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and pastime are to be mingled with study and the serious business of life.
Philologus.-You study too sore, Toxophilus.
Toxophilus.-I will not hurt myself overmuch, I warrant you.
Phil. Take heed you do not, for we physicians say that it is neither good for the eyes in so clear a sun, nor yet wholesome for the body, so soon after meat to look upon a man's book.
Tox.-In eating and studying I will never follow any physician, for if I did I am sure I should have small pleasure in the one, and less courage in the other. But what news drove you hither, I pray you?
Phil.-Small news, truly, but that as I came on walking, I fortuned to come with three, or four that went to shoot at the pricks; [mark,] and when I saw not you among them, but at last espied you looking on your book here so sadly, [seriously,] I thought to come and hold you with some communication, lest your book should run away with you. For methought, by your wavering pace and earnest looking, your book led you, not you it.
Tox. Indeed, as it chanced, my mind went faster than my feet, for I happened here to read in Phedro Platonis, a place that treats wonderfully of the nature of souls; which place, whether it were for the passing eloquence of Plato and the Greek tongue, or for the high and goodlye description of the matter, kept my mind so occupied, that it had no leisure to look to my feet. For I was reading how some souls being well feathered, flew always about heaven and heavenly matters: other some having their feathers mouted away and dropping, sank down into earthly things.
Phil.-I remember the place very well, and it is wonderfully said of Plato: and now I see it was no marvel though your feet failed you, seeing your mind flew so fast.
Tox. I am glad now that you letted [interrupted] me, for my head aches with looking on it, and because you tell me so, I am very sorry that I was not with those good fellows you spake upon, for it is a very fair day for a man to shoot in.
Phil-And methinks you were a great deal better occupied, and in better company, for it is a very fair day for a man to go to his book in.
Tox.-All days and weathers will serve for that purpose, and surely this occasion was ill lost.
Phil.-Yes, but clear weather makes clear minds, and it is best, as I suppose, to spend the best time upon the best things, and methought you shot very well, and at that mark at which every good scholar should most busily shoot at. And I suppose it be a great deal more pleasure to see a soul fly in Plato, than a shaft fly at the pricks. I grant you shooting is not the worst thing in the world, yet if we shoot, and time shoot, we are not apt to be great winners at the length. And you know also, that we scholars have more earnest and weighty matters in hand, nor we be not born to pastime and play, as you know well enough who sayeth.
Tox.-Yet the same man, [Cicero de officiis,] in the same place, Philologe, by your leave, doth admit, wholesome, honest, and manly pastimes, to be as necessary to be mingled with sad matters of the mind, as eating and sleeping is for the health of the body, and yet we be born for neither of both. And Aristotle himself, [Ethics, Book 10, chap. 6.] sayeth although it were a fond and a childish thing to be too earnest in pastime and play, yet doth he affirm, by the authority of the old poet, Epicharmus, that a man may use play for earnest matters sake. And in another place, [Politics, V. 61, 6,] that, as rest is for labor, and medicines for health, so is pastime, at times, for sad and weighty study.
Phil-How much in this matter is to be given to the authority of Aristotle or Tully, I can not tell, seeing sad [serious] men may well enough speak merrily for a mere matter: this I am sure, which thing this fair wheat, (God save it,) maketh me remember, that those husbandmen which rise earliest, and come latest home, and are content to have their dinner and other drinkings brought into the field to them, for fear of losing time, have fatter barns in the harvest, than they which will either sleep at noontime of the day, or else make merry with their neighbors at the ale. And so a good scholar, that purposeth to be a
good husband, and desireth to reap and enjoy much fruit of learning, must till and sow thereafter, [in order to it.] Our best seed time, which be scholars, as it is very timely, and when we be young: so it endureth not over long, and therefore it may not be let slip one hour; our ground is very hard and full of weeds, our horse wherewith we be drawn very wild, as Plato saith. [Phædro.] And infinite other mo lets, [hindrances] which will make a thrifty scholar take heed how he spendeth his time in sport and play.
Tox.—That Aristotle and Tully spake earnestly, and as they thought, the earnest matter which they treat upon, doth plainly prove. And as for your husbandry, it was more [speciously] told with apt words, proper to the thing, than thoroughly proved with reasons belonging to our matter. For contrarywise, I heard myself a good husband at his book once say, that to omit study for sometime of the day, and sometime of the year, made as much for the increase of learning, as to let the land lie sometime fallow, maketh for the better increase of corn.
