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children may be taught as well to doe something towards their living, as to read and write.
2. That the business of education be not (as now) committed to the worst and unworthiest of men, but that it be seriously studied and practised by the best and abler persons. That all children of above seven yeares old may be presented to this kind of education, none being to be excluded by reason of the poverty and unability of their parents, for hereby it hath come to passe, that many are now holding the plough, which might have beene made fit to steere the state. Wherefore let such poor children be imployed on works whereby they may earne their living, equall to their strength and understanding, and such as they may performe as well as elder and abler persons, viz., attending engines, &c. And if they can not get their whole living, and their parents can contribute nothing at all to make it up, let them stay somewhat the longer in the work-house.
That since few children have need of reading before they know, or can be acquainted with the things they read of, or of writing, before their thoughts are worth the recording, or they are able to put them into any forme (which we call inditing) much lesse of learning Languages, when there bee books enough for their present use in their owne mother tongue; our opinion is, that those things being withall somewhat above their capacity, (as being to be attained by judgement, which is weakest in children) be deferred awhile, and others more needful for them, such as are in the order of nature before those afore mentioned, and are attainable by the help of memory, wich is either most strong or unpreoccupied in children, be studied before them. We wish therefore that the educands be taught to observe and remember all sensible objects and actions, whether they be naturall or artificiall, which the educators must upon all occasions expound unto them. That they use such exercises, whether in work, or for recreation, as tend to the health, agility and strength of their bodies.
That they be taught to read by much more compendious meanes then are in common use, which is a thing certainly very easie and feasible. That they be not onely taught to write according to our common way, but also to write swiftly and in reall characters, as likewise the dextrous use of the instruments for writing many copies of the same thing at once.
That the artificiall memory he thought upon, and if the precepts thereof be not too farre above childrens capacities. We conceive it not improper for them to learn that also. That in no case the art of drawing and designing be omitted, to what course of life soever those children are to be applied. Since the use thereof for expressing the conceptions of the mind, seemes (at least to us) to be little inferiour to that of writing, and in many cases performeth what by words is impossible.
That the Elements of Arithmetick and Geometry be by all studied, being not onely of great and frequent use in all humane affaires, but also sure guides and helps to reason, and especiall remedies for a volatile and unstedy mind. That effectuall courses be taken to try the abilities of the bodies and minds of children, the strength of their memory, inclinations of their affections either to vice or vertue, and to which of them in particular, and withall to alter what is bad in them, and increase and improve what is good, applying all, whether good or bad, to the least inconveniencie and most advantage.
That such as shall have need to learne forraine languages, (the use whereof would be much lessened were the reall and common characters brought into
practice) may be taught them by incomparably more easie ways then are now usuall.
That no ignoble, unnecessary, or condemned part of learning be taught in those houses of education. So that if any man shall vainely fall upon them he himselfe onely may be blamed.
That such as have any naturall ability and fitnesse to musick be encouraged and instructed therein.
That all children, though of the highest ranke, be taught some gentile manufacture in their minority. Such as are,
Turning of curious figures.
Making Mathematicall instruments. Dialls and how to use them in astronomicall observations.
Making Watches and other Trochilick motions.
Limning and painting on Glass, or in Oile colors.
Graving, Etching, Carving, Embossing, and Molding in sundry matters.
The Lapidaries art of knowing, cutting and setting Jewells.
Grinding of Glasses Dioptricall, and Catoptricall.
Botanicks, and Gardening.
Making Musical Instruments.
Navarchy and making Modells for buildings and rigging of ships.
Architecture and making Modells for houses.
The Confectioners, Perfumers, or Dier's arts.
Chymistry, refining Metalls and counterfeiting Jewells.
Anatomy, making skeletons, and excarnating bowells.
Making Mariners Compasses, Globes, and other magnetick devices.
1. They shall be lesse subject to cousened by the artificers.
2. They will become more industrious in generall.
3. They will certainly bring to passe most excellent works, being as gentlemen, ambitious to excell ordinarie workmen.
4. They being able to make experiments themselves, may doe it with lesse charge, and more care than others will doe it for them.
5. The Resp. Artium, will be much advanced, when such as are rich and able, are also willing to make Luciferous experiments.
6. It may engage them to be Mecænates and Patrons of Arts.
7. It will keepe them from worse occasions of spending their time and estates.
8. As it will be a great ornament in prosperity, so it will be a great refuge and stay in adversity, and common calamity.
As for what remaines of Education, we can not but hope that those, whom we have desired should make it their trade, will supply it, and render the idea thereof much more perfect.
