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ful judge of mountain scenery as John Muir. that spoils so many of his best works. Sam.
cault, and others of medical and physiological – Morris, Schwab & Co. exhibit several renown, who experimented largely on the new works. Of these the first that catch the subject, say that if an animal be coated over eye are two tropical scenes by Mr. M. J. with varnish impervious to the air, the funcHead, of New York: "Jamaica Mountains” tions of the skin become impeded, its organand a “Sunset on the Amazon ”- quiet in ism paralyzed, and death ensues in a few tone, but rich and effective. Virgil Will. hours. The same thing is true of the human iams has a picture of a Roman girl, sweet. system; and it is on record that a lad who faced, beautiful in outline, simple and sooth. was covered with a coating of gilt to repre. ing in color as all his works. The compan. sent the Golden Age, during a pageant given ion picture, a Roman boy, hangs by it; both by Pope Leo X., died in a few hours, by reacabinet pictures. Two marine pieces, one son of the impeded functions of the skin. by G. J. Denny- an old wooden heart of Scrofula, paralysis, and consumption have oak in the foreground and a fly-away look. been rapidly developed by only partially ing steamer behind--and a picture by Tozer, coating the surface of the body. It is, thereare fair in their style. William Hahn has fore, quite credible that those diseases are two of his new Californian pictures—“Camp. subject to alleviation, if not actual removal, ing out” and the “Adobe Station" — with by restoring the proper and active functions much less of the fiery brick color in them of the skin, for it is presumable that those
infirmities are intensified by inaction of the The origin of these hot-air baths dates pores. Ordinary, or surface, bathing has back to a very ancient period. Homer speaks been found incompetent to remove and ex. of them as existing among the Greeks dur. foliate the minute scurfy deposits which filling the siege of Troy, and that people probthe pores and prevent them from fully per- ably conceived the idea from their thermal forming their excretory duties, but it has springs, which were found to possess marked been ascertained, as nearly as possible, that medicinal qualities. It was not until after the hot-air bath supplies the requirement by the Romans conquered Greece that they removing the unctuous matters and corrupt- made their appearance in Rome, for the Ro. ing varnish from the overloaded cellules of mans had not an artificial bath in their capthe epidermis. Being insoluble in water, ex- ital until five hundred years subsequent to ternal applications of that element do not the laying of its foundations. They then suffice, but the impediments yield readily to crected therme, which were renowned for the action of the dry hot-air bath. The med. their magnificence, combining all that was ical profession furnishes such strong testimo- perfect in material, elegant in design, elabonies to the efficacy and innate virtues of this rate in adornment, and beautiful in art. They process for the arrest and subjugation of dis. were lavishly ornamented with precious gems eases and the promotion of health, that we and metals, and were the chosen deposito. can only subjoin a few of them. Doctor J. ries of the finest works emanating from the T. Metcalf asserts, “that by a timely re- studios of their painters and sculptors. The course to this kind of bath, bronchitis, diar- world-famed Laocoon was discovered among rhea, or dysentery may be prevented or re- the ruins of the baths of Titus, and the cele. lieved." Doctor A. C. Budd says: “The brated Farnese Hercules in those of Caracalmost trustworthy means at our command for la. After the conquest of the western Ro. relieving obstructions of the kidneys is to man Empire by the Moslems, who were at press the skin into service by increasing the that time the “filthiest of mortals,” the baths activity of its functions, and the most power. that had been erected in Constantinople beful therapeutic which we possess to effect came objects of deep interest to them, and this object is, in my opinion, the use of the they were made necessary adjuncts to every hot-air bath." Doctor W. H. Van Buren settlement, and were most liberally endowed insists that it will avert a tendency to take by princes and sultans. cold by sudden checks of perspiration, and at Mr. Urquhart is entitled to the credit of the same time it protects the kidneys from the introduction of the Turkish bath into diseases. Doctor T. Spencer Wells proclaim. Great Britain, some eighteen years ago, aled to his students that he had treated with though it is certain that when the Roman le. great success by the hot - air bath cases of gions departed from Britain fifteen hundred