Thus we see, if the land be ploughed every year, the corn cometh thin up; the ear is short, the grain is small, and when it is brought into the barn and threshed, giveth very evil faule. [produce.] So those which never leave pouring on their books, have oftentimes as thin inventions as other poor men have, and as small wit and weight in it as other men's. And thus your husbandry, methink is more like the life of a covetous snudge, that oft very evil proves, than the labor of a good husband, that knoweth well what he doth. And surely the best wits to learning must needs have much recreation, and cease from their books, or else they mar themselves: when base and dumpish wits can never be hurt with continual study; as ye see in luting, that a treble minikin string must always be let down, but at such a time as when a man must needs play; when the base and dull string needeth never to be moved out of his place. The same reason I find true in two bowes that I have, whereof the one is quick of cast, tricke [neat] and trim, both for pleasure and profit; the other is a lugge, [strong and heavy,] slow of cast, following the string, more sure for to last than pleasant for use. Now, sir, it chanced the other night, one in my chamber would needs bend them to prove their strength, but, (I can not tell how,) they were both left bent till the next day after dinner; and when I came to them, purposing to have gone on shooting, I found my good bow clean cast [warped] on the one side, and as weak as water, that surely, if I was a rich man, I would rather have spent a crown; and as for my lugge it was not one whit the worse, but shot by and by as well and as far as it ever did. And even so, I am sure that good wits except they be let down like a treble string and unbent like a good casting bow, they will never last and be able to continue in study. And I know where I speak this, Philologus, for I would not not say thus much afore young men, for they will take soon occasion to study little enough. But I say it therefore, because I know, as little study getteth little learning, or none at all, so the most study getteth not the most learning of all. For a man's wit fore-occupied in earnest study, must be as well recreated with some honest pastime, as the body, fore-laboured must be refreshed with sleep and quietness, or else it can not endure very long, as the noble poet [Ovid] saith:—
"What thing wants quiet and merry rest, endures but a small while."
Philologus was not disposed to yield up readily his objections to shooting, and so challenges Toxophilus to a discussion of the subject, upon which the latter enters right heartily. He traces its origin, according to various authorities among the poets and historians to Jupiter, and Apollo, and cites its use among the Medes and Persians, Greeks and Romans, by wise lawgivers, and eminent princes, by poets and physicians. He cites the authority of Lycurgus to show that "the Lacedemonians never ordained anything for the bringing up of youths which was not joined with labor; and that labor which is in shooting of all other is best, both because it increaseth strength, and preserveth health most, being not vehement, but moderate, not overlaying any one part with weariness, but softly exercising every part with equalness; as the arms and breast
with drawing, the other parts with giving, being also pleasant for the pastime, which exercise by the judgment of the best physicians is most allowable."
"By shooting also is the mind honestly exercised, where a man always desireth to be best, and that by the same way, that virtue itself doth, coveting to come nighest a most perfect end, or mean standing betwixt two extremes, eschewing sport, or gone [too far] on either side, for which causes Aristotle himself saith, that shooting and virtue be very like. Moreover that shooting of all others, is the most honest pastime, and that least occasion to naughtiness is joined with it, two things do very plainly prove, which be, as a man would say, the tutors and overseers to shooting; daylight and open place where every man doth come, the maintainers and keepers of shooting from all unhonest doing.".
Philologus urges, that if scholars must have pastime and recreation for their minds, "let them use music and playing on instruments, as more seemly for scholars, and most regarded always of Apollo and the Muses." Toxophilus adds, even as I can not deny but some music is for learning, so I trust you can not choose but grant that shooting is fit also, as Callemarchas does signify in this verse.
"Both merry song and good shootiny delighteth Apollo."
He then proceeds to criticise the effect of music on the those who devote much time to it, as being much more suitable to women than men. Philologus, however, dwells on the humanizing influence on the manners which would follow, if the whole people were taught to sing and enjoy good music, and also on the uses which lawyers and preachers would find in a proper culture of the voice. He therefore concludes that as singing is an aid to good speaking, and to making men better, "as daily experience doth teach, the example of wise men doth allow, authority of learned men doth approve," it should be part of the education and pastime of every youth. But as for shooting, he can not think that "a man can be in earnest in it, and earnest at his book to."
In defending his favorite pastime, Toxophilus grants that shooting should be "a waiter upon learning, not a mistress over it." "A pastime must be wholesome, and equal for every part of the body, pleasant, and full of courage for the mind, not vile and dishonest to give ill example to other men, not kept in gardens and corners, not lurking into the night and in holes, but evermore in the face of men."
In the above views expressed by Toxophilus, Ascham is sustained by the Rev. Dr. Thomas Fuller, who in his Holy State expresses himself in this quaint way. "Recreation is a second creation, when weariness hath almost annihilated one's spirits. It is the breathing of the soul, which otherwise would be stifled with continual business.
"Take heed of boisterous and over-violent exercises. Ringing has oftentimes made good music on the bells, and put men's bodies out of tune, so that by over-heating themselves, they have rung their own passing bells.
"Refresh that part of thyself which is most wearied. If thy life be sedentary, exercise thy body; if stirring and active, recreate thy mind. But take heed of cozening thy mind, in setting it to a double task, under pretense of giving it a play-day, as in the labyrinth of chess and other tedious and studious games.
