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of the Bill. The Congested Districts Board has in the matter of land purchase proved a comparative failure. They have done some good work in developing fisheries, improving stock, fostering small industries and in technical education, and all that business is to be transferred to the Board of Agriculture and Technical Instruction. The Estates Commissioners have bought land more readily and cheaper than the Congested Districts Board, and the land purchase business of the Board might with advantage be transferred to them. Over a great part of the country two departments with their separate establishments will be working side by side, perhaps in harmony, perhaps in discord, at precisely the same operation—land purchase. The Estates Commissioners who understand the business are restricted in their area, and in many counties will be unable to act save by permission of the Congested Districts Board. The area of the Congested Districts Board, who do not understand the business, is enlarged, and they are invested with extraordinary powers. Three bodies are doing the work of two, and Ireland is saddled with great and unnecessary expense.

To sum up the situation. The Land Act of 1903 was a great measure conceived in an Imperial spirit designed to effect a revolution in land tenure in Ireland necessary for the well-being, not only of Ireland but of Great Britain and the whole Empire. It has proved successful beyond the dreams of the most sanguine ; but its success has proved its undoing. The Treasury are unable to find money to finance the Act, without incurring a loss which the Government decline to sanction. The finance of the Act of 1903 has been severely criticised. Considering that 2} per cent. Consols stood at 9318 when the Act was passed, Mr. Wyndham was justified in assuming that sufficient money could be raised by the issue of stock bearing 24 per cent. interest. He was wrong, but if 'virile agitation' had not been preached in Ireland, and if sounder financial methods had been adopted by the Treasury, losses on flotation would have been comparatively small. That matter cannot be investigated in this article, but two facts are patent. Disorder has depressed Irish land stock, and the Treasury have not acted as prudent borrowers. They have neglected favourable opportunities of obtaining comparatively large sums, sums in excess of their immediate requirements, and have been forced to borrow when opportunities were unfavourable. Why his Majesty's Government have shot a new Land Act upon the country at a period that makes it impossible that it can be passed or even discussed this Session, is past all finding out. They had all the material before them, and might have put forward their proposals at least nine months ago. It would have cost a mere trifle to carry on the Act of 1903, while Irishmen had an opportunity of calmly considering a matter of such vast importance to their country. It will cost a mere trifle to carry on the Act now for a short time, and that is probably the best solution of the difficulty before us. Finality is the one thing necessary if Ireland is to be saved from perpetual turmoil. Finality was reached by the Conference and the Act of 1903. No one will deny that the whole great peaceful revolution would be accomplished under that Act in five or six years' time if funds could be provided ; and there is no reason why under the same favourable circumstances the settlement of the congested districts question should not have proceeded pari passu with it. It is all a question of money. True statesmanship would recognise the wisdom of charging the votes with the annual sum necessary to provide excess stock. With the payment to Ireland of arrears due to the development grant, and with better methods of finance, the annual sum required could not be over a quarter of a million for a limited number of years; and it would be a gradually declining charge. A peaceful Ireland would not be dear at the price. It seems a pity to re-open a closed question, to offer encouragement to the forces of disorder, to run the risk of throwing Ireland off the peaceful path of reform and material development which the great majority of her people desire to tread, and all for the sake of a sum that represents less than one halfpenny in the pound on the amounts annually voted by Parliament.

DUNRAVEN.

The Editor of THE NINETEENTH CENTURY cannot undertake

to return unaccepted MSS.

INDEX TO VOL. LXIV.

The titles of articles are printed in italics

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Balkan crisis, The, and the European
of Egypt, and British control, Powers, 705-729
85-100

Balkans, The Military Situation in
Abd-ul-Hamid and the 'Young Turks,' the, 730-747
353-372

Balloons and airships, their use in
Aerial Navigation, The Problem of, warfare, 430-442
430-442

Barbizon school of painting, Some
Aerial Navigation, The Problem of : specimens at recent sales, 475-

a Reply to Professor Newcomb, 478
777-785

Barker (J. Ellis), The Triple Entente
Agriculture in Norfolk, its indebtedness and the Triple Alliance, 1-17
to Coke, 321-330

Barnes (J. H.), An Actor's Views on
Alcoholism and temperance in Rou. Plays and Playwriting, 461-468
mania, 976-980

Barnes (Dr. W. Emery), The Lambeth
Alien-Subjects, Revocation of Treaty Conference and the Athanasian
Privileges to, 653-664

Creed,' 44-47
Alps, High, The Poet in, 665-671

Bashford (J. L.), The Berlin Crisis,
Amateur Artist, The, 1011-1017

908-923
America, North, French colonisation Basque celebrations of the Month of
in, 108--121

Mary,' 240-257
Anglican Churches, Autonomy in the : Bastille, The, 294-299
Church Reform, 258-265

