Imatges de pàgina

Passion. gratification, to promote the happin fe of this person : in their minds painful feelings, from the remembrance Paltin.

but observe the consequence. We have thus, by con. of what they have suffered, and the apprehension of
templating the advantage to be derived to ourselves their fuffering it again. We have seen a child a yeur
from promoting the prof erity of our friend, learned old highly entertained with the noise and itruggles
to affociite a set of pleafint ideas with his happiness; made by its elder brother when plunged nake into a
but the link which has uited them gradually escapes is, veff-I filled with cold water. This continued to be
while the union itself remains. Continuing to affoci. the case for many days, till it was thought proper to
ate pleasure with the well-being of our friend, we plunge the younger as well as the elder, after which
endeavour to promote it for the i ke of his immediate the daily entertainment was soon at an end. 'The little
gratification, without looking father; and in this creature had not been itself plunged above tuice till
way his happiness, which was fir! attended to only as it ceafed to find diversion in its Irother's sufferings.
a means of future enjoyment, finally becomes an end. On the third day it cried with all the symptoms of che
Thus then the pasion which was originally selfiih, is bitterest anguith upon feeing its brother plunged,
at length disinterested; its gratification being com. though no preparation was then made for plunging
pleted merely by its success in promoting the happi. itself: but surely this was not disinterested fympathy,
ness of another."

but a feeling wholly selfil, excited by ille remen-
In this way does our author account for the origin brance of what it had suffered itfelf, and was appre.
of gratitude ; which at lait becomes a habit, and flows henfive of suffering again. In a short time, however,
spontaneously towards every man who has either been the painful feelings accompanying the fight of its bro.
or intended to be our benefactor. According to him, ther's struggles, and the sound of his cries, were coube-
it is easy to obferve also, that from aflacinting plea- less fo associated with that light and that sound, that
sure with the liappiness of an individual when we pro- the appearance of the latter would have brought the
cure it ourselves, it must of course soon follow, that we former along with them, even though the child might
Tould experience pleasure from a view of his happi. have been no longer under apprehenfion of a plunging
ness any way produced; such happiness raising at all itself. This association, too, would soon be transferred
times pleasant ideas when it is presented to our minds. to every boy in the same circumstances, and to similar
This is another feature of a disinterested affection, to sounds and struggles, from whatever cause they might
feel delight from the mere increase of happiness in the proceed.
olject whom we love.

Thus, as Dr Hartley observes y, “ when several $ Obferuk-
" It may be o? jected, perhaps, that parents seem to children are educated together, the pains, the denials tions on
have an inflinélive disinterefted love of their offspring: of pleasure, and the forrows which affect one, gene-
but surely the love of a parent (A) for a new-born in. rally extend to all in some degree, often in an equal
fant is not usually equal to that for a child of four When their parents, companions, or attendants
or five years old. When a child is first born, the pro- are fick or afflicted, it is usual to raise in their minds
fpect and hopes of future pleasure from it are sufficient the nascent ideas of pains and miseries by such words
to make a parent anxious for its preservation. As the and signs as are suited to their capacities. They also
child grows up, the hope of future enjoyment from it find themselves laid under many restraints, on account
mult increase: hence would pleasure be associated with of the fickness or affliction of others; and when these
the well-being of the child, the love of which would and such like circumstances have raised in their minds
of course become in due time disinterested.”

desires to remove the causes of their own internal feel. Our author does not analyse pity, and trace it to its inga, i. e. to ease the miseries of others, a variety of source in selfishnefs ; but he might easily have done it, internal feelings and desires become so blended and af. and it has been ably done by his master. Pity or sociated together, as that no part can be diftinguished compassion is the uneafiness which a man feels at the separately from the reit, and the child may properly misery of another. It is generated in every mind du- be said to have compission. The same sources of comring the years of childhood ; and there are many cir. paffion remain, though with some alteration, during cumstances in the constitution of children, and in the our whole progress through life. This is so evident, mode of their education, which make them particularly that a reflecting person may pla!nly discern the constisusceptible of this passion. The very appearance of tuent parts of his compassion while they are yet the any kind of misery which they have experienced, or mere internal and, as one may say, felfith feelings aboveof any figns of distress which they understand, excite mentioned ; and before they have put on the nature of