We have already recommended the studie of Arithmetick and Geometry to all men in generall, but they being the best grounded parts of speculative knowledge, and of so vast use in all practicall arts. We can not but commend deeper enquiries into them. And although the way of advancing them in particular, may be drawne from what we have already delivered, concerning the advancement of learning in generall, yet for the more explicite understanding our meaning herein, we referre to Master Pells most excellent idea there of written to Master Hartlib.
In the next place for the advancement of all Mechanicall Arts and Manufactures. We wish that there were erected a Gymnasinm, Mechanicum, or a Colledge of Trades-men (or for more expedition untill such a place could be built, that the most convenient houses for such a purpose may be either bought or hired) wherein we would that one at least of every trade (but the prime most ingenious work-men, the most desirous to improve his art,) might be allowed therein, a handsom dwelling rent free. Which with the credit of being admitted into this Society, and the quick sale which certainly they would have of their commodities, when all men would repaire thither, as to a market of rare and exquisite pieces of work-manship, would be a sufficient motive to attract the very ablest mechanicks, and such as we have described, to desire a fellowship in this College.
From this Institution we may clearly hope when the excellent in all arts are not onely neighbours, but intimate friends and brethren, united in a common desire and zeal to promote them, that all trades will miraculously prosper, and new inventions would be more frequent, then new fashions of clothes and household-stuffe. Here would be the best and most effectuall opportunities and meanes, for writing a History of Trades in perfection and exactnesse, and what experiments and stuffe would all those shops and operations afford to active and philosophicall heads. Out of which, to extract that interpretation of nature, whereof there is so little, and that so bad as yet extant in the world? Within the walls of this Gymnasium or College should be a Nosocomium Academicum according to the most exact and perfect idea thereof a compleate Theatrum Botanicum, stalls and cages for all strange beastes and birds, with ponds and conservatories for all exotick fishes, here all animalls capable thereof should be made fit for some kind of labor and imployment, that they may as well be of use living as dead; here should be a Repositorie of all kind of rarities.
Naturall and artificiall pieces of antiquity. Modells of all great and noble engines, with designes and platformes of gardens and buildings. The most artificiall fountaines and water-works. A library of select books, an astronomicall observatory for celestiall bodies and meteors, large pieces of ground for severall experiments of agriculture. Galleries of the rarest paintings and statues, with the fairest globes and geographical maps, of the best descriptions, and so farre as is possible, we would have this place to be the epitome or abstract of the whole world. So that a man conversant within those walls, would certainly prove a greater schollar then the walking libraries so called; although he could neither write nor read. But if a child, before he learned to read or write, were made acquainted with all things, and actions (as he might be in this colledge,) how easily would he understand all good books afterwards, and smell out the fopperies of bad ones. As for the situation, modell, policy, occonomy, with the number of officers and retainers to this Colledge, and the priviledges thereof, it is as yet time enough to delineate. Only we wish that a society of men might be instituted, as carefull to advance arts as the Jesuites are to propagate their religion for the government and manageing of it.
But what relish will there be in all those dainties whereof we have spoken, if we want a palate to tast them, which certainly is health the most desirable of all earthly blessings. And how can we in any reason expect health, when there are so many great difficulties in the curing of diseases, and no proportionable course taken to remove them? We shall therefore pursue the meanes of acquiring the publicke good and comfort of mankind a little further, and vent
out conceits concerning a Nosocomium Academicum or an hospitall to cure the infirmities both of physicians and patient.
We intended to have given the most perfect idea of this Nosocomium Academicum, and consequently to have treated of the situation and fabrick of the house, garden, library, chymicall laboratorie, anatomicall theater, apotheca, with all the instruments and furniture belonging to each of them; as also of the whole policy and occonomy thereof."
The writer prepares to realize his Nosocomium out of the Old Hospitals "under the reforming hand of authority," after giving some hints as to the organization of his College of Health, he proceeds:—
"Having now after a fashion gone through the description of such Societies and Institutions, as we have thought most fit for the advancement of reall learning, and among the rest, of the Ergastulum Literarium for the education of children, we now come to speak of such bookes, as being well studied and expounded in those schooles, would lay a very firme foundation of learning in the schollers.
