, half-breeds, and named it is distributed to the other great Chinese, 1,500.
money-centres of the world-London reVictoria is still the depot from which ceiving the lion's share. the farmers and miners on the English The following summary, taken from territory of the main-land draw their sup- the records of the custom - house at San plies, and the town yet holds the bulk of Francisco, will show the amount and the trade of British Columbia. As it character of the commerce between that is the only British port of entry in the city and Victoria: province, the custom-house returns give a fair idea of the commerce of the British Possessions in north-western Ameri
1870. 1874. ca. According to the statistics of the Coin and Bullion..... $726,095 $1,265,019
84,453 282,223 San Francisco Custom-house, the trade
349,661 between the latter port and Victoria gives
$844,599 $1,896,903 promise of reaching large proportions within the near future. Apart from gold and silver coin and bullion, coal is the
1870. 1874. chief article of export from British Co
Bread and Breadstuffs..
$14,712 $19,819 lumbia to San Francisco. In this item Cordage, Rope, and Twine.. of coal the custom - house returns show Manufactures of Cotton ..... 10,069
53,824 that, in 1870, San Francisco received Clothing, all kinds.....
12,463 14,989 tons, valued at $84,453. In 1874 Nails and Spikes...... the shipments of coal to San Francisco Other Manufactures of Iron
and Steel amounted to 50,184 tons, valued at $282,
26,928 82,275 Coal Oil .....
6,538 223. These figures will have to be large- Provisions, all kinds......
57,386 ly increased to show the coal-trade of Sugar.....
28,491 1875. Within a few months past the Tobacco, and Manufactures of
Wood, and Manufactures of.. 12,480 Pacific Mail Steamship Company, in
78,021 177,833 connection with a mail contract lately
$299,155 $613,493 entered into with the Dominion Gov. ernment, is said to have assumed an On the north-west side of the town obligation to take five thousand tons of lies the Indian and Chinese quarter. coal a month from the province for Here the humble siwash and the pafive years. This increase of produc- tient Chinaman peacefully unite in the tion, taken in connection with the dis- struggle for the "survival of the fittest.” covery and development of the coal. The resemblance between the aborigfields of Puget Sound, which now ap- inals of the North - west Coast and the proximate a daily yield of 1,000 tons, natives of the Flowery Kingdom is quite
EXPORTS FROM SAN FRANCISCO TO BRITISH CO
11,533 23,357 121,593
marked. The same figure, complexion, nest devotion too seldom seen in more and high cheek-bones mark both races; aristocratic houses of worship. and, when dressed in the same garb, it The term siwash is applied to all the is often difficult to distinguish between Indians of the coast, without regard to them.
their tribal relations. It is a corruption The Indians of British Columbia are of the French sauvage, which was apmore numerous and more industrious plied to the natives by the early French than those of the lower coast of the Pa- explorers. The common language used cific, and seem to take more kindly to between the natives and Whites in their the restraints of civilization. Perhaps intercourse is a jargon manufactured by this may in a measure be due to the su- the employés of the Hudson's Bay Comperior policy of the Dominion Govern- pany for the purpose. It is without a ment, which casts upon the Indian more grammar or system, and seems to empersonal responsibility than is given by brace the rudiments of words from althe United States to its native wards. most every known tongue. The Indi. While the policy of the last-named gov- ans use their native language between ernment in the management of the Indi- themselves, and only employ the jargon an tends to keep him an improvident in talking with the outside races. This vagabond and dependent, the system common vehicle of thought, though frampursued by the Dominion of Canada is ed in somewhat of the style of the “pig. well adapted to cultivate in him a self- eon English” of Hongkong and other reliant and ambitious spirit. But on the Chinese ports, is far less intelligible to North-west Coast, as elsewhere, strong the stranger, and requires months of padrink and immorality are the great ob- tient effort to master it. stacles to bar the progress of the Indian The water - front and much of the im. race.
mediate vicinity of Victoria consists of The Indians are largely employed with the naked bed-rock of the country. So profit in the fisheries, which are fast be- destitute of soil is the portion which first coming a prominent source of revenue greets the visitor's eyes, that it would to Victoria. Large quantities of fish are seem as if nothing more promising than also cured by the Chinese and Indians the magnificent crop of rocks could be in their quarter of the town; and, be- raised. But a walk through the gardens tween the peculiar Chinese opium smell which skirt the town to the north and and the pronounced presence of decay- east serves to reveal the possibilities of ed fish, the combined odors of the orient the soil and climate. Rich black loam and the occident render this part of the supports fruit-trees heavily loaded and town anything but agreeable to the vis- propped up with their burdens of apples, itor.
pears, and plums. Nearly all the vegeAmong the places of note in the In- tables of the kitchen-garden Aourish in dian quarter is the Indian mission chap- and about Victoria with a luxuriance unel. This is a neat little wooden edifice, known save on the Pacific Coast. The built and paid for entirely by the Indian summers are not warm enough for the converts. It is under control of the grape and peach to flourish, but the Wesleyans. The worshipers in this small fruits are delicious in flavor and church are chiefly Indians and half- abundant. The latitude of Victoria is breeds, who in their Sunday attire make higher than that of the most northern a most respectable-looking congregation, part of Maine, being about 48° 22', and The Indian converts often lead in the yet, owing to the warm currents of the singing and prayers, and show an ear- Pacific, its mean temperature is like that
of the southern part of England. The ernment contemplates the erection of a thermometer seldom gets as low as zero stone dry-dock, and an appropriation of in winter, or above eighty-five degrees $500,000 has been made for that purFahrenheit in summer. The fogs and pose.
