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the aforementioned indices may handsomely referre one to another, that all things contained in the whole book may be most easily found, and most readily attend the seekers of new inventions. The way to accomplish this worke must be to enquire what to this purpose is already done, or in hand, in all places and also by whom, so that communication of councels and proceedings, may (if possible) be had with those undertakers. All bookes of this subject already extant in print, must be collected and bought, not to transcribe them, but to examine them per autopsiam, and re-experiment the experiments contained in them, and withall to give hints of new enquiries.
The compiler must be content to devote his whole life to this employment, one who (as we said before) hath the fire of industry and the alembick of a curious and rationall head, to extract the quintescence of whatsoever he seeth. He should bee as young as sufficient abilities will admit, to the end that he may with the concurrence of God's ordinary providence, either finish, or very farre advance the work, while he liveth, and also that living long in that employment, he may heap up the larger stock of experiments, which how much the greater it is in one man, affordeth so much the more the hopes of new inventions.
The nature, manner, and meanes of writing the History of Trades being so farre expounded, before we proceed furthur therein, for the better encouragement of undertakers. We shall now represent such profits and commodities thereof, to the commonwealth, as we at present more nearly reflect upon. For to enumerate or evaluate them all, will be much above our capacity.
1. All men whatsoever may hereby so look into all professions, as not to be too grossely cozened and abused in them.
2. The mysteries of trades being so laid open, as that the professors of them can not make so unlawful and exorbitant advantages as heretofore, such as are cunning and ambitious will never rest untill they have found new ones in their stead; so that the Respublica Artium, will be so much the more advanced.
3. Schollers and such as love to ratiocinate will have more and better matter to exercise their wits upon, whereas now they pusle and tire themselves, about meer words and chymericall notions.
4. They will reason with more alacrity, when they shall not onely yet honour by shewing their abilities, but profit likewise by the invention of Fructiferous Arts.
5. Sophistry shall not be in such esteem as heretofore, when even sence shall be able to unmask its vanity, and distinguish it from truth.
6. Men seeing what arts are already invented, shall not need to pusle them. selves to reinvent the same again.
7. All men in generall that have wherewithall will be venturing at our 'Vellus Aureum,' by making of experiments: and whether thereby they thrive or no (the directions in the preface being followed) they shall nevertheless more and more discover nature.
8. Nay, all nations sensible of this 'Auri Sacra fames,' will engage in this hopefull businesse; and then certainly many hands will make light work in the said businesse of discovering nature.
9. All ingenious men and lovers of reall knowledge, have a long time negged this work, wherefore it can be no small honor to him that shall satisfie them.
10. A vast increase of honorable, profitable, and pleasant inventions must needs spring from this work, when one man (as the compiler thereof) may 'uno
intuita,' see and comprehend all the labor and wit of our ancestors, and be thereby able to supply the defects of one trade with the perfections of another.
11. We see that all countries where manufactures and trades flourish, as Holland, &c., become potent and rich. For how can it be otherwise ? When the revenues of the state shall be encreased by new and more customes, all beggers feeding upon the labours of other men, and even thieves and robbers (made for want of better employment) shall be set on work, barren grounds made fruitful, wet dry, and dry wet, when even hogs and more indocile beasts shall be taught to labour. When all vile materials shall be turned to noble uses, when one man or horse shall do as much as three, and every thing improved to strange advantages.
12. There would not then be so many fustian and unworthy preachers in divinity; so many Petti-foggers in the law; so many quack-salvers in physick; so many grammaticasters in country schooles, and so many lazy serving.men in gentlemen's houses, when every man might learn to live otherwise in plenty and honour. For all men desirous to take paines, might by this book survey all the wayes of subsistance, and choose out of them all, one that best suits with his genlus and abilities.
13. Schollers now disesteemed for their poverty, (what ever other thing commands them) and unable even for want of lively-hood, to perfect anything even in their own way, would quickly help themselves by opening treasures, with the key of lucriferous inventions.
14. Boyes instead of reading hard Hebrew words in the Bible (where they either trample on, or play with mysteries) or parrat-like repeating heteroclitous nounes and verbs, might read, and hear the History of Faculties expounded, so that before they be bound apprentices to any trade, they may foreknow the good and bad of it, what will and strength they have to it, and not spend seven years in repenting, and in swimming against the stream of their inclinations.