Battleship · building, British

and
Anthropology, The Empire and, 133- foreign, 885-907
146

Battleships for Brazil, 207-214
Anti - Suffrage Movement, The Bellew (Mrs.),

Charlotte-Jeanne :
Women's, 343-352

a forgotten Episode of the French
Anti-suffragists and woman suffrage, Revolution, 997-1010
495-506

Bengal, Sedition in, 16–25, 951-954
Apollo and Dionysus in England, Berlin Crisis, The, 908-923
74-84

Berlin Revisited by a British Tourist.
Architecture, sculpture, and painting 811-823

at the Franco-British Exhibition, Bible, The, and the Church, 955-975
266-277

Bilinski (A. Rustem Bey de), The
Army reorganisation under Mr. Turkish Revolution, 353-372
Haldane, 26-37

Birchenough (Mrs. Henry), Berlin
Art sales of the past season, 469-478 Revisited by a British Tourist,
Artillery in the Territorial army, 26-37 811-823
Asiatic Immigration, Our Pro. Blake (Sir Henry), The Rule of the
tectorates and, 386-399

Empresa Dowager, 990-996
Athanasian Creed, The Lambeth Boer government and treatment of
Conference and the, 44-47

Englishmen in the Transvaal, 694–
Austro-Hungarian régime in Bosnia- 704
Herzgowina, 705-718

Bonaparte (Elizabeth), granddaughter

of Old Mortality, 837-851
ADEN-POWELL (Major B.), The Bradley (Rose M.), The Month of

Mary, 240-257
a Reply to Professor Newcomb, Brazil and the new Dreadnoughts,
777-785

207-214

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British East Africa, its possibilities, Clergy, The Supply of. for the Church
567-587

of England, 852-863
British men and women, are they Coke as the Father of Norfolk Agri-
deteriorating ? 421-429

culture : a Reply, 321-330
British monarchs, London statues of, Coleridge and Wordsworth taken for
672-683

French spies, 300-310
British Trade and Canadian Pre. Colonial social conditions and London
ference, 525-533

poverty, 101-107
Bulgaria, Turkey, and the Treaty of Constitutional government for the
Berlin, 719-723

Church of England, 38-43, 258-265
Bulgarian army, The, 736-738

Consultative Chamber of Women, A,
Bülow, Prince : an Appreciation, 1018-1024
684-693

Cox (Sir Edmund C.), Danger in
Burnand (Sir Francis C.), Un Peu de India, 941-954

Pickwick à la Française, 311-320 Cromer (Lord) and the Khedive, 85–
Burnley (Bishop of), The Present 100

Stage of Church Reform, 38-43;

II. Autonomy in the Anglican DA MASAN

the Anglican DAMNATORY clauses of the · Atha-

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Churches, 258-265

Dante and Shakespeare, The, 603-621

*Destiny, A Dupe of, 837-851
CANADA (French) and the Quebec Dicey (Edward), The Khedive of
Tercentenary :

English- Egypt, 85-100; A Novel Phase of
Canadian Appreciation, 233-239 the Eastern Question : Parliamen-
Canada and the United States, Fishery tary Government for Egypt, 373-
disputes between, 653-664

385
Canada, The Forerunners of Cham. Dimnet (Abbé Ernest), The Neo.
plain in, 108-121

Royalist Movement in France,
Canadian Preference, The Value of, 287-293
525-533

Dreadnoughts for Sale or Hire, 207–
Cardigan (Earl of), The Cavalry of 214

the Territorial Army, 864-872 Dunraven (Earl of), The New Irish
Carolin (Mrs.), The Transvaal To. Land Bill, 1050-1066

day: from a Woman's Point of
View, 694-704

TAGLESTON (A. J.), Wordsworth,
Cavalry of the

ColeridgeSpy, 300-310
The, 864-872

East African Problem, The, 567-587
Censored by the State, How we came Eastern Question, A Novel Phase of
to be, 1030-1049

the : Parliamentary Government
Censorship of Fiction, The, 479-487 for Egypt, 373-385
Champlain, The Forerunners of, in Eastern Question, The, and the Turkish
Canada, 108-121

Constitution of 1876, 552-566
Chancellor (E. Beresford), The Royal | Edinburgh Review, Lord Milner's

Open-Air Statues of London, 672- reply to, on Canadian Preference,
683

525-533
Chaos, The, of London Traffic, 622- Education, The Board of, Health
633

and, 644-652
Charlotte-Jeanne : a forgotten Epi. Educational Surrender, An, 984-940

sode of the French Revolution, Egypt, The Khedive of, 85-100
997-1010

Egyptian aspirations and the Turkish
Chase of the Wild Red Deer, The, on revolution, 373-385
Exmoor, 278-286