(A) That this is true of the father is certain ; but it may be questioned whether it be equally true of the mother. A woman is no sooner delivered of her infant, than the caresses it with the utmoft possible fondness. We believe, that if she were under the necessity of making a choice between her child of four years, and her infant an hour old, she would rather be deprived of the latter than of the former ; but we are not convinced that this would proceed from a less degree of affection to the infant than to the child. She knows that the child has before his fourth year escaped many dangers which the infant must encounter, and may not escape ; and it is therefore probable that her choice would be the result of prudent reflection. Though we are not admirers of that philosophy which supposes the human mind a brindle of inftincts, we can as little approve of the opposite scheme, which allows it ro instincts at all. The copyn of a mother to her new-born infant is un. doubtedly instinctive, as the only thing which at that moment can be associated with it in her mind is the pain ihe has suffered in bringing it to the world.

Palien compaflion, by coalescence with the ret. Agreeably with a capability of knowledge, and of course with a Pation.
V to this method of reasoning, it may be o' ferved, that capability of affections, delires, and paffiong; but it

persons whose nerves are easily irritable, and those who seems not to be conceivable how he can actually love,
have experienced great trials and amictions, are in ge- or hate, or dread any thing, till he know whether it
neral more disposed to compflion than others; and be good, or ill, or dangerous. If, therefore, we have
that we are molt apt to pity others in those diseases and no innate ideas, we cannot possibly have innate defires
calamities which we either have felt or of which we or averfions. Those who contend that we have, seem
apprehend ourselves to be in danger."

to think, that without them reason would be insufficia
The origin of patriotism and public spirit is thug ent, either for the preservation of the individual or
traced by Dr Sayers : “ The pleasures which our the continuation of the species ; and some writers have
country affords are numerous and great. The wish to alleged, that if our affections and passions were the
perpetrate the enjoyment of those pleasures, includes mere result of early associations, they would necesferily
the wish to promote the safety and welfare of our coun. be more capricious than we ever find them. But this
try, without which many of them would be loft. All objection seems to arise from their not rightly under.
this is evidently selfish ; but, as in the progress of gra- Aanding the theory of their antagonists. The disci.
titude, it finally becomes disinterested. Pleasant ideas ples of Locke and Hartley do not suppose it possible
are thus strongly connected with the welfare of our for any man in society to prevent such associations
- country, after the tie which first bound them together from being formed in his mind as shall necessarily pro.
has escaped our notice. The prosperity which was at duce defires and averfions ; far less do they think it
firft desirable as the means of future enjoyment, be possible to form associations of ideas utterly repugnant,
comes itself an end : we feel delight in such prosperity, so as to defire that as good which his senses and in-
however produced; and we look not beyond this ini tellect have experienced to be evil. Allociations are
mediate delight. It is thus r.ot difficult to observe in formed by the very same means, and at the very fame
what manner a general and dilintereite / benevolence time, that ideas and notions are impresied upon the
takes place in a mind which has already received plea. mind; but as pain is never mistaken for pleasure by
fure from the happiness of a few; the tranlition is easy the senses, fo an object which has given us only pain,
towards affociating it with happiness in general, with is never associated with any thing that makes it defi-
the happiness of any being, whether produced by our- rable. We say an object that has given us only pain,
felves or by any other cause whatever.

because it is possible to form such an association be. From this reasoning, our author concludes, that all tween life and the loss of a linıb, as to make us grateour passions may be traced up to original feclincs of ful to the surgeon by whom it was amputated. Affo.

