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CHAPTER I.

introduced the kings of Scotland to the English throne. THE REIGN OF JAMES T. James enters England-Receives Foreign Embassies -- Lavish Disiribution After all the ages of conflict to unite the two kingdoms of Honours-Conspiracy against him-“The Main" and " The Bye"

under one crown, it was effected, but in the reverse direcTrials of the Conspirators—Execution of Watson, Clarke, and Brooke Reprieve of Raleigh, Cobham, and

Gray-Converence with Puritans- tion to that in which all the monarchs of England had Persecution of Catholics and Puritans-Gunpowder Plot-Imprisonment of Earl of Northumberland - New Penal Code Character of Anne of striven. They had not mounted the throne of Scotland, Denmark -Insurrection of the Levellers,Theobalds made over to Queen but Scotland sent her king to rule over England. With Anne hy Cecil - Attempted Union of England and Scotland-Story of Arabella Stunit– Death of Prince Henry-Carr the Scotch Favourito Elizabeth and the Tudors terminated the reign of unreDivorce of Earl and Countess of Essex— The Countess marries Carr, who sisted absolutism; with James commenced that mighty is made Earl of Somerset Ise of Villiers, the new Favourite-Arrest and Trial of Somerset and wis Countess-Murder of Sir Thomas Overbury- struggle for constitutional liberty which did not cease till Disgrace of Coke-Transactions with Holland-Synod of Dort-Episcopacy

introduced into Scotland—Visit of James to Scotland–The Five Articles. it had expelled this dynasty from the throne, and placed We open a new volume with a new dynasty, and an en- on a firm basis the independence of the people. tirely new order of things. The direct line of the Tudors With great haste various messengers flew to Scotland to ceased in Elizabeth, and the collateral one of the Stuarts | announce the demise of Elizabeth ; the winner in this raca

cease.

of loyalty, or, in other words, of'self-interest, being, as we have realised the full luxury of his new sovereignty, and anseen, Sir Robert Carey, to whom the artifice of his sister, lady nounced to those about him that they had indeed at last Scrope, had communicated the earliest news of the queen's de- arrived at the Land of Promisc. At Berwick he fired a

He reached Edinburgh four days before Sir Charles piece of ordnance himself in his joy, which seemed for the Percy and Thomas Somerset, who were despatched officially moment to have raised him above his constitutional timidity; by the council. Meantime, on March 24th, 1603, Cecil and he then sate down and wrote to Cecil, informing him of assembled thirty-five individuals, members of council, peers, his progress, and of his intention to take York and other prelates, and officers of state, at Whitehall, and accompanied places on his way. As he intended to enter York and pass by the lord mayor and aldermen, proclaimed James VI. of through other towns in state, he pressed on the obsequious Scotland James I. of England, first in front of the palace, minister the necessity of forwarding to him coaches, litters, and then at the High Cross, in Cheapside.

horses, jewels, and all that was requisite for regal dignity, as There were some who were apprehensive that the acces- well as a lord chamberlain ; and he forthwith appointed to sion of James might be opposed by the noblemen who had that office the lord Thomas Howard. He informed the been so active in the death of his mother. But these had minister that the jewels as well as dresses which he required taken care to make their peace with the facile James, whose were such as were necessary to enable his wife to appear filial affection was not of an intensity to weigh much in the as queen-consort in her new realm, which he again urged scales with the crown of England. On the contrary, his should be sent to York to await the arrival of her majesty, accession was hailed with apparent enthusiasm by all par- who did not accompany him, as she expected her conties, for all parties believed that they should reap decided finement, but was to follow as soon as convenient. James, advantages from his government. The persecuted catholics moreover, desired them not to delay the funeral of the felt certain that the son of the queen of Scots would at least late queen on his account,-it was a ceremony which he tolerate their religion, as he had many a time privately preferred being exempt from; and accordingly Elizabeth assured their agents. The puritans were equally confident was deposited in Westminster Abbey without further prothat a king who had been educated in the strictest faith of crastination. James also ordered coins of gold and silver to Calvinism, would place them in the ascendant; and the be struck, after the manner of former English kings, against episcopal church—as it deemed, on equally good grounds the day of his coronation, and proceeded lazily on his way, rejoiced in the advent of a prince who had protested to its rarely passing a gentleman's house without taking up his friends that he was heartily sick of a religion which had quarters there, with his constantly increasing retinue, and domineered over both his mother and himself with an iron hunting, and living on his host as long as there were the rigidity. The populace, in the hope of a milder yoke than means. Many families did not recover the debt into which that of the truculent Tudors, gave vent to their joy in loud this plunged them, for ages. At Houghton Tower, near acclamations, by bonfires and ringing of bells, while Elizabeth Blackburn in Lancashire, after remaining some time, on lookwas lying a corpse, scarcely cold, on her bier,