"Yet recreations distasteful to some dispositions, relish best to others. Fishing with an angle is to some rather a torture than a pleasure, to stand an hour as mute as a fish they mean to take. Yet herewithal Dr. Whitaker was much delighted. When some noblemen had gotten William Cecil, Lord Burleigh and
the Treasurer of England, to ride with them a hunting, and the sport began to be cold, 'what call you this?' said the Treasurer. 'O, now,' said they, 'the dogs are at fault.' 'Yea,' quoth the Treasurer, 'take me again in such a fault, and I'll give you leave to punish me.' Thus as soon may the same meat please all palates, as the same sports suit all dispositions.
"Running, leaping, and dancing, the descants on the plain song of walking, are all excellent exercises. And yet those are best recreations, which beside refreshing, enable, at least dispose men to some other good ends. Bowling teaches men's hands and eyes mathematics, and the rules of proportion; swimming hath saved many a man's life, when himself hath been both the waves and the ship; tilting and fencing is war without anger; and manly sports are the grammar of military performance.
"But above all, shooting is a noble recreation, and a half liberal art. A rich man told a poor man that he walked to get a stomach for his meat. 'And I,' said the poor man, 'walk to get meat for my stomach.' Now shooting would have fitted both their turns; it provides food when men are hungry, and helps digestion when they are full.
"Recreation, rightly taken, shall both strengthen labor, and sweeten rest, and we may expect God's blessing and protection on us in following them, as well as in doing our work; for he that saith grace for his meat, in it also prays God to bless the sauce unto him. As for those that will not take lawful pleasure, I am afraid they will take unlawful pleasure, and by lacing themselves too hard, grow awry on one side."
We have confined our notice of Toxophilus to the description of archery as a recreation. The book is full of maxims of profound practical wisdom, of exquisitely touched pictures of manners, and of delightful tributes to learning. The discourse concludes in this manner:
Tox. This communication handled of me, Philogue, as I know well not perfectly, yet as I suppose truly, you must take in good worth, wherein, if divers things do not altogether please you, thank yourself, which would rather have me faulte in mere folly, to take that thing in hand, which I was not able to perform, than by any honest shamefacedness with-saye your request and mind, which I know well I have not satisfied. But yet I will think this labor of mine better bestowed, if to-morrow, or some other day when you have leisure, you will spend as much time with me here in this same place, in entreating the question, de origine animæ, and the joining of it with the body that I may know how far Plato, Aristotle, and the Stoicans, have waded in it.
Phil.-How you have handled this matter, Toxophile, I may not tell you myself now, but for your gentleness and good will toward learning and shooting, I will be content to show you any pleasure whensoever you will; now the sun is down, therefore if it please you, we will go home and drink in my chamber, and then I will tell you plainly what I think of this communication, and also what day we will appoint, at your request, for the other matter to meet here again.
OR A PLAIN AND PERFECT WAY OF TEACHING CHILDREN TO UNDERSTAND, WRITE AND SPEAK THE LATIN TONGUE.*
BY ROGER ASCHAM.
Written in 1563-4, and first printed in 1571.
PREFACE TO THE READER.
WHEN the great plague was at London, the year 1563, the Queen's Majesty, Queen Elizabeth, lay at her Castle of Windsor; where, upon the tenth day of December, it fortuned, that in Sir William Cecil's chamber, her Highness's principal Secretary, there dined together these personages, M. Secretary himself,' Sir William Peter, Sir J. Mason, D. Wotton,' Sir Richard Sackville,5 Treasurer of the Exchequer, Sir Walter Mildmay, Chancellor of Exchequer, M. Haddon," Master of Requests, M. John Astely, Master of the Jewel House, M. Bernard Hampton, M. Nicasius, 10 and I. Of which number, the most part were of her Majesty's most honorable Privy Council, and the rest serving her in very good place. I was glad then, and do rejoice yet to remember, that my chance was so happy to be there that day, in the company of so many wise and good men together, as hardly then could have been picked out again, out of all England beside.
M. Secretary hath this accustomed manner; though his head be never so full of most weighty affairs of the realm, yet at dinner time he doth seem to lay them always aside; and findeth ever fit occasion to talk pleasantly of other matters, but most gladly of some matter of learning, wherein he will courteously hear the mind of the meanest at his table.
Not long after our sitting down, "I have strange news brought me, saith M. Secretary, this morning, that divers scholars of Eaton run
*The following is the original title of the work, as given by UPTON.
Or plaine and perfite Way of teaching Children, to understand, writ, and speake, the LATIN TONGUE, but specially purposed for the private bringing up of Youth in Jentlemen and Noblemens Houses, and commodious also for all such as have forgot the LATIN TONGUE, and would, by themselves, without a Scholemaster, in short Tyme, and with small Paines, recover a sufficient Habilitie, to understand, write, and speake LATIN.
By ROGER ASCHAM,
Printed by JOHN DAYE, dwelling over ALDERSGATE.
Cum Gratia & Privilegio Regiæ Majestatis, per Decennium.
1. 2, &c. The Numerals refer to Annotations on pages 161-166.