regard for ourselves. “ Thus (in the forcible linguae ciations being formed according to the same laws by Warbur.

of a learned wricer I of the fame school) does felf. which knowledge is acquired, it by no means follows
love, under the varying appearan e of natural affection, that passions resulting from then should be more ca-
domestic relation, and the connections of social habi. pricious than they are found to be; and they certainly
tude, at first work blindly on, obscure and deep, in are sufficiently capricious to make us suspect that the
dirt : But as it makes its way, it continues rifing, iill it greater part of them has this origin, rather than that
emerges into light; and then suddenly expiring, leaves they are all infused into the mind by the immediate
behind it the fairest iffue,"-benevolent affection. agency of the Creator. If man be a being formed

with no innate ideas, and with no other instinctive
Self-love forsook the path it first pursu’d,

principles of action than what are absolutely necessary And found the private in the public good.

to preserve his existence and perpetuate the species, it Thus have we stated the two opposite theories re- is easy to perceive why he is placed in this world as in specting the origin of paffions in the mind, and given a state of probation, where he may acquire habits of our readers a hort specimen of the reasonings by which virtue to fit him for a better. It is likewise easy to they are supported by their respective patrons. Were perceive why some men are better than others, and we called upon to decide between them, we should be why some are the Naves of the most criminal passions. tempted to say, that they have both been carried to But all this is unintelligible, upon the supposition that extremes by fome of their advocates, and that the the feeds of every pasion are innate, and that man is

truth lies in the middle between them. “ It is impos. a compound of reason and of initincts fo numerous * Dr Prie's

fible * but that creatures capable of pleasant and pain- and vario!18 as to fuit every circumstance in which he Review, &c. ful sensations, should love and choose the one, and dif- can be placed.

like and avoid the other. No being who knows what If paflions, whatever be their origin, operate in.
happiness and misery are, can be supposed indifferent ftantaneously, and if they be formed according to fix-
to them, without a plain contradiction. Pain is not · ed laws, it may be thought a question of very

a poffible object of desire, nor happiness of averfion.importance whether they be instinctive or acquired.-
To prefer a greater good though distant, to a less This was long our own opinion ; but we think, that
good that is present ; or to choose a present evil, in upon maturer reflection we have feen reason to change
order to avoid a greater future evil-is indeed wise and it. If passions be the result of early associations, it is of
rational conduct; but to choose evil ultimately, is ab- the utmost consequence that no improper-associations
solutely impossible. Thus far then must be admitted, be formed in the minds of children, and that none of
that every being possessed of fense and intellect, neces- their unreasonable desires be gratified. Upon this
farily desires his own good as soon as he knows what theory it seems indeed to depend almost wholly upon
it is; but if this knowledge be not innate, neither can education, whether a child shall become a calm, bene-
the desire. Every 'human being comes into the world volent, fteady, and upright man; or a passionate, ca.


Paslou. pricious, selfish, miscreant. By teaching him to resent strangers, we are left in the dark ; and yet we are not Paffios.

every petty injury, the feeds of irascibility are fown puzzled about the meaning of these external expres-
in his mind, and take such root, that before the age of fions in a stranger, more than in a bosom-companion.
manbood he becomes intolerable to all wiih whom he Further, had we no other means but experience for
must converse. By exciting numberless defires in his understanding the external signs of paffion, we could
youthful mind, and inftantly gratifying them, you not expect any uniformity, nor any degree of skill, in
make him capricious, and impatient of disappointment; the bulk of individuals : yet matters are so much bet-
and by representing other children as in any degree in- ter ordered, that the external expressions of passion
ferior to him, you inspire him with the hateful passion form a language understood by all, by the young as
of pride. According to the instinctive theory, edu. well as the old, by the ignorant as well as the learned:
cation can only augment or diminish the strength of We talk of the plain and legible characters of that
passions ; according to the other theory, it is the source language ; for undoubtedly we are much indebted to
of by far the greater part of them. On either sup- . experience, in deciphering the dark and more delicate
pofition, parents should watch with solicitude over the expresfions. Where then shall we apply for a solution
actions of their children; but they will surely think of this intricate problem, which seems to penetrate
themselves obliged to be doubly watchful, if they be- deep into human nature ? Undoubtedly if the mean.
lieve, that through their neglect their children may ac. ing of external figns be not derived to us from fight,
quire hateful passions, to which, if properly educated, nor from experience, there is no remaining fource
they might have remained ftrangers thro' their whole whence it can be derived but from nature.
lives. And let it be remembered, that this solicitude We may then venture to pronounce, with some de.