ing out of the window one day, and not observing a fine James, who was in his thirty-seventh year, was trans- herd of cattle in the meadow below, which he had seen at ported at the prospect of his escape from the poverty and his coming, he demanded of the owner where they were. religious restraint of Scotland, to the affluence of so much His host replied that they were all killed and eaten by his more extensive an empire, and one only impediment checked majesty's followers. “Then,” said James, “it is time to be his flight southward-the want of money for the journey. going.” He staid three days at York, and did not reach He sent a speedy message to Cecil for the necessary funds, Newark till the 21st of the month. Cecil had met him at and also added a request for the transmission of the crown York, and accompanied his progress; and as he rode forjewels for the adornment of his wife. The money was ward the people crowded around to welcome their new forwarded, but the jewels were prudently withheld till he sovereign with the most hearty acclamations. To express reached his future capital. Once in possession of the means his satisfaction to the gentry, he made almost every man of of locomotion, James did not conceal his pleasure at escap- any standing who approached him a knight; so that by the ing from the control of his presbyterian clergy, and time he reached London he is said to have created two hunthe haughty rudeness of his nobles, to an accession of dred and fifty, and before he had been in England three wealth and power which he imagined would make him as months, seven hundred knights, a profusion which took absolute as Henry VIII., a condition for which he had an away every value from the gift. intense yearning. Now was the time for the English At Newark James startled the public by an act of absoluministers to have taken from him a guarantee for the main-tism. A pick-pocket was detected in the very act, who had tenance of the constitution, as secured by Magna Charta, accompanied the court all the way from Berwick, wearing and for the redress of the gross abuses which had accumu- the appearance of a gentleman, and had thus reaped a good lated under the Tudor government. But Cecil and his harvest. James ordered him to instant execution without compeers were too much concerned for their own especial judge or jury, and when some one ventured to remark that aggrandisement, to take any precautions for the public | this was not the English practice, he replied, “ Do I not make benefit; and the new monarch was suffered to enter on his the judges ? do I not make the bishops? Then, God's wounds ! functions as if there were no constitutional restraints at all, I make what likes me, law and gospel.” On the 3rd of a neglect which soon led him to boast of his royal right to May, having been nearly a month on the way, he arrived at do whatever he pleased.

Theobalds, the magnificent residence of Cecil, whither On the 5th of April James commenced his journey towards flocked to him numbers of the nobility and gentry, amongst London, but however much he rejoiced in the prospect of the most zealous of whom appeared Francis Bacon, who was his new kingdom, he was in no haste to reach the capital. as thorough a courtier as he was a philosopher. He wrote to The moment that he set foot in England he seemed to have the earl of Northumberland a very flattering account of

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3 A D. 1603.1

ARRIVAL OF JAMES IN LONDON. James, yet clearly indicating his faults. “Your lordship,” | represented these statesmen as having made overtures to says Bacon, “ shall find a prince the furthest from vain-glory Spain for the support of another candidate for the throne. that may be, and rather like a prince of the ancient form Northumberland was equally the object of Cecil's dislike, but than of the latter time. His speech is swift and cursory, and Bacon was warmly in his favour, and the king received him in the fullest dialect of his nation; and in speech of business graciously. The Scotchmen who received immediate admisshort, in speech of discourse large. He affecteth popularity sion to the royal council were the duke of Lennox, the earl by gracing them that are popular, and not any fashions of of Mar, the lord Hume, Sir George Hume, Bruce of Kinloss, his own. He is thought somewhat general in his favours, and secretary Elphinstone; the Englishmen were Cecil, the and his virtue of access is rather that he is much abroad and earls of Nottingham and Cumberland, the lords Henry and in press, than that he giveth easy audience; he hasteth to a Thomas Howard, and the barons Zouch and Borough. mixture of both kingdoms and nations, faster, perhaps, than On the 7th James set out for his capital, and at Stamford policy will bear.”