All apprentices by this book might learn the theory of their trades before they are bound to a master, and consequently may be exempted from the *Tædium' of a seven years bondage, and having spent but about three years with a master, may spend the other foure in travelling to learn breeding, and the perfection of their trades. As it would be more profitable to boyes, to spend ten or twelve years in the study of things, and of this book of faculties, then in à rabble of words, so it would be more easie and pleasant to them as more suitable to the natural propensions we observe in them. For we see children do delight in drums, pipes, fiddels, guns made of elder sticks, and bellowes' noses, piped keys, &c., for painting flags and ensignes with elder-berries and corn poppy, making ships with paper, and setting even nut-shells a swimming, handling the tooles of workemen as soone as they tune their backs, and trying to work themselves, fishing, fowling, hunting, setting sprenges, and traps for birds, and other animals, making pictures in their writing bookes, making tops, gigs, and whirli. gigs, guilting balls, practicing divers jugling tricks upon the cards, &c., with a million more besides. And for the females, they will be making pies with clay, making their babies clothes, and dressing them therewith, they will spit leaves on sticks, as if they were roasting meate, they will imitate all the talke and actions which they observe in their mother, and her gossips, and punctually act the comedy or tragedy (I know not whether to call it) of a woman's lying-in. By all which it is most evident, that children do most naturally delight in things, and are most capable of learning them, having quick sences to receive them,
and unpreoccupied memories to retaine them. As for other things whereunto they are nowadayes fit, they are altogether unfit for want of judgement, which is but weake in them, and also for want of will, which is sufficiently seene both by what we have said before, by the difficultie of keeping them at schools, and the punishment they will endure rather than be altogether debarred from this pleasure which they take in things.
This work will be a help to eloquence, when men by their great acquaintance with things, might find out similitudes, metaphors, allusions, and other graces of discourse in abundance.
To arithmeticians and geometricians, supplying them with matter whereupon to exercise those most excellent sciences, which some having with much paines once learned, do for want hereof forget againe, or unprofitably apply about resolving needlesse questions and making of new difficulties. The number of mix mathematical arts would hereby be increased.
For we see that opticks are made up of pure mathematicks, the anatomy of the eye, and some physicall principles concerning the nature of light and vision, with some experiments of convexe and concave glasses. Astronomy is constituted againe of them, and some celestiall phenomena. Enquire againe of them, and some propositions, 'de Cochleâ et Vecte.' And so certainly as the number of axioms concerning severall subjects doth increase by this work. So the number of (their applications to pure mathematicks, id est,) new mathematicall arts, will increase also. Divines having so large a booke of God's works added to that of his word, may the more clearly from them both, deduce the wisedome, power, and goodnesse of the Almighty. Physicians observing the use of all drugs and operations in the production of artificials, may with successe transferre them to better uses in their art. And lawyers when they plead concerning trades and manufactures, would better know what to say on such occasions.
A young beginner may know by this book how much stock is needfull to set him up in trade. Gentlemen falling sometimes accidentally into tradesmen and handi-crafts company, would know how to make use of such occurrences to advantage.
Lastly,—This History with the comments thereupon, and the Indices, Preface and Supplemements thereupto belonging, would make us able (if it be at all possible) to demonstrate Axioms in Philosophy, the value and dignity whereof can not be valued or computed.
The next book which we recommend is the History of Nature free, for indeed the History of Trades is also a History of Nature, but of nature vexed and disturbed. What we meane by this history may be known by the Lord Verulam's most excellent specimen thereof, and as for the particulars that it should treat on, we referre to his exact and judicious catalogue of them, at the end of his "Advancement of Learning."
PLAN OF A PHILOSOPHICAL COLLEGE.
A PROPOSITION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF EXPERIMENTAL PHILOSOPHY-1661.
BY ABRAHAX COWLEY.
THE COLLEGE. That the Philosophical College be situated within one, two, or (at farthest) three miles of London, and if it be possible to find that convenience, upon the side of the river, or very near it.
That the revenue of this College amount to four thousand a year.
1. Twenty philosophers or professors. 2. Sixteen young scholars, servants to the professors. 3. A chaplain. 4. A bailee for the revenue. 5. A manciple or purveyor for the provisions of the house. 6. Two gardeners. 7. A master cook. 8. An under cook. 9. A butler. 10. An under butler. 11. A surgeon.