should begin at an early period; because the mind is gree of confidence, that man is provided by nature of Criticifia
susceptible of deep associations much sooner than is with a sense or faculty that lays open to him every
fometimes imagined. Without this susceptibility, no paffion by means of its external expressions. And we
language could he learned; and therefore a child by the cannot entertain 'any reasonable doubt of this, when
time he learns to speak, may have planted in his mind we reflect, that the meaning of external signs is not
the seeds of passions, on the juft regulation and subor- bid even from infants : an infant is remarkably affec-
dination of which depends in a great measure the hap- ted with the passions of its nurse expressed on her
piness of mankind. See Moral Philosophy, Part I. countenance ; a smile cheers it, a frown makes
Chap. 1, & 2. Part III. n° 216.

afraid : but fear cannot be without apprehending
Passions and Emotions, difference between them. See danger ; and what danger can the infant apprehend,
EMOTIONS and Paffions.

unless it be fenfible that its nurse is angry? We must
External Signs of Emotions and Passions. So inti. therefore admit, that a child can read anger in its
mately connected are the soul and hody, that every nurse's face; of which it must be sensible intuitively,
agitation in the former produces a visible effect up for it has no other mean of knowledge. We do
on the latter. There is, at the same time, a wonder- not affirm, that these particulars are clearly appre-
ful uniformity in that operation; each class of emotions hended by the child ; for to produce clear and diftinct
and passions' being invariably attended with an ex: perceptions, reflection and experience are requifite :
ternal appearance peculiar to itself. These external but that even an infant, when afraid, must have some
appearances, or signs, may not improperly be confi- notion of its being in danger, is evident.
dered as a natural language, expressing to all be- That we should be conscious intuitively of a passion
holders emotions and passions as they arise in the from its external expressions, is conformable to the
heart.' Hope, fear, joy, grief, are displayed exter. analogy of nature : the knowledge of that language
nally: the character of a man can be read in his is of t90 great importance to be left upon experience;
face; and beauty, which makes so deep an impression, because a foundation fo uncertain and precarious,
is known to result, not so much from regular feaèures would prove a great obstacle to the formacion of so-
and a fine complexion, as from good.nature, goed- cieties. Wisely therefore is it ordered, and agrecably
sense, sprightliness, sweetness, or other mental qua- to the system of providence, that we should have ná-
lity, expressed upon the countenance. Though per- ture for our instructor.
frá fill in that language be rare, yet what is gene- Such is the philosophy of Lord Kames, to which
rally known is fufficient for the ordinary parposes of o'sje&tions unaniwerable may be made. It is part of
life. But by what means we come to understand the the instinctive system of metaphyfics, which hić Lord.
language, is a point of foine intricacy. It cannot be ship has carried farther than all who wrote before him,
by light merely ; for upon the most attentive inspec. and perhaps farther than all who have succeeded him
tion of the human visage, all that can be discerned in this department of science. That a child intuitive-
are, figure, colour, and motion, which, singly or com- ly reads anger in its nurse's face, is so far from being
bined, never can represent a passion nor a fentiinent: true, that for some short time after birth ic is not ter.
the excernal sign is indeed visible; but to understand rified by the moft menacing gestures. It is indeed
its meaning, we must be able to connect it with the absolutely incapable of fear till it has suffered pain,
paffion that causes it; an operation far beyond the (fee INSTINCT); and could we conitantly caress it
reach of eye-light. Where then is the inftructor to with what is called an angry look, it would be cherred
be found that can unveil this secret connection ? If by that look, and frightened at a smile. It feels, how-
we apply to experience, it is yielded, that from long ever, the effects of anger, and is soon capable of obfer.
and diligent observation, we may gather, in some ving the peculiarity of feature with which that paf-
measure, in what manner those we are acquainted with fion is usually accompanied; and these two become in
express their paffions externally : but with respect to a short time' fo linked together ir. its tender mind,