Hill was met by the lord mayor and aldermen of London in The truth was that James, who made himself very free their scarlet robes, followed by a great crowd, and with and easy in his immediate circle, greatly disliked exposure these he entered the city, and proceeded to the Charterto the mob, and dealt about his smiles and knighthoods to House. He immediately caused a proclamation to be made get rid of his throngers as soon as possible. By the time that all licences and monopolies granted by Elizabeth, he had reached Berwick he had knighted three persons ; at and which had excited so much discontent, should be Widdrington he knighted eleven, at York thirty-one, at suspended till they had been examined by the council; that Worksop in Nottinghamshire eighteen, at Newark eight, on all protections from the crown to delay the progress of the road thence to Belvoir Castle four, at Belvoir forty-five. justice in the courts of law should cease, as well as the Yet gracious as he was and agreeable as he wanted to make abuses of purveyance, and the oppressions of saltpetre himself, his new subjects did not behold his person and makers and officers of the household. manner without considerable astonishment. The fright These announcements were calculated to inspire the hope of which his mother had received before his birth by the murder a reign of justice, but with the peculiar art which James of Rizzio, is supposed to have had a mischievous effect on possessed of neutralising his favours, they were quickly both his physical and moral constitution, and the absurd followed by an injunction against all persons whatever fractice of swathing children in that age, from which large killing the king's deer or wild-fowl; James being passionnumbers perished, added, it is imagined, its untoward influ- ately fond of hunting and sporting, and apprehensive that ences to his gait and carriage; for this son of the beautiful during the absence of the prince inroads would be made on queen of Scots is described by a contemporary, “as of a his beloved game. middle stature, more corpulent through his clothes than in From the Charter-House he proceeded, according to his body, his clothes being ever made large and easy; the routine, to the Tower, and thence to Greenwich and back doublets quilted for stiletto proof, his breeches in great plaits to Whitehall, at every step making more knights and and full stuffed. He was naturally of a timorous disposition, creating peers. He had sent for the earl of Southampton to which was the greatest reason of his quilted doublets. His meet him at York, and he now restored both him and the eyes large, ever rolling after any stranger who came into son of his friend the earl of Essex to their honours and his presence, in so much as many for shame left the room, as estates. Mountjoy and three of the Howards were raised being out of countenance. His beard was very thin ; his to the rank of earls; nine new barons were created, amongst tongue too large for his mouth, which made him drink very them Cecil, who was made lord Cecil, and afterwards uncomely, as if eating his drink, which came out into the viscount Cranbourne, and finally earl of Salisbury. Buckcup on each side of his mouth. His skin was as soft as hurst and Egerton were promoted; and eventually, besides taffety sarcenet, which felt so because he never washed his his seven hundred spick-and-span new knights, he added hands, only rubbed his fingers slightly with the wet end of sixty-two fresh members to the peerage. So extravagant a napkin. His legs were very weak, having had, as was was his distribution of honours that a pasquinade was affixed thought, some foul play in his youth, or rather before he was to the door of St. Paul's, offering to teach weak memories born, that he was not able to stand at seven years of age; the art of recollecting the titles of the nobility.

The people, that weakness made him ever leaning on other men's moreover, were disgusted to hear the new monarch, who shoulders." His ungainly person and his equally uncouth claimed to be a man of first-rate learning, speak with condialect, no little amazed the stately courtiers of Elizabeth, tempt of the talents and character of their late queen. who, however, paid him the most devoted homage, as the Elizabeth had in her last days fallen deeply in public opinion dispenser of the honours and good hoped for.

