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thus forming the Serpentine River, which leaves the Park at Albert Gate, and crosses the Kensington Road at Knightsbridge.

It would appear that the water supply of Old London, when not derived from the Thames, the Holborn, or the Tyburn, was obtained from numerous wells—Clerkenwell or the priests' well, Brideweil or St. Bridget's well, Holywell, Sadlers' wells, Bagnigge wells, and others,—and in later times, from the conduits or fountains, which gave

name to Lamb's Conduit Street, and Conduit Street, Regent Street. The use of the Shoreditch, the Walbrook, the Sherbourne, the Langbourne, and the Fleet, was, we will hope, discontinued at a comparatively early period.

Isaac Taylor.

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XXIV.

A SELF-TAUGHT MUSICIAN.

THE career of the late William Jackson, author of The Deliverance of Israel, an oratorio 1 which has been successfully performed in the principal towns of his native county of York, furnishes an interesting illustration of the triumph of perseverance over difficulties in the pursuit of musical science. He was the son of a miller at Masham, a little town situated in the valley of the Yore, in the northwest corner of Yorkshire.

Musical taste seems to have been hereditary in the family, for his father played the fife in the band of the Masham Volunteers, and was a singer in the parish choir. His grandfather also was leading singer and ringer at Masham Church; and one of the boy's earliest musical treats was to be present at the bell-pealing on Sunday mornings. During the service, his wonder was still more excited by the organist's performance on the barrel-organ, the doors of which were thrown open behind to let the sound fully into the church, by which the stops, pipes, barrels, staples, keyboard, and jacks, were fully exposed, to the wonderment of the little boys sitting in the gallery behind, and to none more than our young musician.

At eight years of age he began to play upon his father's old fife, which, however, would not sound D; but his mother remedied the difficulty by buying for him a one-keyed flute; and shortly after, a gentleman of the neighbourhood presented him with a flute with four silver keys. As the boy made no progress with his "book-learning," being fonder of cricket, fives and boxing, than of his school lessons—the village schoolmaster giving him up as “a bad job”—his parents sent him off to a school at Pateley Bridge. While there he found congenial society in a club of village choral singers at Brighouse Gate, and with them he learnt the sol-fa-ing gamut on the old English plan. was thus well-drilled in the reading of music, in which he soon became a proficient. His progress astonished the club, and he returned home full of

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musical ambition. He now learned to play upon his father's old piano, but with little melodious result; and he became eager to possess a finger-organ, but had no means of procuring one.

About this time, a neighbouring parish clerk had purchased, for an insignificant sum, a small disabled barrel-organ, which had gone the circuit of the northern counties with a show. The clerk tried to revive the tones of the instrument, but failed; at last he bethought him that he would try the skill of young Jackson, who had succeeded in making some alterations and improvements in the handorgan of the parish church. He accordingly brought it to the lad's house in a donkey cart; and in a short time the instrument was repaired, and played over its old tunes again, greatly to the owner's satisfaction.

The thought now haunted the youth that he could make a barrel-organ, and he determined to

His father and he set to work; and though without practice in carpentering, yet, by dint of hard labour and after many failures, they at last succeeded; and an organ was constructed which played ten tunes very decently, and the instrument was generally regarded as a marvel in the neighbourhood.

Young Jackson was now frequently sent for to repair old church organs, and to put new music on the barrels which he added to them. All this he accomplished to the satisfaction of his employers, after which he proceeded with the construction of a four-stop finger-organ, adapting to it the keys of

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an old harpsichord. This he learned to play upon -studying Calcott's Thorough Bass 3 in the evening, and working at his trade of a miller during the day; occasionally also tramping about the country as a “cadger," with an ass and a cart.

During summer he worked in the fields, at turnip-time, hay-time, and harvest; but was never without the solace of music in his leisure evening hours. He next tried his hand at musical composition; and twelve of his anthems were shown to the late Mr. Camidge, of York, as "the production of a miller's lad of fourteen.” Mr. Camidge was pleased with them, marked the objectionable passages, and returned them with the encouraging remark, that they did the youth great credit, and that he must “go on writing.”

A village band having been set on foot at Masham, young Jackson joined it, and ultimately appointed leader. He played all the instruments by turns, and thus acquired a considerable practical knowledge of his art: he also composed numerous tunes for the band. A new finger-organ having been presented to the parish church, he was appointed the organist. He now gave up his employment as a journeyman miller, and commenced tallow-chandling, still employing his spare hours in the study of music.

In 1839 he published his first anthem—"For joy let fertile valleys sing ;' and in the following year he gained the first prize from the Huddersfield Glee Club, for his "Sisters of the Lea." His other anthem, "God be merciful to us," and the 103rd

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Psalm, written for a double chorus and orchestra, are well known. In the midst of these minor works, Jackson proceeded with the composition of his oratorio,-“The Deliverance of Israel from Babylon.” His practice was, to jot down a sketch of the ideas as they presented themselves to his mind, and to write them out in score in the evenings, after he had left his work in the candleshop. His oratorio was published in parts, in the course of 1844-5, and he published the last chorus on his twenty-ninth birthday. The work was exceedingly well received, and has been frequently performed with much success in the northern towns.

Mr. Jackson eventually settled as a professor of music at Bradford, where he contributed in no small degree to the cultivation of that town and its neighbourhood. Some years since he had the honour of leading his fine company of Bradford choral singers before Her Majesty at Buckingham Palace; on which occasion, as well as at the Crystal Palace, some choral pieces of his composition were performed with great effect.

Such is a brief outline of the career of a selftaught musician, whose life affords but another illustration of the power of self-help, and the force of courage and industry in enabling a man to surmount and

overcome early difficulties and obstructions of no ordinary kind.

S. Smiles.

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