Imatges de pÓgina


Alexander wept. We remain. Earth shook. Birds fly. Jacob fled. Go thou. I had. Shall I? He arrived. It appears. Knowest thou? Rome fell. Come ye. They were. Come ye? Warriors fought. Remember. She sank. Creation sleeps. Who retreat? Should Romans? We ought. Thou willest. Radii converge. They who retreat rebel. Thou wilt. Minutia perplex. We must. Did you? Spring enlivens. Thou canst. Anne foresaw. Witnesses appeared. Grace which pities interposed.


[Text-Book, pt. 2. ch. 3.]

Rule 3. An Adjective relates to the noun or pronoun which it qualifies; as, "Good children possess true happiness;" "That tree produced more apples last year."

Rule 4. The possessive case of a noun or pronoun is governed by the name of the thing owned or possessed; as, "Man's conduct is to be tested by his motives."

QUESTIONS. Repeat the syntactical Rule for Adjectives. Can a Noun have no more than one Adjective, or an Adjective relate to only one Noun ? Give examples of an Adjective preceding its Noun ;-following its Noun. Repeat the Rule for the Possessive Case. What part of speech does a Noun or Pronoun in the Possessive Case nearly resemble?


Good sense predominates. The servants knew. Ingenious plans prospered. Better days began. Numerous errata occur. The worst calamities befell. Several species


grew. The help requisite arrived. Our bravest hero died. Each shining globe revolves. Man's vigour fails. Her virtue shone conspicuous. These three equal superficies coincide. A thicker stratum succeeded.

Are such materials costly? I safe repose. An oak tree flourished. What mortal dared? His little army's last remains perished. No other hope remains. Your own prudence dictates. Every one's judgment determined. She weeping exclaimed. Its smooth sloping sides expand. Their commander's admirable tactics prevailed. That exemplary husband, father, citizen, expired. Richard the Third's ambition proved vain.


[Text-Book, pt. 2. ch. 4.]

Rule 5. A Preposition relates its antecedent to its object or consequent; as, "Gibraltar is a fortress in the south of Spain;" "The fortress belongs to us."

Rule 6. The object of a preposition is expressed in the objective case; as, "Gibraltar is a fortress in the south of Spain;" "The fortress belongs to us."

Rule 7. The direct object of a transitive verb is in the objective case; as, "The English possess Gibraltar;" "David attacked the Philistines, and subdued them.”

QUESTIONS. What is the natural place of a Preposition in a sentence? Give an example. In what other way do we sometimes find a Preposition placed? Give examples. Repeat the Rule for Prepositions. To what class of words does the object of a Preposition generally belong? Give the Rule for the object of a Preposition. What is the only other part of speech that governs an objective case? Repeat the Rule. What is a Verb Transitive? What is the natural position of its object?

Give an instance of the reverse arrangement. What part of speech when used as an object always precedes the governing Verb. Give an example. What occasions that arrangement? In the following Exercises, give merely the syntactical parsing of each word.


Lisbon is in Portugal, at the mouth of the Tagus. He entered into the minutiae of his subject. Such apparent unconcern surprised me. From purity of thought all pleasure springs. I love the children among whom I labour. Up the high hill he heaves a huge round stone. Candidates without number presented themselves. Value the counsels of experience. Has she a brother in India? With much difficulty we brought our ships to land. I had a pleasant walk along the city ramparts. Name the person whose claim you support. What tributaries follow him to Rome? His poetry I prefer for these two reasons. Many absurd schemes obtained encouragement at the same time. The plan which you recommend I adopt with eagerness. Thou reproachest a man whom I honour on many accounts. The power of music all our hearts allow. Mary's uncle brought news that delighted her. Few whom the love of country inspired were against the proposal.


[Text-Book, pt. 2. ch. 5.]

Rule 8. An Adverb relates to the verb, adjective, or adverb, which it modifies; as, "The work proceeds slowly;" "Their loss is the most afflictive ;" "Few men have risen so rapidly."

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Rule 9. Conjunctions combine two or more words or sentences; as, "Andrew and he were schoolfellows; "I may come, but I will not promise."

QUESTIONS. Give the Rule of Syntax concerning the Adverb. What position is appropriate for an Adverb? When a Conjunction unites two or more distinct subjects into one compound subject, how is the syntax of the Verb affected? Give an example. When the subjects have a distinguishing or alternative Conjunction between them, how is the syntax of the Verb affected? Give an example. When subjects connected by a copulative Conjunction are of different persons, what kind of Verb is employed? Give examples. When subjects distinguished by an alternative Conjunction are of different persons or numbers, how should the Verb be used? Give examples. What concord is there between predicates combined by a Conjunction?

Parse the following Exercises according to both Etymology and Syntax.


Goshen lay between Egypt and Canaan. White watery clouds still hung in the sky. Scott immediately rose from his couch, and walked up and down the room. Here stands the oak. Meekness and majesty unite in Moses' character. You argue so intemperately, that I decline all further discussion. Art, glory, freedom fail, but nature still is fair. Come, you and I have a pretty long journey before us. As you expressed a wish for the papers, we now send them to you. You were at Oxford, if I mistake not. In this dialogue, my wife, the chaplain, and I, soon joined. The Britons then asserted their own independence, which they preserved for nearly fifty years. The situation or some striking feature of a

place in which the Saxons established themselves, readily suggested the geographical name. Be much more thoughtful about religious than about worldly interests.


[Text-Book, pt. 2. ch. 6.]

Rule 10. The Infinitive Mode may be governed by a

verb, an adjective, or a noun; as, "I desire to go;” “I

am desirous to go;" "I have a desire to go."

Rule 11. The Infinitive Mode, omitting its sign, may form a compound verb with one of the auxiliaries May, Can, Shall, Will, Must, and Do; as, "People may think that I should retaliate, but I will not do so."

QUESTIONS. What is the general Rule according to which the Infinitive is governed? What special Rule is there for the government of the Infinitive by Auxiliary Verbs? What other Verbs are often found governing an Infinitive without the sign? Of what kind are those Verbs which do not naturally govern an Infinitive? Under what circumstances can transitive Verbs govern an Infinitive? Give an example.

Parse the following sentences according to Etymology, and merely refer to the syntactical relations, without quoting the Rules.


He must have a right to expect remuneration. I may trust that no Englishman of the present day will venture to deny these assertions. The Britons now requested the Saxons to depart; but the latter refused to quit a country so attractive. No man can love falsehood for its own sake. We should endeavour to improve daily in

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