by her treatment of the earl of Essex, who had been in At Theobalds Cecil had the opportunity of studying secret alliance with James, but they were not prepared to James's character and of ingratiating himself with him. A hear her disparaged for ability by her successor. Had he new council was formed, and whilst James introduced six of condemned her memory, which he might with justice, as his own countrymen, Cecil recommended six of his partisans the oppressor and murderess of his mother, little could be to balance them. Whilst he had corresponded with James objected, though his own exertions to save that mother he had managed to fix in his mind a deep and ineradicable had not been of a very energetic kind, and he had been aversion to the men whom he himself regarded with jealous willing to become the pensioner of the royal assassin ; and hostile feelings- Raleigh, Cobham, and Grey. It was but his treatment of her memory as of a weak and in vain that they paid their court, they were treated with mediocre ruler only tended to revive the acknowedgment of coldness, and Raleigh, instead of receiving the promotion to her remarkable intellectual and diplomatic powers. which he aspired, was even deprived of the valuable office of Whilst James was receiving the welcome of his English the warden of the Stannaries. It is supposed that Cecil had subjects, he was not free from domestic trials, of no trivial

kind. Ilis queen had always struggled against the rule suite, and the son of Sir Robert, a boy of twelve years, of state by which the heir-apparent of Scotland was taken leading a dog as a present to the prince, and followed by a out of the hands of his own mother, and placed in those of troop of other boys dressed as foresters. Then came a troop a state guardian. Prince Henry, now ten years old, had of hunters, and another of morris-dancers, all making suitbeen placed as a mere infant in the care of the earl of Mar, able addresses in verse. Thence the queen went to Sir in Stirling Castle, where he was educating under the learned Hatton Fermor's, where the king met her, and there was a Adam Newton ; and James had himself written a book, great flocking thither of courtiers and gentry; and so they which he called “ Basilicon Doron; or, His Majesty's In- progressed from house to house till they reached Windsor, structions to his Dearest Son, the Prince,” for his especial where the king held a solemn chapter of the garter, and guidance. But queen Anne preferred the dictates of nature made prince Henry, the duke of Lennox, and other nobles, to those of state policy, and never ceased to importune the knights of that order. king for the society of her children, of whom now she had After this the court removed to Westminster for the three-Henry, Elizabeth, and Charles.

Weak as

was coronation, which took place on the 25th. The weather James in many respects, he was, like most weak men, ex- had been intensely hot, and it now set in as rainy. To spoil cessively stubborn ; and on this head he stood firm against the pleasure of the people, the plague was raging fiercely in all the entreaties of his spouse. He contended that in the city, and the inhabitants were by proclamation forbidden Scotland it had always been the policy of the nobles to to enter Westminster. No queen-consort had been crowned possess themselves of the heir, and then destroy the reigning since Anne Boleyn, nor had any king and queen been king, that they might hold the power through a long crowned together since Henry VIII. and Catherine of minority. That, owing to such causes, there had been no Arragon, and therefore the restriction was the more morfewer than seven successive minorities of the kings of Scot- tifying. Queen Anne went to the coronation “ with her land, stretching from the reign of Robert III. to his own time, seemly hair down hanging on her princely shoulders, and and that he himself had been thus set up against his own on her head a coronet of gold. She so mildly saluted her mother. That he owed his life and crown to the very plan new subjects, that the women, weeping, cried out with one which he was now enforcing. These were strong reasons, voice, ‘God bless the royal queen! Welcome to England, but nature in the mother was still stronger; and, foiled as long to live and continue !!” she had been till now, no sooner was James in England, and That week there died in London and the suburbs eight the earl of Mar summoned to attend him, than Anne pre- hundred and fifty-seven persons of the plague. On the 5th sented herself at Stirling, and demanded her son of the of August James ordered morning and evening prayers and countess of Mar. That lady, however, was inexorable in sermons, with bonfires all night to drive away the pestilence, the discharge of her high trust, and a great contention arose not forgetting to order that all men should praise God for betwixt the faction of the queen and that of the king. De- his Majesty's escape that day three years before, from the spatches were forwarded to James both from the countess of Gowry conspiracy; and on the 10th of August he comMar and from the queen. For a time he refused to yield, but manded that a fast, with sermons of repentance, should be finding that the agitation of the queen had led to the prema- held, and repeated every week on Wednesday so long as tho ture birth of a son, which was dead, and to the serious illness plague continued. of the queen, he gave way; and Anne, when sufficiently James's pride was soon gratified by the flocking in of restored, set out with the prince Henry and the princess ambassadors from all the great nations of Europe, soliciting Elizabeth, the second son Charles being left behind at the his alliance; and on the first intimation of their approach he queen's palace of Dunfermline, under the earl of Fife. appointed Sir Lewis Lewknor master of the ceremonies,