The Dominion Government of rains keep the grasses of the country Canada, under whose protecting wing perennially green, and as but little snow British Columbia was placed in 1871, is falls in winter, stock is in many instan- especially generous in its appropriations ces permitted to go without housing the for public works and improvements at entire year.
Victoria. Possibly these generous conAs with the Mohammedans everything cessions to this little outlying English dates from the hegira of their prophet, community may be prompted by a halfso with the Victorians the Frazer River defined fear that the strong and growing rush seems to mark an era. Nearly all American interests at Victoria and Naof the business part of the town was naimo may eventually lead to the transbuilt at that time, and all the old firms fer of Vancouver Island from the fag of that have survived the shock incident to England to that of the United States. the bursting of that bubble have inscrib- Be that as it may, the Victorians seem ed upon their signs, “Established in to have unbounded faith in the ability 1858.” None date their foundation be- and willingness of their government to yond that epoch save the Hudson's Bay make their city a great commercial meCompany, which still does the heaviest tropolis. They look forth with confibusiness of the coast. Few repairs or dence to the near future in which a Caimprovements have been made to the nadian - Pacific railroad shall span the private buildings of Victoria in the bus- continent and find its terminus at Victoiness streets since the collapse of 1858–9, ria. They look to their government for and they present a weather-beaten an- the millions necessary to build and equip tique appearance in consequence. the road, and bridge the straits which
By reason of its position, Victoria is separate their island from the main-land. of prime importance to England as a na- When this is done the patient and hopeval station for the North Pacific. At ful Victorians will sit down in smiling Esquimault, four miles to the south of contentment, and the riches of the Old Victoria, is an excellent harbor for large World and the New will pour into their ships. this point the British Gov- laps. Happy Victorians !
LOVE AND MONEY.
Langley. But it was his first love-his T was at school that he first made her “calf-love" some would contemptuously
acquaintance. He was the young- have styled it, and it threw a halo of est son of an English baronet, the head romance for him over the dreary routine of his form in the class-room, and the of his studies, and brightened up the pride of the school in the play-ground. gray old cathedral town with a fresh. She was only the daughter of a draper er poetry than he could cull from the in the town—a well- to-do respectable classics. person enough in his way, no doubt, but What was it that he saw in little Ruth assuredly not the social equal of Gerald Gwynne to attract him? She was a proper prim little maiden in those ear- his old master, to call and see her. He ly days of their acquaintanceship, with found the queer little shop in the High scarcely an idea save what she had glean- Street just as he had left it. There are ed from notoriously puritanical parents; places that never seem to change; and and he was-well, pretty much what nine persons, too, Gerald thought, when he out of every ten British youths are, save met the demure little damsel he had that Gerald was blessed, or cursed, with come to see. a poetic soul, and a strong appreciation Her father and mother were out, but for the beautiful both in nature and art. Ruth, with a quiet cordiality all her own, And many would have called Ruth pret- asked him to tea. Conventionalism was ty, even beautiful. Her hair - primly not very strong in the old cathedral city, rolled up as it always was in tight plaits, and Mrs. Grundy's supervision was rareor confined under a Quakerish little cap ly exercised in the little Quaker's rank - was very abundant, and of that rare of life. shade of brown which seems to alternate Needless to say Gerald accepted. He in various lights from dark to golden. had a great deal to say, and wanted nothHer eyes were undeniably fine, though ing better than such an opportunity of Gerald had never satisfactorily deter- saying it. He had made up his mind to mined in his own mind whether they propose to the little Puritan maiden that were blue or gray; and for the rest, she evening, and he was not usually bashhad a complexion of lilies and roses (of ful, yet they had nearly finished tea bewhich demure Miss Ruth was extremely fore he saw what he considered a good careful), a plump little figure, and hands opening to his subject. and feet of the daintiest. Such as she Ruth was picking up crumbs absentwas she had all Gerald's heart, though ly, and Gerald was watching her with a he never could learn.if he had any of preoccupied air. He did not see that hers.
she was aiming at the same goal as he Gerald did well at Cambridge, and was himself, and was now marveling at even achieved some literary distinction, his stupidity and slowness. of which he was disproportionately proud. “Do you know, Ruth, you remind me At Cambridge, too, he made his first very much of your old ancestress-namestrong friendship. Lawrence Paget -- sake rather, I mean —in the Bible, you stroke of his college boat, a crack shot, know," he began rather nervously. a straight and plucky rider to hounds- She looked up with a most encourcould pick and choose his acquaintance aging smile. “How is that?” from the best the university afforded; “Well, she went in for gleaning wheat and, indeed, so could Langley. So it and barley, or whatever it was, the same was scarcely wonderful that these two as you are picking up those crumbs now. should become in a short time firm Do you know, I don't think I'd have let friends; so firm that, when they went to her glean too much if I'd been the old London to read for the bar and struggle party?—at least, not if I wanted good out life on a younger son's allowance, partridge in the stubbles that year." they took rooms together in a dingy lit- This was provoking. He had com. tle street off the Strand, and smoked and menced quite hopefully, and here he was read and idled and dissipated in com- drifting away again, goodness knows pany.
where. But Ruth was a general, and But all this time Gerald never forgot she knew her time was short. Ruth, and he took the earliest opportu. “Yet, after all, Ruth had the best of nity, while ostensibly paying a visit to it; and she got a rich husband by it,