gout, neuralgia, rheumatism, affections of years previous they left the hot bath behind the kidneys, dropsy, paralysis of the lower them as an established institution. For some limbs, skin diseases, etc., and particularly unascertained reason they were not appre. recommended it as a promoter of health and ciated by the ancient Britons, and they preventive of diseases. Doctor Leard, of the fell into disuse. During an extended tour London Consumptive Hospital, speaks of it through Turkey and Persia, Mr. Urquhart as being wonderfully essective in cases of learned to appreciate the virtues of what is consumption. Doctor Sheppard, superin- now termed the Turkish bath, and on his tendent of an English lunatic asylum, likens return labored assiduously to direct the atits effects to “drinking in oxygen through tention of men eminent for intelligence and channels previously closed up.” Mr. Urqu- wealth to the benefits that would be confer. hart, who introduced these baths into Great red upon community by their adoption. The Britain, maintains that “people who use first Turkish or hot - air bath was finally them do not require exercise for health, and erected in London in 1856, and its health. can pass from the extreme of indolence to bestowing qualities were so speedily acknowl. that of toil, and combine the health of the edged that several others were soon afterward Brahmin with the indulgence of the Sybarite.” established in various parts of the United
Kingdom. On the continent its introduction rets and sprightly pinnacles under their diwas a marked success, but more especially recting care. has its progress in the United States been This Hammam, or hot-air bath, is located prosperous and rapid. It was apparent, how- at Nos. 11 and 13 Dupont Street, in the ever, that their prophylactic and therapeutic heart of this city, with an entrance for ladies qualities could be largely improved, and by on Bagley Place. Ascending the steps from scientific process adapted to any climate and Dupont Street, the visitor is at once delightall countries with increased benefit. Eu- ed by the presence of a beautiful bronze ropean skill suggested improvements in con- fountain, whose long jets shine up in the struction and arrangement, and Doctor Mill. sun. Over the entrance - door is a finely exingen, physician to the Sultan, acknowledges ecuted inscription in Arabic: “Bishmillah, the betterment by saying: “While the West Alla il Alla.” To the right of the entrance is indebted to the East for the origin of the hall is an apartment supplied with refreshbath, the East must thank the West for the ments and appropriate stimulants. On the right construction of the bath.” Mankind left is the office, which communicates by is progressive -- none more so than the peo. means of tubes with all the various departple of this country, who are not generally ments of the Hammam. It is here that the willing to accept anything as being perfect. bather is requested to deposit his valuables, They seek to adapt things more satisfactorily register his name, and receive his check. to their own special needs and surroundings. Advancing, he enters the “mustaby," or Desirous of bringing the hot - air bath to the cool room, the centre of which is occupied greatest possible perfection, Doctor A. M. by a marble bath, six feet deep, six feet wide, Loryea devoted three years to a critical ex. and thirty feet long. Here, too, a silver amination of all the most noted establish. fountain plays. On either side are lounging ments in Europe, including those of Con. and smoking rooms, each splendidly fitted stantinople. The result of his observations up, and separated from its neighbor by handis the production of a bath retaining the vir- somely carved and painted trellis - work in tues and dispensing with the doubtfulorobjec. wood, through which the cool air passes tionable features of the original. California without obstruction. The ceilings and walls was found to possess a climate admirably are magnificently frescoed, the work having suited for the most effective demonstration of been executed by Mr. Paul Frenzeny, a young the manifold benefits conferred by the hot. French artist of remarkable merit. Overair bath, and it is in San Francisco that Doc. head the light enters through two large cir. tor Loryea has just erected the “ Hammam," cular skylights of colored glass, toned down reasonably supposed to be the most perfect so as to impress the mind with a sense of and elegant Turkish bath ever built. It is freshness and coolness, and in perfect harthis young city that has outstripped, so far, mony with the colors of the frescoed walls. its competitors in raising the noblest of those Over the doors are appropriate Arabic in. health-imparting palaces that were objects of scriptions from the Koran, and similar ones such deep