The progress of Anne of Denmark was one continuous to receive and entertain these distinguished persons. This fête, as thronged as that of her husband, and certainly much was the first establishment of such an office in England. more poetical. Lady Bedford and lady Ilarrington had First arrived, from Holland and the United Provinces, prince voluntarily travelled to Edinburgh to pay their respects to Frederick of Nassau, son of the prince of Orange, attended by her; and at Berwick a number of other ladies, attended by the three able diplomatists, Valck, Barnevelt, and Brederode. the earls of Sussex and Lincoln, and Sir George Carew, James, with equally high notions of the royal prerogative, were in waiting for her, with the required dresses and had not the sympathy of Elizabeth with the struggles of jewels. From York, where silver cups heaped with gold protestatism abroad, and therefore regarded the revolted angels were presented to her majesty and to the young prince Netherlanders as rebels and traitors, and did not fail amongst and princess, and where, on her departure, the corporation, his courtiers to pronounce them so; and more particularly all in their robes, escorted her out of the city, she advanced, as they owed the English crown large sums for their assistthrough Grimstone, Newark, and Nottingham, to Dingley, ance, which they appeared in no hurry to pay. He, therenear Leicester, at which place the little princess Elizabeth fore, framed various excuses to defer their audiences till the separated from her, and was conducted to Combe Abbey, near arrival of the envoy of the archduke of Austria, count AremCoventry, the seat of the IIarringtons, to be educated under berg, who was not long in appearing, bringing the agreeable the care of the ladies Harrington and Kildare.

news that the archduke had liberated all English prisoners, 28 At Al thorpe, the seat of Sir Robert Spenser, the queen the subjects of a friendly power. Two days after Aremberg's was received on the eve of Midsummer-day, with “The arrival, the celebrated Rhosny, afterwarıls still better known Masque of the Fairies,” the first of the splendid series of as the duke of Sully, reached London. Aremberg was in Ben Jonson, who from that day became the queen's especial no condition to negotiate on any positive terms till he repoet; and whatever were the faults of Anne of Denmark, she ceived instructions from Spain; and Rhosny seized time by was the friend and advocate of genius. As the queen advanced the forclock, by distributing amongst the courtiers sixty there came before her satyrs, queen Mab with all her fairy thousand crowns, a considerable sum of which found its

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A.D. 1603.)
THE “ MAIN” AND “ BYE" CONSPIRACIES.

5 way into the queen's purse. He prevailed on James to make plotted for the overthrow of the crafty minister. Rhosny, a treaty with Henry IV., in which he engaged to send the French envoy extraordinary, had, whilst in London, money to the states in aid against the Spaniards, and join done his best to inspire James with distrust of Cecil; and France in open hostilities should Philip attempt to invade there is little doubt that this was at the suggestion, or with that country.

Rhosny, delighted with his success—for the co-operation of Cobham, Northumberland, and Raleigh. llenry feared nothing more than James's making peace When Northumberland drew back, these two held commuwith Spain, and leaving him to assist Holland alone-re- nication with Aremberg, to whom they offered their services turned to France. But a little time convinced the French in promoting the objects he sought on behalf of Spain and court that nothing in reality had been secured by it, for the Netherlands. Aremberg, who did not know what was James had no money to send to Holland had he been really going on at the Spanish court, communicated the proposal so disposed, which is doubtful, and that he merely temporised to the archduke, who instructed him to give a favourable with them as he had done with different states before.