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Paffion. that the appearance of the one necessarily suggefts to other means to improve the social affe&ions. Lan. Passion. it the reality of the other.

guage, no doubt, is the most comprehenfive vehicle for Should it be seid that a loud and sudden noise communicating emotions : but in expedition, as well Atartles a child immediately after birth, and that, there. as in power of conviction, it falls short of the figns fore, the infant must be inftin&tively afraid, the fact under confideration; the involuntary figns especially, my be admitted, without any neceflity of admitting. which are incapable of deceit. Where the counte. the inference. The nerves of an infant are commonly nance, the tones, the gestures, the actions, join with very irritable, and the strong impulse on the auditory the words in communicating emotions, these united nerves may agitate its whole frame, without i:.{piring have a force irresistible. Thus all the pleasant emo. it with the passion of fear. The loud noise is, in all tions of the human heart, with all the social and virprobability, not the fign of approaching danger, but tuous affections, are, by means of these external signs, the immediate cause of real pain, from which the in- not only perceived, but felt. By this admirable confant shrinks, as it would from the prick of a pin, or trivance, conversation becomes that lively and ani. the scorching of a candle. But we have faid enough mating amusement, without which life would at belt in the article immediately preceding; and in others be infipid : one joyful countenance spreads cheerfulwhich are there quoted, to show how the passions may ness instantaneously

through a multitude of spectators.
be formed by associations even in early infancy, and 4. Dissocial passions, being hurtful by prompting
yet operate as if they were instinctive. This being violence and mischief, are noted by the most confpic
the case, we shall through the remainder of this article cuous external signs, in order to put us upon our
fuffer his Lordship to speak his own language, with. guard : thus anger and revenge, especially when fud.
out making any further remarks upon it. We are den, display themselves on the countenance in legible
induced to do this for two reasons ; of which the first characters. The external signs, again, of every paflioa
is, that many of our readers will probably prefer bis that threatens danger, raise in us the paffion of fear :
theory to ours ; and the second is, that his conclufions which frequently operating without reason or reflection,
refpe&ting the figns and language of passion hold moves us by a sudden impulse to avoid the impending
equally good from either theory.

We perfectly agree with him, that manifold and S. These external signs are remarkably subfervient
admirable are the purposes to which the external to morality. A painful passion, being accompanied
figns of passion are made subservient by the Author with disagreeable external signs, must produce in every
of our nature.

fpectator a painful emotion : but then, if the passion be
1. The figns of internal agitation displayed exter. focial, the emotion it produces is attra&ive, and con-
nally to every spectator, tend to fix the fignification nects the spectator with the person who fùffers. Dif.
of many words. The only effectual means to ascertain social paffions only are productive of repulsive emo-
the meaning of any doubtful word, is an appeal to the tions, is volving the spectator's aversion, and frequently
thing it represents: and hence the ambiguity of words his indignation. This artful contrivance makes us
expressive of things that are not objects of external cling to the virtuous, and abhor the wicked.
fense ; for in that case an appeal is denied. Passion, 6. Of all the external signs of passion, those of af..
Arialy speaking, is not an object of external sense : fiction or distress are the moft illuftrious with respect
but its external signs are : and by means of these signs, to a final cause, and deservedly merit a place of di.
paflions may be appealed to with tolerable accuracy : ftinction. They are illustrious by the fingularity of
thus the words that denote our passions, next to those their contrivance; and also by inspiring fympathy, a "
that denote external objects, have the most distinct passion to which human society is indebted for its -
meaning. Words fignifying internal action and the greatest blessing, that of providing relief for the dic:
more delicate feelings, are less diftin&t. This defect, stressed. A subject so interesting deserves a leisurely
with regard to internal action, is what chiefly occa- and attentive examination. The conformity of the na-
fions the intricacy of logic: the terms of that science ture of man to his external circumstances is in every

