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PREFACE.

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HE volume of the HISTORY OF ENGLAND which we have now brought to a close,

narrates the great struggle for the liberties of the nation which commenced with the

accession of the Stuart dynasty, and which closed with it. The history of the reign of that family is the history of our battle for constitutional freedom, and our achievement of it. No volume of any history can be more important-none to us, as Englishmen, so important. James I. began with declaring the doctrine of royal absolutism. He represented himself as much God on earth as God is in heaven. All power of life and deathall command, not only of his subjects, but of the laws themselves, he declared to be in

his hands. If he made the law-makers, he asked whether it was not plain that he made the laws too. His son, Charles I., adopted this grandiose creed of his father, and trod faithfully in his steps ; but the people were not disposed to see their Magna Charta thus royally set aside, and Englishmen reduced to slaves. They fought for it. They conquered ; tried the monarch for his treason against the nation, and beheaded him for it ;—the first example of such a solemn act of justice by a people, on a monarch sinning against the popular rights entrusted to him. The Commonwealth succeeded, but the leaven of royalty working in the realm, Charles II. was restored, and, more successful than his father, destroyed once more the national independence. James attempting to go still further, and to restore rejected popery—thereby, if successful, subjecting this kingdom to the domination of a foreigner—the people finally expelled the Stuart dynasty, and elected William, Prince of Orange; thus cutting off for ever in this kingdom all pretensions of divine right to the throne. The Bill of Rights, which confirms this election, constitutes the modern Magna Charta of England. It is hence we date all the power of our present constitution. Such is the momentous story of this third volume of our History. It is a recital which has engaged the attention of all the great nations of the present world ; has already produced great events on the continent of Europe, and is destined to produce still greater. From the republic of England equally originated the principles, and the very creation of the republic of the United States of America. The story of this time cannot, therefore, be too carefully studied by all Englishmen.

In closing this eventful narrative, we have found ourselves compelled to call in question and refute the attempt of some modern historians of distinction to smooth over the insidious despotism of Charles II., and to represent him as a monarch not at all inclined to overstep the restraints of the constitution (see the review of the Laws and Constitution). In noticing this circumstance, we deem it useful once more to draw the attention of our readers to a few of the great points of historic fact, which we alone, of all our historians, have drawn forth and established.

The first of these is that of Magna Charta being not the work of the barons, but of the people. The great delusion which all our historians, in the face of the plainest facts, have regularly perpetuated, that the barons at Runnymede won the charter, is an aristocratic delusion, which is studiously maintained by that order to sanction its assumption of claims to govern us at will, as the class which achieved our liberties. The assumption is a fiction more airy and empty than a new year's dream. Whoever will refer to any history of the period, will see that the barons who bore arms at Runnymede, in vain attempted to bring John to grant a charter till the people of Bedford and London declared for him. Then John consented to

waste paper,

meet them at Runnymede, when he signed the charter, and again immediately rerudiated it. The barons were thus in the condition of a man who has got an acceptance-good, if taken up;

if dishonoured. Their charter was dishonoured. The debt of liberty had to be fought for, and John beat them. Thus worsted, they committed a most treasonable act in calling in the son of the French king to their aid, promising him the crown. John beat both them and their French king. On his death, Hubert de Burgh, constable of Dover, with a body of English sailors, and William de Collingham, with the archers of Sussex, drove the French prince out of the kingdom, put down the barons, and obtained the confirmation of the great charter from Henry III., with a new charter, the charter of the Forests. Thus the people—not the barons-acquired the charter ; and Blackstone, in his work on the Great Charter, confirms this plain fact, by saying that it is not John's charter, but the charter of Henry III. from which we date our liberties. As to these barons who, under pretence of establishing our liberties, would have reduced England to a French province, Carte says that on John's death a letter, signed by upwards of forty of them, was found in his pocket, offering to give up the charter on condition of a full pardon, and restoration of their estates. It is certain that the remnant left of them were only too glad to receive a pardon from Henry III., and never ceased to pursue the honest Hugh de Burgh for his share in defeating them. They never relaxed their malice till they ruined him with the king, though he was become justiciary of the kingdom-its chief minister-and made his life one miserable martyrdom for his patriotism.