Elliot (Gertrude), Turkey in 1876: a
Child-training in foundling homes and Retrospect, 552-566
orphanages, 443-460

Empire, The, and Anthropology,
China, The late Empress Dowager of,

183-146
990-996

Empress Dowager, The Rule of the,
Church of England, The Supply of 990-996
Clergy for the, 852-863

England, Has she wronged Ireland ?
Church Reform, The Present Stage 873-884
of, 38-43

Episcopal Churches (Anglican), Auto-
Churchill (Mr. Winston) and Indians nomy in, 258-265
in Africa, 386-399

Eucharistic Congress, The, 534-542
Churchmen and the Education com- Europe and the Turkish Constitution
promise, 934-940

-an Independent View, 724-729

EUR

ITA

European ententes and alliances, 1-17
Exmoor, The Chase of the Wild Red

Deer on, 278-286

F
YAMINES, rainfall, and destruction

of forests in India, 147-161
Ffrench (Rev. G. E.), The Supply of

Clergy for the Church of England,

852-863
Fiction, The Censorship of, 479–487
Fiennes (Gerard), Dreadnoughts for

Sale or Hire, 207-214
Fishery disputes between Canada and

the United States, 653-664
Fitzgerald (Admiral c. c. Penrose),

The Unrest of Insecurity, 162–172
Flying machines, Dynamic, and pro-

pelled balloons, 777-785
Forefathers, Our, Have we the · Grit'

of? 421-429
Forest conservancy in India, 147-161
Foundling hospitals and orphanages,

443-460
France, The Neo-Royalist Movement

in, 287-293
Franco-British Exhibition, Art at

the, 266-277
Free Trade, A Lesson on the Effects

of: The Roman Empire, 181-185
French-Canadian tercentenary,

English-Canadian appreciation, 233-

239
French pioneers in Canada, 108-121
French Reign of Terror, Fate of the

Rutant family, 997- 1010
French translation of Pickwick, 311-

320
Fuller (Sir Bampfylde), The Vision

Splendid' of Indian Youth, 18-25

HALDANE'S (Mr.)

Territorial
Artillery, 26-37
Hale (Colonel Lonsdale), The Insecu-
rity of our Home Defence To-day,
173-180 ; Watchman, what of the

Night ?'924-933
Hamon (Augustin), Un Nouveau

Molière : a French View of Bernard
Shaw, 48-63
Harrison (Frederic), An

Unknown
Poet, 803-810
Harrison (Mrs. Frederic), The Bastille,

294-299
Hawkes (Arthur), French Canada

and the Quebec Tercentenary: an
English-Canadian Appreciation,

233-239
Health and the Board of Education,

644-652
Heaton (J. Henniker), The Fight for

Universal Penny Postage, 588-602
* High Alps,' The Poet in, 665-671
Hodgins (Mr. Justice), Revocation of

Treaty Privileges to Alien-Subjects,

653-664
Home Defence, The Insecurity of our,

To-day, 173-180
Home Defence, Universal liability for,

924-933
Home Rule and Irish hatred of Eng-

land, 873-884
Home Workers, A Minimum Wage

for, 507-524
Hospitals, Nurses in, 824-836
Hutchinson (James G.), A Workman's

View of the Remedy for Unemploy.
ment, 331-342

an

ERMAN Chancellor, The, Prince IMPORIAI Sawally, ota-5472

MPERIAL Yeomanry and Terri.

Bülow, 684-693

India, Danger in, 941-954
German parties and the • Kaiser India, The Press in, 1780-1908, 186-
Interview,' 908-923

206
German preparation for war contrasted India under Crown Government,

with British unreadiness, 173-180 1858-1908, 786-802
German work-a-day life as seen in Indian Famines and Indian Forests,
Berlin, 811-823

147-161
Gore-Booth (Eva), Women and the Indian immigration in South Africa,

Suffrage : a Reply to Lady Lovat 386-399

and Mrs. Humphry Ward, 495-506 Indian Youth, The Vision Splendid'
Goulding (Edward), The Representa- of, 18-25

tron of Women : A Tory Plea for Individual, The, and the State, in
Woman Suffrage, 1025-1029

Plato's Republic, 634-643
Great Britain and the Continental Inspiration of the Bible, Roman and
Powers, 1-17

Reformed views concerning, 955–
Greece, The army of, 788–744

975
Greek Orphic associations and modern International Law and fishery disputes,
faddists, 74-84

653-664
Gritof our Forefathers, Have we Ireland, Has England wronged her ?
the ? 421-429

873-884
Grossmann (Mrs.), Poverty in London Irish Land Bill, The New, 1050-1066
and New Zealand : a Study in Islam, Can it be reformed ? 543-551
Contrasts, 101-107

Italia (L') Fa Da Se, 122-132

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