are far from being sufficiently ascertained, even after particular wonderful : his nature makes him prone to #-Luke.

much care and labour bestowed by an eminent writer*; fociety; and society is necessary to his well-being, be.
to whom, however, the world is greatly indebted, for: cause in a folitary ftate he is a helpless being, defti.
removing a mountain of rubbish, and moulding the tute of support, and in his diftreffes deftitute of re.
fubje& into a rational and correct form. The fame de- lief: but mental supportthe shining attribute of
fee is remarkable in criticism, which has for its ob: society, is of too great moment to be left depen.
ject the more delicate feelings; the terms that denote dent upon cool reason; it is ordered more wisely,
these feelings being not more distinct than those of and with greater conformity to the analogy of nature,

that it should be enforced even instinctively by the
2. Society among individuals is greatly promoted paflion of sympathy. Here sympathy makes a capital
by that universal language. Looks and gestures give figure ; and contributes, more than any other means,
direct access to the heart ; and lead us to selea, with to make life easy and comfortable. But however el.
tolerable accuracy, the persons who are worthy of our sential the sympathy of others may be to our well.
confidence. It is furprifing how quickly, and for the being, one beforehand would not readily conceive how
moft part how correctiy, we judge of character from it could be raised by external signs of distress : for con-
external appearance.

fidering the analogy of Bature, if these figns be agree3. After social intercourse is commenced, these ex. able, they must give birth to a pleasant emotion lead ternal figna, which diffuse through a whole assembly ing every beholder to be pleased with human woes: if the feelings of each individual, contribute above all disagreeable, as they undoubtedly are, ought they not


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Paffion. naturally to repel the spectator from them, in order well known, that passion hath also an influence upon Pollion,

to be relieved from pain? Such would be the reason. our perceptions, opinions, and belief. For example,
ing beforehand ; and such would be the effect were the opinions we form of men and things are generally
man purely a selfish being. But the benevolence of directed by affection: An advice given by a man of fi-
our nature gives a very different direction to the p:in. gure hath great weight; the same advice from one in
ful passion of sympathy, and to the desire involved in a low condition is despised or neglected : a man of
it: inftead of avoiding distress, we fly to it in order courage under-rates danger ; and to the indolent the
to afford relief; and our sympathy cannot be other nightest obstacle appears unsurmountable. All this
wife gratified but by giving all the succour in our may be accounted for by the simple principle of allo.
power. Thus external figns of dittress, though difa. ciation.
grecable, are attractive : and the fympathy they in. There is no truth more universally known, than
{pire is a powerful cause, impelling us to afford re- that tranquillity and sedateness are the proper state of
lief even to a stranger, as if he were our friend or re- mind for accurate perception and cool deliberation ;
lation. .