The next great point which we have been able to bring out and place in complete light, is the great epoch of the revolution of our fiscal system, which took place by the bargain of Charles II. with the party which restored him (see our account in his reign, again adverted to under the head of Laws and Constitution), by which he surrendered all the feudal services for the grant of the excise for ever. The operation of this transaction, which transferred the support of his crown from the landholders to the people at large, with all its consequences of extravagant taxation and national debt, will be found first to be fully demonstrated in this present volume. The statute of 12 Car. II., which makes this transfer, has been incidentally referred to by former historians, as we have remarked, but without any clear perception of the grand revolution in our whole system of taxation which it originated ; perhaps, after all, the greatest revolution, as it concerns the rights and property of the community at large, which this country has seen.

Had we only succeeded in establishing these two vital points, we should have deemed them worth all the labour of research and composition, but we think we may refer with pride to the unrarying determination displayed through the whole work, to assert and maintain the great principles of justice and popular right. Whilst adverting to the testimony of Lord Brougham, on a late occasion, to this fact, we must, as a matter of justice to individuals, modify in some degree one of his assertions. It is, that none of the modern historians to whom he alluded, had condemned the French invasion of Henry V., though they bad those of Edward III. This is not strictly true as regards us. In condemning the invasion of France by Edward III., we condemned the invasion of Henry V. at the same time. We condemned those wars in toto. See Vol. I., p. 369. “The invasions of France by Edward III. raised the martial glory of England to the highest pitch. There is nothing in the miracles of bravery done at Leuctra, Marathon, or Thermopylæ, which can surpass those performed at Crecy, Poictiers, and on other occasions; but there the splendour of the parallel ends. The Greek battle-fields are sanctified by the imperishable renown of patriotism ; those of England, at that period, are distinguished only by empty ambition and unwarrantable aggression. The Greeks fought and conquered for the very existence of their country and liberties—the English to crush those of an independent people. The wars commenced by Edward III. inflicted the most direful miseries on France, were continued for generations, and perpetuated a spirit of hostility between the two great neighbour countries, which has been prolific of bloodshed, and most injurious to the progress of liberty and civilisation."

After this and similar denunciations of all those wars, it was not necessary to swell our pages by fresh ones under the reign of Henry V., but we explicitly kept in the reader's view that it was an unauthorised invasion of France. Speaking of Henry V.'s message to the French king, we say, Vol. I., p. 528 : “ This was singular language for a man to hold who was notoriously in a foreign country with a hostile force, come

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avowedly to subdue it by his arms, and, therefore, necessarily himself intending to shed the blood of Christians.”

There is another subject to which Lord Brougham alluded on the same occasiɔn, that canrot, without injustice to a highly meritorious historian, be passed over without explanation. Lord Brougham, as well as some of the Reviews, have given to a living author the merit of introducing into history the admirable improvement of reviewing the state of commerce, government, and society, at different periods. That merit undoubtedly belongs to Dr. Henry ; it is a merit of the highest kind, and one of which Lord Brougham would never wittingly have deprived the legitimate possessor. The merit of the historian, to whom his lordship alluded, consists in his having continued Dr. Henry's plan, and in his having continued it well. It is a plan which all modern historians have felt it necessary to follow, and one which we have ourselves a lopted. We have, however, in that department introduced much new matter, together with some corrected statements; and in a spirit of fearless inquiry and justice betwixt man and man, we proceed to trace the path of events before us.

The enormous circulation to which the HISTORY OF ENGLAND has attained—a history confessed by the highest judges to inculcate the soundest and most enlightened opinions—renders our work one, the importance of which cannot, we think, be over estimated, in preparing a healthy and patriotic future for the people at large.

ILLUSTRATIONS TO THE THIRD VOLUME.

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King James I.

1 Hugh M'Mahon betraying the secret of the Old English Merry-making

Coronation of King James I. at Westminster 6 intended massacre to Owen O'Conully

217

Costumes of tbe Stuart Period, 404, 405, 406, 407
Favorita dog of James I. discovered with a King Charles passing through the City

An Armourer's Shop

407

petition round his neck

7 King Charley and the Commons

223 Great Seal of Charles II.

405

Great Seal of King James I.

12 Fight for the Standard at the battle of Edge Rejoicings on the Restoration of Charles II. 409

George Buchanan

13 Hul

229 Charles II.

414

Prison Chamber of Sir Walter Raleigh 18 Prince Rupert, from an authentic portrait... 234 King Charles II. entering London

415

Sir Walter Raleigh in prison

19

Hampden wounded at Chalgrove Field 235 Savoy Palace

421

Old House at Lambeth ...