interest to the luxurious old Ro. are on the walls in suitable places, for the mans, Greeks, and Turks, and have recently comfort of good Moslem souls. Immense become indispensable to the capitals of mod. plate-glass mirrors reflect everything from all en Europe. Science, observation, and skill, portions of the apartment, and the visitor is unaided by material auxiliaries, could avail filled with a dreamy soothing languor which but little ; but, most opportunely, this need is essentially oriental, while the illusion is was cheerfully supplied by a gentleman whose heightened by Turkish, Persian, and Asiatic fortune is not less ample than his intelligence. surroundings. Scientific precaution has even The Honorable John P. Jones, United States carpeted the floor with fine Indian matting, Senator from Nevada, with commendable which does not retain even a modicum of liberality and broad public spirit, came heat. The mustaby, or cold room, is the promptly to the financial assistance of Doc- opodyterium, conclave, or spoliatorum of the tors Loryea and Trask, proprietors of the Romans. Succeeding the mustaby is the Hammam, which soon reared its airy mina. tepidyrium, corresponding to the "sea" of
the Jews, and the piscinium of the Romans. ments, to which justice can only be done by It is the warm room, wherein a heat of 120° personal inspection, special admiration is to 130° Fahrenheit is constantly maintained. called up at the manner in which the reEverything in this department corresponds searches of science have been utilized and with its name, and imparts or suggests combined to render the Hammam as perfect warmth. The next in order of apartments as possible. It is an established fact that is the calidarium, or sudatorium, which cor- chemistry enables the adept to extract the responds to the hot - stone baths of the Rus- active ingredients from medicinal waters, by sians, Icelanders, and some tribes of Ameri- means of which they can be transported in can Indians. The heat of this room is main- small bulk, redissolved, and the waters re. tained at 160° to 180°, and can be increased produced without any loss of effect, but con. at the option of the superintendent. Here, ferring the power to remedy some existing also, everything is in keeping with the name defect in the original waters, and there by seand use of the apartment. The whole room cure a certainty in their operation which is is composed of marble, with a large marble not always obtainable in their unimproved table in the centre, surrounded by marble condition. Doctor Loryea has happily avail. seats; the table being used for the shampoo- ed himself of the powerful aid afforded by ing process, which is very scientific and im- chemistry, and after thoroughly examining portant. The employés are all imported from the active principles of the most celebrated Turkey, having been educated to the busi. sanitary waters in Europe, condensed those ness from the early age of eight years. principles and is prepared to administer all Shampooers generally work for eight hours the most noted baths of the spas. One can in the baths, and if there were anything de- revel in the salt sea - water bath of the Med. bilitating in being exposed to the lengthened iterranean without passing through the Straits endurance of so high a temperature, it would of Gibraltar. The carbonated or alkaline certainly have made itself apparent in them, baths of Vichy are brought to our doors. which is not the case. The handsome arch- The famous “serpent baths” of Schlangenbad ed ceiling of the calidarium reflects and ra- have been transported to this city. Those of diates the heat equally to all portions of the Kesselbrunnen, Swalbach, Marienbad, and room, which is lighted by superb chandeliers Bareges have taken up their abodes here. of exquisite design and in perfect harmony Electric baths, administered by skilled op. with their accompaniments. Separated from erators, and even perfumed cosmetic baths this room by thick felt curtains, especially for the complexion, are now among the treasmade and imported for the purpose, are three ures within the reach of our beauties. The other smaller apartments, in two of which healing virtues of Bethesda, Siloam, and the the temperature is much higher than in the Jordan have been restored and concentrated main room.
Having passed through the for our use. calidarium and its auxiliaries, the visitor The construction, general arrangement, meets the ladies' entrance, on Bagley Place, and ventilation of the Hammam are well where a flight of stairs leads to the second worthy of special mention. All the walls, and third floors, the second floor being de. foors, and ceilings of this establishment are voted to their use, and the third to giving all hollow, the air being a bad conductor of kinds of medicated baths.