We recommend therefore in the first place (besides those bookes of collection, by us formerly mentioned, and Master Pells three Mathematical Treatises,) the compiling of a work whose title might justly be 'Vellus Aureum sive Facultatum Lucriferarum Discriptio Magna,' wherein all the practised wayes of getting a subsistance and whereby men raise their fortunes, may be at large declared. And among these, we wish that the History of Arts or Manufactures might first be undertaken as the most pleasant and profitable of all the rest, wherein should be discribed the whole processe of manual operations and applications of one naturall thing (which we call the elements of artificials) to another, with the necessarie instruments and machines, whereby every peice of work is elaborated, and made to be what it is, unto which work bare words being not sufficient, all instruments and tooles must be pictured, and colours added when the discriptions can not be made intelligible without them. This history must not be made out of a farrago of imperfect relations made to the compiler, either by too rude or cousening workmen, but all things thereunto appertaining must be by himselfe observed and attested by the most judicious and candid of each respective profession, as well to make the work the more authenticke, (it being to be the basis of many future inferences and philosophations) as the more cleerly and distinctly to enforme the compiler himself, by whose judgement as the Alembick and industry as the fire, it is hoped that the quintessence and magesteries of all present inventions may be extracted, and new ones produced in abundance. Although it be intended to teach the making of all artificials, yet it is not to be understood that when there hath beene taught how to make a stoole, or a naile of one fashion, that the art of making a chaire or a naile of another fashion, should be long insisted on. But the compiler should strive to reduce the making of all artificials in each trade to a certain number and classes of operations tools and materials, neither need he to set the figures, or mention the name of all artificials that ever were made, but onely of such as are most knowne and of common use amongst men: he needeth not to describe every punctilio in making all the aforementioned particulars, and yet leave no more defects, then may be supplied by every common understanding. For we question whether (if he should engage himselfe in such an endlesse labour) a man by the bare light and instruction of a book could attaine to a dextrous practice of a trade,
whereunto hath been required seven yeares Autopsia. But are confident that the help of this book will lessen the former tædium by more than half. He should not so abridge the work as not to distinguish between instruments of the same name, as between a loom to weave kerseys, and another, wherein to weave silk ribbands or stockings. He should all along give the mechanicall reason of every instrument materiall and operation, when the same is sensible and cleere. He should all along note his own defects in setting down these histories, in case he had not at the time of the writing thereof sufficient information, and withall the deficiencies of the trades themselves.
Now whereas there be divers wayes and methods of working most manufactures, he should in each thing stick close to the way of some one Mr.; but note all the diversities he knoweth, and give his opinion of the use and goodnes of each.
Moreover the occonomy, Sive Ars. augendas rei familiaris, in all professions ought to be inquired into, viz., what seasons of the yeare are most proper to each worke, which the best places and times to buy materials, and to put off the commodities when finished, how most thriftily to hire, entertaine, and oversee servants and workmen, how to dispose of every excrement and refuse of material, or of broken, worne, or otherwise unserviceable tooles and utensils, with all cauteles, impostures and other sleights good or bad, whereby men use to over-reach one another.
There ought to be added to this work many and various indices besides the alphabetical ones, as namely one of all the artificials mentioned in the whole worke. Another of all the naturall materials or elements of artificials, by what artificers used, from whence they come, where to be had, and what are the ordinary and middle prices of them.
Another of all the qualities or schemes of matter, as of all liquifiable things visea friable, heavy, transparent, abstersive, or otherwise qualified according to all the classes of 1, 2, and 3, qualities, to the end that materials for all intentions and experiments may be at hand and in sight.
Another of all operations mentioned in the whole work, as sawing, hewing, filing, boaring, melting, dissolving, turning, beating, grinding, boyling, calcining, knitting, spinning, sowing, twisting, &c. To the end that they all may also be at hand for the purposes aforesaid.
Another of all tooles and machines, as files, sawes, chissels, sheeres, sives, loomes, shuttles, wheels, wedges, knives, skrewes, &c., for the same purpose also.
The compiler ought to publish all his conjectures, how old inventions may be perfected, and new ones produceds, giving directions how to try the truth of them. So that by all those unto whose hands these books shall come perchance, all the said suppositions may be tryed, and the successe reported to the compiler himselfe.
The compilers first scope in inventions shall bee, how to apply all materials that grow in abundance in this kingdome, and whereof but in considerable use and profits are as yet made to more advantage to the common wealth. And also how all impotents whether onely blind, or onely lame, and all children of above seven yeares old might earne their bread, and not be so long burdensome to their parents and others. There should be made a preface to the worke to teach men how to make the most of experiments and to record the successes of them whatsoever, whether according to hopes or no, all being equally luciferous, although not equally lucriferous. There ought to be much artifice used, that all