Imatges de pÓgina
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5. Ditto, var. fastigiata.
6. Ditto, var. calicaris.
7. R. scopulorum.
8. R. farinacea.

9. Ditto, portion of thalline filament magnified, showing the soredia.

PLATE VII. 1. Physcia prunastri. 2. P. furfuracea.-a. Upper surface. 6. Under surface. 3. P. ciliaris. 4. Ditto, under surface of thalline laciniæ. 5. Ditto, vertical section of thallus showing a spermogone.

6. Ditto, vertical section of a spermogone, showing the sterigmata and spermatia.

7. Ditto, vertical section of mature apothecium.
8. Ditto, vertical section of young apothecia.
9. Ditto, progressive development of the spore.
10. Ditto, segment of an old spore.

PLATE VIII. 1. Cetraria Islandica, large variety. 2. Ditto, common form. 3. Ditto, apothecium magnified. 4. Ditto, section of ditto. 5. Ditto, marginal cilia of thallus bearing the spermogones on

their apices.

6. Ditto, two of these cilia greatly magnified, showing the spermogones.

7. Ditto, spermogone still more highly magnified. 8. Ditto, sterigmata and spermatia. 9. Ditto, spore. 10. Spore of Cetraria juniperina. 11. Cetraria nivalis. 12. Ditto, magnified, showing black-punctate margin. 13. Medullary tissue of Peltigera venosa. 14. Ditto, P. horizontalis. 15. Cortical cellular tissue of ditto. 16. Medullary filament of ditto, under the action of iodine.

PLATE IX.

1. Peltigera canina, upper surface.
2. Ditto, under surface, showing veins and rhizinæ.

3. Ditto, margin of thallus, showing spermogones and nascent apothecium.

4. Ditto, marginal spermogone magnified.
5. Ditto, vertical section of spermogone magnified.

6. Ditto ditto, much more highly magnified, showing sterigmata and spermatia.

7. Ditto, sterigmata.
8. Ditto, spermatia, isolated.
9. Ditto, spore.
10. Peltigera horizontalis, section of young apothecium.

11. Peltigera horizontalis, spore germinating.
12. Peltigera polydactyla, section of young apothecium.
13. Peltigera venosa, upper surface.
14. Ditto, under surface.
15. Ditto, spore.

16. Nephroma resupinatum.a. Upper surface. 6. Under surface, showing the apothecia.

17. Ditto, margin of thallus, showing spermogones and nascent apothecia.

18. Ditto, marginal spermogone magnified. 19. Ditto, section of ditto. 20. Ditto, spore. • 21. Ditto, sterigmata and spermatia.

PLATE X.

1. Umbilicaria pustulata, upper surface.
2. Ditto, under surface.
3. Ditto, section of apothecium.
4. Ditto, muriform spore.

5. Ditto, section of apothecium, a, and of thallus, showing a spermogone, b.

6. Ditto, section of thallus, showing a spermogone, a, and a pustular elevation, b.

7. Ditto, sterigmata and spermatia.
8. U. polymorpha, common ciliated variety, upper surface.
9. Ditto, under surface, showing point of attachment, a.

10. U. polymorpha, portion of margin of the thallus, showing the cilia or fibrils.

11. Ditto, apothecia, in different stages of development : a, young and papillate; 6, mature and gyrose-plicate.

12. Ditto, section of an apothecium, and of thallus showing the rhizinæ.

13. Ditto, portion of thallus of another variety, showing relative position of spermogones, a.

14. Ditto, section of thallus, showing spermogones.
15. Ditto, section of a spermogone.
16. Ditto, spores of different varieties.
17. U. erosa, spore.

PLATE XI.

1. Sticta pulmonaria.-a. Upper surface, showing apothecia and laciniæ. 6. Lower surface, showing gibbi.

2. Ditto, extremity of a thalline lobule, magnified, showing spermogones, soredia, and apothecia, one of which, a, is habited by the Celidium Stictarum, a parasitic species.

3. Ditto, section of an apothecium, a; and of thallus showing old and young spermogones, b.

4. Ditto, spore.
5. Ditto, spore germinating.

6. Sticta scrobiculata, upper surface, showing the apothecia and marginal soredia.

7. Ditto, spore.

8. S. fuliginosa, upper surface, showing the soot-coloured powder of the margin.

9. Ditto, under surface, showing the white cyphellæ.

PLATE XII.

1. Parmelia pulverulenta.

2. Ditto, section of thallus, showing rhizinæ of under surface, magnified.

3. Ditto, section of apothecium, magnified.
4. Ditto, apothecium, showing its pruinose character.
5. Ditto, spore.
6. Parmelia saxatilis, furfuraceous variety.

7. Ditto, section of thallus, showing the rhizinæ of the under surface.

8. Ditto, section of apothecium.
9. Ditto, spores of var. omphalodes.
10. Parmelia parietina.

11. Ditto, portion of thallus magnified, showing marginal spermogones.

12. Ditto, section of apothecium, magnified.
13. Ditto, apothecium, magnified, common form.
14. Ditto, ditto, cephaloid or symphycarpeous form.
15. Ditto, vertical section of spermogone.
16. Ditto, sterigmata and spermatia.
17. Ditto, spore under action of iodine.
18. Parmelia amplissima, spore.

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