heat, and the hollows are for the two-fold The ladies' rooms are sumptuously fitted purpose of excluding the moisture of the exup, and lavishly furnished with everything ternal atmosphere and retaining the heat gen. that can conduce to luxurious ease and in- erated within. The floors and ceilings are tense enjoyment. The room dedicated to composed of iron and stone arches, impartgiving mercurial vapor baths is composed ing strength and forming a perfect oven. entirely of transparent plate - glass, so that Professor Tyndall's theory of ventilation is the bather can be seen by the operator at all here in successful practice. The cold air is stages. This is a novel and valuable idea admitted through properly constructed aperintroduced by Doctor Loryea. Without at. tures near the ceilings, and the impure hot tempting a description of the ladies' apart- air, laden with carbonic gases, is expelled through similar ones near the floors. The tract colds, catarrhs, neuralgia, rheumatism, excellence of this method has been thorough. and other maladies, for which the Hammam ly tested here by thermometers, litmus pa- is the best known preventive, or therapeutical per, and other scientific means, which dem- agent. With this great sanative lever at our onstrate that the cool air is constantly enter- disposal, the climate of San Francisco is ing from above and the foul air as constantly probably the best known, and the present going out below. The cold air is driven in enterprise may be regarded as but the beginfrom a large brick reservoir in Bagley Place ning of a system which will make California by means of an immense fan, and distributed the great sanitarium of America. Everyover sixteen coils of pipe containing super- thing that science could suggest, experience heated steam which is generated by the boil- offer, observation gather, skill adorn, genius er of a seventy-five horse - power engine, invent, and money execute, has been ex. which also drives the fan. The coils are hausted to perfect the Hammam; and it was twelve feet high and six feet wide, inclosed with no ordinary gratification that Doctor within the hollow basement walls. Cold air Loryea received the commendations of the passing over these coils simply becomes heat. renowned Persian scholar, traveler, and no. ed and is distributed throughout the various ble Mirza, Mahomet Aly, the third in rank apartments by means of registers. The cold after the Shah. He said, after minutely air forced into the mustaby is precisely of the scrutinizing the whole establishment : “The same temperature with the external atmos- frescoing, the perfect arrangements for the phere.
distribution of hot air, and the number of Shower - baths are entirely dispensed with, rich decorations in the apartments, exceed and none of those shocks, which frequently anything I have ever before seen, either in produce disastrous results, are to be encoun- Cairo, Constantinople, or my own country. tered, but in their place are marble basins, It is superior to those in Syria, which are hewn from the solid rock, and weighing the finest in the East.” He then presented three hundred pounds each, containing hot, Doctor Loryea with his badge of the first orwarm, tepid, and cold water, which is suc. der- a crescent and star - and added : “I cessively sprinkled from needle - jets over the have written to advise the Shah to confer on bather, so as to avoid any sudden shock to Doctor Loryea, and Mr. Paul Frenzeny the the system. Absolute purity is so nicely artist, the Order of the Crescent.” The provided for that every room contains a well Mirza furthermore complimented our counleading to the basement, down which all try by saying: “America is the wonder of towels and foul linen are thrown, and thence the world. I imagine that the garden of taken to the laundry, where they are wash. Eden was placed in America, and that when ed, mangled, ironed, and restored to the Adam disobeyed the commands of Allah he owner, clean and fresh, in the course of was sent to Asia for his sins. If it be possi. three or four minutes. To effectually obvi- ble," exclaimed the Mirza, “for the Ethio. ate all chance of contagion, large tubs of pian to change his skin, or the leopard his pure porcelain have been imported from En. spots, it can only be done at the Hammam.” gland at great expense. In addition to the The “Poet of the Sierra,” while undergoing baths, laundry, and barber-shop, a first-class the ablution of a Turkish bath, exclaimed restaurant is attached to the establishment, with delight: “By George! they have workand the bather can refresh his inner man ed down to that red shirt I lost in '49." The with delicacies that would tempt Epicurus. exquisite sensations experienced by the bath
Perhaps the only serious defect in our cli. er while taking a hot-air bath, and the conmate is that it does not permit us to perspire dition of improved health and invigorated sufficiently. Sensible and insensible perspi. frame in which it leaves him, are finely il. ration is checked, and although our fresh lustrated by the Arabic inscription over the summer winds are sanitary in many respects, door of the calidarium — "Pain enters not they also close the skin - pores, and we con- here."