The Symbolic Universe: Geometry and Physics 1890-1930
Physics was transformed between 1890 and 1930, and this volume provides a detailed history of the era and emphasizes the key role of geometrical ideas. The first part of the book discusses the application of n-dimensional differential geometry to mechanics and theoretical physics, the philosophical questions on the reality of geometry, and reviews the broad international debate about the nature of geometry and its connections with psychology. The second part then examines the reception of Einstein's theory of special relativity following 1905. It covers Minkowski's reformulation of the theory, providing the first complete picture of his work, and it describes Einstein's path to formulating general relativity. The chapter on Hilbert's efforts to axiomatize relativity argues against the traditional view of Hilbert as arch-formalist, and the following chapter provides the first detailed account of Emmy Noether's work on physics. The final section examines the work by Ricci, Levi-Civita, and Weyl to give a new formulation of general relativity in terms of the Riemann differential. This collection will be an invaluable resource for historians and philosophers of science.
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Einstein Poincare and the testability of geometry
Geometryformalisms and intuitions
The nonEuclidean style of Minkowskian relativity
Einstein Klein and Riemann
affine connections algebraic analysis Annalen applied approach axiomatic axioms Beltrami Berlin Borel Bottazzini calculus concept connection conservation laws considered coordinate system Corry course covariant David Hilbert derived differential geometry discussed displacement Einstein electrodynamics electromagnetic Emmy Noether energy Enriques Erlangen Program essay Euclidean geometry expression Felix Klein field equations foundations four-dimensional functions fundamental geodesic geodesies German Gottingen gravitation Grundlagen Helmholtz Hermann Hermann Weyl Hertz hyperbolic ideas infinitesimal interest Klein Lagrangian lecture Levi-Civita line element Lipschitz logic Lorentz transformation Math mathematicians mathematics Mathematik matter Maxwell's mechanics Mechanik methods metric Minkowski motion nature non-Euclidean geometry non-Euclidean style paper parallel philosophical physical theories physicists Poincare Poincare's postulate principle of relativity problem projective geometry properties quadratic relativity theory Ricci Riemann Riemannian role Sommerfeld space space-time formalism special relativity structure surface tangent tensor theorem theory of relativity Uber University Varicak vector velocity Weyl Weyl's