The Puritan Camp

2+1 Charles II introducing Lady Castlewaine... 496

King James and his Courtiers setting out for | Sir Thomas Fairfax, from an authentic por. Ejection of Nonconformists on St. Bartholo.

the Hunt

25 trait

2.16

mew's Day

427

Ths Gunpowder Couspirators in the Vault... 27 Cromwell proposing the self-denying ordi- Clock Tower in Dunkirk

432

Cellars under the Parliament House

Dance

247 The Great Plague, 1665. The Enthusiast

Arrest of Guy Fawkes
31' Oliver Cromwell

252 denouncing London

Hendlip House

36

Myrquis of Orinond, from a portrait by Sir The Pest House and Plague Pit at Finsbury 435

Arabella Stuart, from the original picture... 37 Peter Lely

253 Highgate Fields during the Great Fire

498

Great Hall at Theobald's

42 i Wenceslaus Hollar

258 The Burning of Old St. Paul's, 1666...

Flight of Arabella Stuart in male attire 43 The flight from Naseby

259 Hunting the Moth

405

The Fifth of November, 1611

48 Escape of King Charles from Oxford 265 Louis XIV. of France

Ben Jonson, Poet Laureate at the Court of Gateway of Holmby Castle

270 Attack on the Duke of Ormond

James I.

49 Arrest of King Charles by Joyce, at Holmby 271 Attack on Sir John Coventry

457

Arrest of Nonconformists

51

Cromwell discovering the King's letter at Kirby warning Charles II.

462

Accident to Rubert Carr, the King's favourite 55 the Blue Bour, Holborn

277 Amsterdam flooded

Prince Charles, Son of James I.

Carisbrook Castle, Isle of Wight

282 Disturbances in connection with the Popish

“Keeping Sunday" according to King Cromwell suppressing the Mutiny

2831 Plot

460

James's Book of Sports

61 Carisbrook, Isle of Wight

The Duke of Monmouth

47+

Dr. Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury

66 John Bradshaw, from an authentic portrait 289 Charles II, and tbe Duchess of Portsmouth 475
Buckingham, the King's favourite, passing Hurst Castle, Hampshire

294 Lord William Russell

481
through the streets in his Sedan

67 Removal of Charles from Hurst Castle 295 Charles II.

Irish Scenery. The Vale of Avoca

72 King Charles summoned to Execution 301 Death of Cameron

457

Cork River, in which Raleigh was detained Oliver Cromwell

306 The Duke of Moninouth

by stress of weather

73 Cromwell and Milton

307 Plan of Rye House

48-

Meeting of the Asseinbly in the settlement Great Seal of the Commonwealth

312 Lady Rachel Russell

49

of Virginia

78 Charles II., after the defent at Worcester, Trial of Lord William Russell

First interview of Prince Charles with the discovered in a barn, where he had taken James II.

Princess Henrietta, at Paris

79

refuge

313 Great Seal of James II..".

Balsas, or Boat of Skin, used by the Natives Boscobel House

318 James receiving the French Bribe

517

on the American Coast

82 Escape of Charles II. in the disguise of a Monmouth advancing on Taunton

Moorish Pirates of the Mediterranean at-

Servant

319 Flight of Monmouth

522

tacking an English Vessel

81 O'Brien and Ircton

321 Reception of Monmouth at Taunton

52)

The English Jester and the Spanish Ladies, Charles II. hidden in the Onk..

324 Burning of Elizabeth Gaunt

520
during the visit of Prince Charles to Admiral Blake, from an authentic portrait... 325 William of Orange

531

Madrid

85

Cromwell addressing the Parliament

330 Monmouth exchanging Clothes with a Shep-

Duke Olivarez, from the original portrait, 90 Cromwell taking the oath as Protector 331 herd

535
Prince Charles surprising the Infanta in the Cromwell dissolving the Parliament

336 The Earl of Shrewsbury, and other Nobles,

orchard

91 Richard Baxter, from an authentic portrait 337 dispatching their Proposals to the Prince

Palace at Gaalalajara, near Madrid, as it View in the mountains of Piedmont...

of Orange

541

appeared in the 17th Century

96

Accident to Cromwell in Hyde Park... 313 The Vessel which brought over the Prince