What the scheme proposed by Cobham and Meantime the court of Spain, notwithstanding the activity Raleigh precisely was seems never to have been known; of France, was slow in deciding the course of policy to be but we may suppose that in return for aid from the archadopted towards England under the new king. After the duke, these ambitious men were to attempt the removal of decided hostility towards it under Elizabeth, and the signal Ce by some means, and on their succeeding to power, the defeats experienced, pride forbade Philip to solicit a peace, exertion of their influence with the king on behalf of Spain. lest it should look like weakness. And, indeed, Spain had This was designated by those in the secret as “The never recovered from the severe blow received in the loss of Main" conspiracy; but there were also another going on its Armade, and the other ravages of its ports and colonies simultaneously, of which these gentlemen are supposed to by the English, added to the loss of a great portion of the have been cognisant, but not mixed up with.

This was Low Countries; and this consciousness made it more tardy called “The Bye” conspiracy, and was composed of an in its proceedings. But whilst engaged in prolonged extraordinary medley of the discontented, the most deterdiscussions on this head, two Englishmen arrived at the mined of whom aimed at nothing less than the seizure of the court of Spain, whose mission was of a nature to bring it to king, and the government of the country in his name, for a decision. These were Wright and Fawkes, who were soon their own party purposes. to assume a conspicuous position in the strife betwixt the The grand cause of discontent was the disappointment of catholics and protestants of England. Previous to the both catholics and puritans in James. Before his coming to death of Elizabeth, Thomas Winter had negotiated with the the English crown he had held out the most flattering Spanish court a plan for the invasion of this country, which expectations to the catholics that he would grant them had been abandoned on her decease. Now, however, the toleration, whilst the puritans calculated on his presbyterian scheme was revived, and these two emissaries were de- education for a decided adhesion to their views.

But no spatched to sound the present disposition of the court of sooner did he reach England than he threw himself into the Madrid. This direct appeal from the conspirators seems to arms of the high church party, declaring that it was the have startled the Spanish government from its wavering only religion fit for a king. To the catholics he depolicy. It was not prepared for anything so desperate, and clared he would grant no toleration — rather would he replied that it had no cause of complaint against James, but, fight to the death against it; and he took no pains to on the contrary, regarded him as a friend and ally, and had conceal his disgust at the presbyterian clergy amongst. appointed the Conde de Villa Mediana as ambassador to his whom he had spent his youth. The antagonisin of court.

catholic and puritan was forgotten in the resentment against This was decisive, and the way now seemed open towards this disclosure of the king's disposition. Instantly plans a more friendly tone betwixt Spain and England; but there were cogitated to avenge themselves of the royal perfidy, as appears at the same moment a secret and mysterious corre- it was termed, and to secure themselves against the spondence to have been going on betwixt Aremberg, the threatened storm. Sir Griffin Markham, a catholic genagent of the archduke of Austria, and a discontented party tleman, of no great property or influence, concerted with in England. Northumberland, Cobham, and Raleigh two priests, Watson and Clarke, the means of raising the were ill at ease under the disappointment which they had catholics against the government. Watson had been sent into met with in their hopes of favour at James's court. Nor- Scotland, to James, on behalf of the catholics, before the tìumberland had been to a certain degree graciously received, death of Elizabeth, and he represented now indignantly, and even entertained with promises by James ; but he felt that James had given them, through him, the most solemn that whilst Cecil was so completely in the ascendant there promises of toleration, which he had now broken. He, was little hope of a cordial feeling towards him in the therefore, threw himself with the greatest heat into the monarch's heart. Cobham and Raleigh were undisguisedly conspiracy : he drew up an awful oath of secresy, and he in disgrace, and were shunned by the courtiers as fallen and Clarke travelled far and wide amongst the catholic men. The three friends, therefore, entered into intrigues families, calling upon them to come forward in the name of with the court of France through the resident minister their religion and their property. Beaumont, and Rhosny, the envoy cxtraordinary. For a But their success was trivial; few or none of the catholics time their suggestions were listened to, but the apparent of weight and station would engage in the enterprise. Failsuccess of Rhosny with James put an end to all further ing there, Watson turned his attention to the puritans; and overtures, and there Northumberland was prudent enough with them he was more successful, by artfully concealing to desist. But Cobham and Raleigh, disappointed of court from them the paucity of the catholics who had joined the favour, and burning with resentment against Cecil, whom conspiracy, and the full extent of his own intentions. Lord they felt to be the cause of their disgrace, went ou, and | Grey of Wilton, who was a leading puritan, and had his

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