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of the pope were excited, and a crusade proselytes were emancipated; while the which spared neither age nor sex was Christians, upon the payment of a modpublished against the unfortunate Albi- erate tax, were indulged in the possesgenses. Upon the ruins of the most re- sion of their laws, their property, and fined society that had arisen to instruct their religion. mankind since the days of Athenian We consider with admiration the rapid greatness was erected the Inquisition, progress and enduring effects of this the bane of science and the implacable extraordinary imposture, which everyfoe of civil and religious liberty. where brought wealth and happiness in
Mohammedanism, as laid down by its its train; which, in destroying the deifounder, was essentially aggressive, a ties of the Caaba, swept away the tranonconformity in belief making a justifi- ditions of fifty centuries; which adopted able cause of warfare. The wild and those pagan rites that it could not aboladventurous character of the tribes to ish; which seized and retained the birthwhich it was preached, the hope of a rich place of Christianity; which displaced plunder from the effeminate monarchies over so wide a territory alike the theof Africa and Asia, the assurance of par- ocracy of the Jews and the ritual of adise to all who fell in battle (the honors Rome; which drove the Magi from the of this world and the benefits of the profane shrines of Persia; which usurpworld to come), facilitated the spread of ed the throne and sceptre of the Bs. the new doctrine. The tenets of Arian zantine Church; which supplanted the and Athanasian, of Jew and Pagan, were fetichism of the African desert; which incorporated in its creed, and this debt trampled upon the mysteries of Apis, it has partially discharged by furnishing Osiris, and Isis, and revealed to the the Vatican with the famous dogma of wondering Egyptians the secret of the the Immaculate Conception. The union Most High God; which invaded the idolof Church and State — the military and atry of Tartary and the degrading superdiplomatic code of the Koran, wherein stition of China; which suffered neither are prescribed the duties of all ranks, priest, image, nor sacrifice, and held out from the general to the meanest soldier to the vanquished the dread alternative -the terms of capitulation-the provis- of the Koran, the tribute, or the sword. ions of treaties, and the causes of ex. No monstrous and intricate systems of emption from · service – conspired to theology have arisen to disfigure the sim. make the Moslem armies invincible. plicity of Islamism, which has remained Added to all this was an absolute fatal- unaltered through so many revolutions, ism, destined long after to be employed although the pure idiom of the Koran is by Napoleon with terrible effect against now a dead language; and daily, at the those who had originated it, and whose warning voice of the muezzin, the faces influence over the minds of European of 160,000,000 believers, one-sixth of soldiers was manifested equally at Acre the whole human race— from Siberia to and Joppa, at Marengo and Austerlitz. Siam, from the Tigris to the Nile — are
The career of Mohammedan conquest turned in humble supplication toward in Spain was furthered by the principles the sacred city of Mecca. of toleration that distinguished Islam The investiture of dignities by banabove any other sect which had hither- ner, ring, and sword, had long been emto appeared upon the theatre of the ployed by the Moslems, and an attempt world. The Jews, on account of similar to extend the conditions of feudalism in pursuits and a common origin, were fa- the bestowal of fiefs and the erection of vored by the invaders; slaves become many little principalities, hastened the
downfall of the Saracen empire. Had temples; palaces rich with quaint carvthis impolitic scheme been avoided, a ing, gorgeous arabesques, and all the third invasion of France by the infidels adornments of sensuous indulgence, are might have changed the appearance of reared, and the luxurious customs of Europe. The battle of Cadiz had seal. Asia are engrafted upon the rugged ed the fate of Spain, but the disaster of fashions of the West. Tours was not irretrievable; and skillful
“Here rose the grated harem to inclose generalship, combined with the bravery
The loveliest maidens of the Christian line; of veteran soldiers, must have sufficed Here, menials, to their misbelieving roes to subdue a nation at war with its neigh- Castile's young nobles held forbidden wine; bors, and distracted by the quarrels of
Here, too, the holy cross, salvation's sign,
By impious hands was from the altar thrown, a fierce aristocracy. It is hardly pos
And the deep aisles of the polluted shrine sible to conjecture what effect would Echoed for holy hymn and organ tone have been produced upon the creeds
The santon's frantic dance, the fakir's gibbering and habits of the present age by the triumph of the Saracen power; but, in And now begins the great age of the words of an eminent writer, “the Spanish story- the union of two kingleast of our evils had now been, that doms, the discovery of unknown lands, we should have worn turbans, combed the extension of dominion, the famous our beards instead of shaving them, have achievements of the unscrupulous Ferbeheld a more magnificent architecture dinand and his bigoted but martial than the Grecian, while the public mind spouse. Here rose the curse of the had been bounded by the arts and lit- sixteenth century, which gave to ruin erature of the Moorish University of and death the noble, the wise, the good Cordova."