The Castle of Segovia

97 Malaya

318 of Orange to England

Interview of James I. with Prince Charles Cromwell refusing to accept the Crown 319 The Seven Bishops

547

and Buckingham

102 Richard Cromwell, from an authentic portrait 354 William of Orange entering Exeter...

333

Buckingham before the Council

103 Death of Cromwell

355 Queen of James II. concealed at Gravesend 558

Duke of Buckingham

108 Richard Cromwell signing his Abdication 361 The Flight of the Queen of James II.

559

King Jaines I. and the Spanish Ambassador 109 General Monk, from an authentic portrait... 366 Attack on James II. at the Isle of Sheppey. 563

Charlez I.

114 Lunding of Charles II. at Dover

367 Princess Anne

570

Death of King James I...

115 The Regalia of Scotland, copied from William of Orange and his Consort Mary

Landing of the Princess Henrietta

121 authentic sources

372 invited by Parliament to accept the

King Charles I.

126 Exiled Nonconformists landing in America, 373 Crown

571

Heurietta Maria, Queen of Charles I. 127' A Friends' Meeting, from an engraving of John Bunyan and his Blind Child

577
French Soldiers of the time of Louis XIII. 132 ! the 17th Century

375 Roger Williams' Derarture for Salem 579
Queeu Henrietta and Children of Charles I. 133 Declaration of Independency at the Savoy, Birthplace and Burialplace of John Milton.

582

Assassination of Buckingham...

138

September 29, 1638

378 John Milton

583

Peltou iu Prison

139 Arrest of Nonconformists

Scene from the Hudibras

585

Great Seal of Charles I....

144 i Rev. John Owen, D.D.

379 Allegorical Figure of a Commonwealth, from

Cathedral of Nuremberg

145 Coin of the value of fifteen shillings of the Hobbes' "Leviathan"

589

Sir Peter Paul Rubens

reign of James I.

38+ Sir Isaac Newton ...

Massacre at Magdeburg...

151 Coin of the value of thirty shillings of the John Bunyan

595

Battle of Lutzen

156

reign of James I.

391 Zoar Chapel, Southwark

Pryune in the Pillory

157 Crown of Cha·les I.

38+ Elstow Church

John Hampden, from an original portrait 162

Shilling of the Protector

Bunyan's Tomb

595

The Puritans embarking for the Colonies 163 William Shakespeare

Coins

592

Old Porch, at Galway

163 John Bunyan

390 Dr. William Harvey

John Pym

169 Château de Steen

391 Thomas Britton, Musical Small-conl Man...

The Affray in the High Church, Edinburgh 171 Anthony Vandyck

396 Furniture of the time of Charles II.

St. Giles's, Edinburgh

17+ The Crucifixion, by Vandyck

396 Costumes of the times of Charles II. and

The pursuit of the Bishop

175 Tomb of Sir Thomas Lucy at Charlecote

James II....

Signing the Covenant

180 West Front of Old St. Paul's

397 St. Stephen's, Walbrook

606

Sir Henry Vane, from the original portrait. 181 Old Hardwick Hall

398 Chelsea Hospital

607

Lambeth Palace

186 Castle Ashby

.398 Nell Gwynne's Looking-glass

607

Attack on Lambeth Palace

187 An Inn Yard

398 Theatrical Representation in an Inn yard ... 609

Children of Charles I.

193 Old House in London

399 Old London Water Carriers

Arrest of Lord Strafford

198 Tradesmen's Signs

400 Commemorative Medal

Lord Strafford going to trial

A Sedan

400

Cavaliers and Puritans

Calcutta in the 17th Century

204 Old London Lamp

400 Old forms of Punishment

Earl of Stafford, from an authentic picture 205 A Coach of the time of Charles I.

400 Goy and Magog

Strafford, on his way to execution, receiving
the blessing of Archbishop Land

A Room in Shakespeare's House at Stratford 401 Old game of Pell Mell

210 A State Bed

401

Rejoicings in London on account of the

The Hall of an old Euglish Squiro

Rubens' Chair

401 The Folly on the Thames

execution of Strafford

211 Baronial Hall, Charlecote

402

Edinburgh Castle...

Sir Christopher Wren's Plan for Rebuilding

216 Ancient Kitchen, with Dogwheel

402 London

693

342

516

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