and for that reason, we never regard the opinion even
It is a noted observation, that the deepest tragedies of the wiseft man, when we discover prejudice or pas-
are the molt crowded : which in an overly view will be fion behind the curtain. Passion hath such influence
thought an unaccountable bias in human nature. Love over us, as to give a false light to all its objects. A.
of novelty, defire of occupation, beauty of action, make greeable passions prepossess the mind in favour of their
us fond of theatrical representations, and when once objects; and disagreeable passions, not less against their
engaged, ve mult follow the story to the conclufion, objects: A woman is all perfection in her lover's opi-
whatever diftress it may create. But we generally be. nion, while in the eye of a rival beauty she is aukward
come wife by experience; and when we foresee what and disagreeable : when the passion of love is gone,
pain we shall suffer during the course of the represen. beauty vanishes with it;- nothing is lest of that genteel
tation, is it not surprising that persons of reflection do motion, that sprightly conversation, those numberlesa
not avoid such spectacles altogether? And yet one who graces, which formerly, in the lover'a opinion, charm.
has scarce recovered from the distress of a deep tragedy, ed all hearts. To a zealot every one of his own sect
resolver coolly and deliberately to go to the very next, is a saint, while the molt upright of a different sect
without the nighteft obstruction from self-love. The are to him children of perdition : the talent of speak.
whole mystery is explained by a fingle observation : ing in a friend, is more regarded than prudent conduct
That sympathy, though painful, is attractive ; and at. in any other. Nor will this furprise any one acquaint-
taches us to an object in distress, initead of prompting ed with the world ; our opinions, the result frequent-
us to fly from it. And by this eurious mechanism it ly of various and complicated views, are commonly so
is, that persons of any degree of sensibility are attrac- night and wavering, as readily to be susceptible of a
ted by afiction still more than by joy.

bias from passion.
To conclude: the external signs of passion are a strong With that natural bias another circumstance con.
indication, that man, by his very conftitution, is fra- curs, to give passion an undue influence on our opi-
med to be open and sincere. A child, in all things nions and belief; and that is a strong tendency in our
obedient to the impulses of nature, hides none of its nature to justify our passions as well as our actions,
emotions; the savage and clown, who have no guide not to others only, but even to ourselves. That ten-
but pure nature, expose their hearts to view, by giving dency is peculiarly remarkable with respect to disa-
way to all the natural figns. And even when men learn greeable paffions : by its influence, objects are magni-
to diffemble their sentiments, and when behaviour de- fied or leftened, circumftInces supplied or supprefied,
generates into art, there still remain checks, that keep every thing coloured and disguised, to answer the end
disti nulation within bounds, and prevent a great part of justification. Hence the foundation of felf deceit,
of its mischievous effects: the total suppression of the where a man imposes upon himself innocently, and
voluntary signs during any vivid paflion, begets the even without suspicion of a bias.
utmost uneasiness, which cannot be endured for any We proceed to illustrate the foregoing observations
confiderable time: this operation becomes indeed less by proper examples.
painful by habit ; but luckily the involuntary signs Gratitude, when warm, is often exerted upon the
cannot, by any effort, be suppressed nor even dissem- children of the benefactor ; especially where he is ie.
bled. An absolute hypocrisy, by which the character moved out of reach by death or absence. The passion
is concealed and a fictitious one assumed, is made im. in this case being exerted for the sake of the benefac.
practicable; and nature hus thereby prevented much tor, requires no peculiar excellence in his children :
harm to fociety. We may pronounce, therefore, that but the pra&ice of doing good to these children pro-
Niture, herself fincere and candid, intends that man- duces affection for them, which never fails to advance
kind thould preserve the same character, by cultiva. them in our efteem. By fuch means, Itrong connec-
ting fimplicity and truth, and banishing every fort of tions of affection are often formed among individuals,
diflimulation that tends to mischief.

upon the Night foundation now mentioned.
Influence of Passion with respect to our Perceptions, Envy is a paflion, which, teing altogether unjusti.
Opinions, and Belief. So intimately are our perceptions, fiable, cannot be excuted but by disguiting it under
paffions, and actions, connected, it would be won- some plausible name. At the same time, no passion is
derful if they mould have no mutual influence. That more eager than envy to give its object a difagreeable
our actions are too much influenced by paflion, is a appearance : it magnifies every bad quality, and fixes
known truth; but it is not less certain, though not so on the molt humbling circumstances :


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