-whose victims, with the pride of conThe deeds of the various nations - scious superiority, swelled the procesIberian, Carthagenian, Roman, Gothic, sion clad in the flaming garments of the and Arabian-successively occupying auto da fe. In these cities, Columbus, the Spanish peninsula, have invested a penniless exile, begged his bread at their annals with a character rather re- the convent doors; then, in the meridsembling the fictions of romance than the ian of his greatness, viceroy of a new impartial truths of history; and, know- world, sat at the right hand of his soving its former grandeur, it is with a ereignt; and at last sunk to his grave, feeling of sad interest that the student wearing the shackles of a felon, the lastreviews the vanquished glories of this ing memorials of a king's injustice and a renowned empire. He sees, as in a vis- nation's ingratitude. These streets once ion, the home of Seneca and the school rung with the exploits of the “Great of Hannibal, and scenes where many of Captain" and the victories of the hero the heroes of antiquity learned their first of Lepanto, or echoed to the tread of lessons in the crooked ways of policy troops of pilgrims on their way to the and the arts of war. Before him rises altar of St. Jago, the patron saint of the ferocious form of Alaric, conspicu- Spain. Here figured those aspiring prelous amid the horrors of Gothic inva- ates, Ximenes and Portocarrero, and the sion. Next, from the desert comes a royal hermit with his toy-shop at Yuste; race of swarthy conquerors, simple in here was the home of the pitiless Philip attire, strange in religion, terrible in bat- and the sanguinary Alva, of Gondemar tle. A new architecture, modeled after skilled in the cunning of courts, of Avthe glaring taste of Arabia, arises; the erroes the commentator upon Aristotle name of Mahomet is heard in splendid and the father of modern philosophical
skepticism. Here, amid the damps of thentic history. Here once moved men a noxious cavern in the Sierra, a ragged who were not insensible to the beauties cripple, half-mad with pain and burning of poetry, and had not neglected art; with chivalric devotion, laid the founda- who recognized and rewarded superior tions of the Jesuit order, which has cre- merit; whose eyes were charmed by the ated kingdoms, given laws to haughty exquisite pencil of Murillo, and whose monarchs, and propped the falling power hearts warmed with the vigorous fire of Rome.
of Lope de Vega, Villegas, and CaldeIn the realms of fancy, as well as upon the field of battle and the high The arms of Charles V., which bore seas, Spain once asserted her suprem- for their device the Pillars of Hercules, acy. Her literature is ennobled by the with the motto “Plus ultra," have long genius of Mendoza and of Cervantes, since lost their proud significance; and whose heroes, to the fascinated reader, while other nations have been moving are not the ideal creatures of fiction, forward with giant strides in the path but active sentient beings, as real as of progress, degenerate Spain has resoany of those whose faces live upon the lutely set her face against all that percanvas of the great masters and whose tains to the advancement of the human deeds are recorded in the pages of au- mind.
In a garden that I know,
There the lily, purest nun,
And the maiden rose - bud stirs
One shy bird, with folded wings,
Sits and sings the daylight long,
Other gardens greet the spring
Other song - birds, piping clear,
But my blossoms, palest known,
And my birdling, sad and lonely,
A LITTLE WOMAN.