12. Two lungs, or chemical servants. 13. A library-keeper, who is likewise to be apothecary, druggist, and keeper of instruments, engines, &c. 14. An officer to feed and take care of all beasts, fowl, &c., kept by the College. 15. A groom of the stable. 16. A messenger to send up and down for all uses of the College. 17. Four old women to tend the chambers, keep the house clean, and such like services.
That the annual allowance for this company be as follows:
1. To every professor, and to the chaplain, one hundred and twenty pounds. 2. To the sixteen scholars, twenty pounds a piece, ten pounds for their diet, and ten pounds for their entertainment. 3. To the bailee, thirty pounds, besides allowance for his journeys. 4. To the purveyor or manciple, thirty pounds. 5. To each of the gardeners, twenty pounds. 6. To the master cook, twenty pounds. 7. To the under cook, four pounds. 8. To the butler, ten pounds. 9. To the under butler, four pounds. 10. To the surgeon, thirty pounds. 11. To the library-keeper, thirty pounds. 12. To each of the lungs, twelve pounds. 13. To the keeper of the beasts, six pounds. 14. To the groom, five pounds. 15. To the messenger, twelve pounds. 16. To the four necessary women, ten pounds. For the manciple's table, at which all the servants of the house are to eat, except the scholars, one hundred and sixty pounds. For three horses for the service of the College, thirty pounds.
All which amounts to three thousand two hundred and eighty-five pounds. So that there remains for keeping of the house and gardens, and operatories, and instruments and animals, and experiments of all sorts, and all other expenses, seven hundred and fifteen pounds. Which were a very inconsiderable sum for the great uses to which it is designed, but that I conceive the industry of the College will in a short time so enrich itself as to get a far better stock for the advance and enlargement of the work when it is once begun; neither is the continuance of particular men's liberality to be despaired of,
when it shall be encouraged by the sight of that public benefit which will accrue to all mankind, and chiefly to our nation, by this foundation. Something likewise will arise from leases and other casualties; that nothing of which may be diverted to the private gain of the professors, or any other use besides that of the search of nature, and by it the general good of the world, and that care may be taken for the certain performance of all things ordained by the institution, as likewise for the protection and encouragement of the company, it is proposed,
That some person of eminent quality, a lover of solid learning, and no stran. ger in it, be chosen Chancellor or President of the College, and that eight gove erners more, men qualified in the like manner, be joined with him, two of which shall yearly be appointed Visitors of the College, and receive an exact account of all expenses even to the smallest, and of the true estate of their public treasure, under the hands and oaths of the professors resident.
That the choice of the professors in any vacancy belong to the Chancellor and the Governors, but that the professors (who are likeliest to know what men of the nation are most proper for the duties of their society) direct their choice by recommending two or three persons to them at every election. And that if any learned person within his majesty's dominions discover or eminently improve any useful kind of knowledge, he may upon that ground for his reward and the encouragement of others, be preferred, if he pretend to the place, before any. body else.
That the Governors have power to turn out any professor who shall be proved to be either scandalous or unprofitable to the Society.
That the College be built after this, or some such manner: That it consist of three fair quadrangular courts, and three large grounds, inclosed with good walls bebind them. That the first court be built with a fair cloister, and tho professors' lodgings or rather little houses, four on each side, at some distance from one another, and with little gardens behind them, just after the manner of the Chartreux beyond sea. That the inside of the cloister be lined with a gravel walk, and that walk with a row of trees, and that in the middle there be a parterre of flowers, and a fountain.
That the second quadrangle, just behind the first, be so contrived as to contain these parts: 1. A chapel. 2. A hall with two long tables on each side for the scholars and officers of the house to eat at, and with a pulpit and forms at the end for the public lectures. 3. A large and pleasant dining-room within tho hall for the professors to eat in, and to hold their assemblies and conferences. 4. A public school-house. 5. A library. 6. A gallery to walk in, adorned with the pictures or statues of all the inventors of any thing useful to human life, as printing, guns, America, &c., and of late in anatomy the circulation of the blood, the milky veins, and such like discoveries in any art, with short eulogies under the portraitures; as likewise the figures of all sorts of creatures, and the stuffed skins of as many strange animals as can be gotten. 7. An anatomy chamber adorned with skeletons and anatomical pictures, and prepared with all conveniences for dissection. 8. A chamber for all manner of drugs and apothecaries' materials. 9. A mathematical chamber furnished with all sorts of mathematical instruments, being an appendix to the library. 10. Lodgings for the chaplain, surgeon, library-keeper and purveyor, near the chapel, anatomy chamber, library, and hall.