R. JOHN GENIAL, or “Ge-. to adorn their rooms; but I knew these
nial Jack," as he was familiarly were costly, and I knew Jack was poor. known by a legion of friends and ad- There were no flowers here, either; mirers, was generally considered to be which rather surprised me, as they had the most delightful fellow possible. a little garden, which I thought might And with reason. Who more gener- have supplied a few sprigs at least. ous and open-hearted than Jack? Who “This,” said Jack, laughing, “is Mrs. more ready to give the half, ay, the G.'s sanctum. She doesn't like to use whole, of that which he had to a friend the parlor except on state occasions, so in need? Who more quick to forgive she always sits here." an injury? Who could be a better I might have noticed this for myself, companion, a gayer, livelier, bandsom- as there was a small work - table with er fellow than “Genial Jack?” I was some unfinished work upon it standing quite infatuated with him, directly we in one corner. came to know each other, now some five “Come, now,” said Jack, "and see my or six years ago. It was not long be- sanctum.” fore he invited me to dine with him and We went into a room at the back of his wife, for he was married, and had a the house. It was small, but I knew house in a suburb. Of course I went. from the position of the building that I found Mrs. Genial to be a graceful, it was the sunniest and pleasantest in gentle, dove-eyed little creature, with the house. It was not only its position the sweetest temper imaginable, and a that made it pleasant; there was real heart just brimming over with love and comfort here. A pretty carpet and sevadoration for her “dear Jack.” She eral fur mats covered the floor; a comwas dressed plainly and very inexpen- bination book - case and writing-desk sively, and her clothes, though too well- stood in one corner; in another was a kept to be shabby, were evidently not most comfortable - looking lounge, with the latest link in the evolution - chain of a soft pillow embroidered with Jack's fashion. I rather wondered at this, be- initials - the work of the little hands cause Jack always dressed so remarka. again—and two or three luxurious armbly well. They kept no servant, be- chairs. Several good paintings adorncause Jack was poor, but the house was ed the walls, and I noticed a number of a marvel of neatness, thanks to the in- handsome pipes and elegant tobaccodustrious little hands of the wife. Jack, boxes scattered about. Here were the in his free way, showed me all over the flowers, too, that I had missed in Mrs. house. It was for the most part very G.'s sanctum, carefully and tastefully plainly furnished. The little sitting-room arranged in the way "dear Jack” loved had a rather bare appearance, perhaps them best. owing to lack of pictures and ornaments. "Take a smile," said Jack, bringing The tiny bed-room was the pink of or- out a decanter; "it's good stuff-cost der and cleanliness, though I noticed twelve dollars a gallon. Here are some there were none of those indescribable cigars, take a smoke-cost thirty dollars knickknacks with which women so love a box. What do you think of my den? Pretty snug, isn't it? No ladies allow- sanctum, you know. But she didn't ed here, except to straighten things out care as long as she had “dear Jack." a little occasionally, you know. I keep “I wish we were a little better off," this place for the fellows. When fel- she said to me one day. I had never lows come to see me I like them to heard her complain before, but I soon be comfortable and at home. [Genial saw that it was not for herself. “It Jack! I knew he did.) And women- is such a wretched thing for a man of folk are a damper - you know how it is Jack's disposition to be poor," she yourself. But the little woman never continued. “He is very generous, and troubles us; tobacco -smoke makes her I know he is often pained that he can ill, and I always keep up a lively puff; not give more away. a
And then he besides, she's very quick to take a hint, might have so many more comforts if the darling.”
we were a little richer. And it may be Jack and I had a very cozy time, and selfish, but I wish so for my own sake, the “little woman" did not“trouble us,” too. I keep the bills as small as I can, though she appeared at the street-door but they have a way of mounting up to say good-night to me as I was leav- that I can't understand. And then ing, and to cheerfully invite me to re- when they can't be met I get 'blue,' peat the call. But I caught myself won- and feel as if pinching and saving ought dering, as I went home, if there was not to have some reward. I just tell you some self-denial in her invitation, con- this because I must tell somebody, and sidering how little of the society of her I haven't the heart to trouble dear Jack husband's guests she enjoyed.
about my anxieties, when I know the I availed myself of the invitation, poor boy is doing all he can to worry though, and before long became a very along. But, dear me, how selfish I am frequent visitor at the house of “Genial to bother you about such matters.” Jack.” The “little woman" and I got Selfish! God help thee, "little womalong capitally together. She was al- an!” Thou didst set up a graven imways glad to see me; not so much on age, and didst call its name “dear my own account though, I think, as Jack ;" blind and an idolater thou wert, because, after the first few visits, I al. but true and wifely beyond all praise; ways kept Jack out of his sanctum by and surely not at thy door did the selfpositively refusing to enter it with him. ishness lie. You see, it was Jack's company she For some months I continued to be wanted, not mine.
a constant visitor at the house. Then As we grew to know each other bet- I was suddenly summoned to Europe ter, the "little woman” lost much of on business of an important nature. her old shyness, so that, when Jack was Owing to unforeseen circumstances, it not present, she would sometimes be- was nearly six months before I got come quite chatty. I verily believe that back. The first person I met on my her greatest delight was to praise her return was an old acquaintance, from husband to others. She had scarcely whom, of course, I was anxious to learn any lady friends. She could not afford all the news. During our conversation to dress, and the fashionable young my
friend observed : dies of the society in which Jack mix- “I suppose you came home at once ed thought her a "dowdy," and saw on hearing of that affair about the Genothing attractive in her sanctum that nials? I know they were great friends should induce them to call upon her. of yours.” They were not allowed to see Jack's Surprised that anything so stirring