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postilions. There is no want of good society at Upsala, and several noble families live there, whose houses are always open to the tufts, and the richer roturiers ; indeed, scarcely a week passes in which there are not either public or private balls, or gay evening parties, which, in so small a place as Upsala, is saying a great deal. The houses of the professors are likewise open to the students, more particularly those of their own nation, so that each student is invited at least once during session to the professor's table. The students of each nation give a supper once a session, in order to promote good fellowship among themselves, and to these parties the professors of the same nation are always invited. It is at convivial meetings of this description, that the newly entered student becomes acquainted with the elder ones, and brotherhood is on such occasions drunk between them. This is a very useful practice in Sweden, where, in speaking to a person, it is impossible to say “ you," but the party must be addressed by either his title or his name every sentence, which is a great annoyance. On the other hand, after you have drunk brotherhood, which is done by hob and nobbing, and afterwards shaking hands, it is always proper to address the person as “thou,” which saves endless repetition. Etiquette is so severe on this point in Sweden, that even boys of fifteen or sixteen years of age always call each other Mr. So-and-so, until they have drunk brotherhood. It has more than once happened to me at a convivial meeting to have been asked to drink this toast with a person whom I had never before seen, and then after having shaken hands and asked “ Well, brother, what is thy name ?"_"My name is D---, of G- nation;" and it would be construed into an affront if either party should at any subsequent period address the other under a different title.
Having thus given you a brief outline of the way the richer students live at Upsala, I will proceed to give you a little insight into the kind of life those poor fellows lead who have to struggle with poverty as well as the difficulties of science: and the number of these certainly preponderates greatly over that of those who are able to live in ease and comfort. The poor students are for the most part the sons either of small farmers, of clergymen having small incomes, or of public functionaries, whose salaries are just sufficient to keep them within the sphere of respectability. These students depend in a great manner on their own exertions for their support; having, perhaps, received on their setting out for the University, as large a sum as their parents could raise, which however very often does not exceed 101. or 151., and they are thus cast adrift on the world, somewhat after the manner of Gil Blas going to Salamanca. Should their parents chance to live near the University, they are rather better off than their fellows, because in that case they have provisions sent to them from home, such as bread, butter, cheese, and dried meat, which, with milk, and occasionally eggs, constitutes their fare. This mode of supplying their commissariat department is not, however, so general now as it was some fifty years ago; indeed, at present, it is only the case with those students who come from places within sixty or seventy miles of the University. Giving you a sketch of how two of my acquaintances, who were not of the very poorest class, lived, may serve as a fair specimen of the poor student's life generally. All the money their parents could afford to give them was only 171. per annum each, yet with this sum they contrived to manage very well, and even to keep up an appearance of respectability. They lived together in one room, for which they paid about fifty shillings English a year; and were very diligent, getting up in the morning at five o'clock or earlier, lighting their fire, brushing their own shoes and clothes, and then sitting down to study till eight o'clock, when the charwoman brought them a pint of milk, which with bread served them for breakfast. During the forenoon they attended lectures, and used to make some money by looking over the Latin versions of their more idle or less clever fellow students. For their dinner, procured from a neighbouring cook's shop, they paid ten shillings a month for both,-certainly very cheap, but far from being either sufficient in quantity, or good in quality. For supper they had only bread and butter, with, as an occasional treat, a glass of beer. They were of course seldom to be seen at night in any of the numerous taverns with which Upsala abounds, unless previously invited to take a glass of punch, as a recompense for some literary aid rendered to a richer friend.
During vacation they sometimes got employed as tutors to some of the younger boys, which was a great point gained ; and they thus generally made as much during that period as enabled them with their own allowances to get through the session. Nearly all the poor students have bursaries; but these are very inconsiderable, some of them not exceeding three pounds per annum, and a student is not allowed to receive more than one bursary at a time. Most of the poorer students study divinity, a good many law, and a few of them medicine, but almost all are deeply in debt by the time their studies are finished, which clogs their after progress in the world very much, and years often elapse before they are able to discharge these debts; but to their honour be it said, the instances are rare where such debts are not ultimately liquidated. The students at Upsala are very musical, and it is really a fine thing to hear them sing in full chorus; sometimes during the session they congregate to the number of several hundreds, and promenade the streets singing; and occasionally halting before the house of some favourite professor, giving him a song and a huzza; upon which being done, the professor always comes down and returns thanks for the honour conferred on him.
Upsala contains 5000 inhabitants, without reckoning the students, and is situated on the small river Tyris, about forty-five miles north of Stockholm. It is principally famous as having been the earliest, as it is still the highest, seat of learning in Scandinavia, and in remote times it was the capital of this district, then one of the lesser kingdoms into which Sweden was divided. The University was founded in the year 1476 by the Regent Sten Sture the elder, and the University of Paris served as a model for the institution. At first, indeed, there were but few professors, so that it more resembled a large classical school than a university. Gustavus Vasa received his education at Upsala, and even to this day the house in which he lived may be pointed out; a fact of which tourists do not seem to be aware; for though they all make inquiry for the house of Linnæus, they are ignorant that a still greater man once lived there, and one to whom the University is greatly indebted. When Gustavus Vasa ascended the throne of Sweden, he patronized the University to the utmost extent of his power, and appointed lecturers on divinity to teach the Lutheran doctrine. After his time, it, however, fell into neglect, till his grandson Gustavus Adolphus came to the throne, and he may not improperly be regarded as the real founder of the University. It was him who formed it as it still continues, and he devoted his whole private fortune, which was immense, to serve as funds for the maintenance of the professors. His endowment having been in landed property, and incapable of alienation from the University, it follows that the grant is fortunately of as great relative value now as it was at that time. A certain portion of the king's donation was originally destined to support the poorer students, who were permitted to dine together gratis, under the inspection of one or more professors ; but this practice was shortly discontinued, and the money was in lieu of it given away as bursaries. To show the extent of this grant by Gustavus Adolphus, it is sufficient to state that of twenty-six professorships, which is the present number, only three are on the foundation of private individuals. The University is divided into four faculties, viz. Divinity, Law, Physic, and Arts, or, as it is styled, Philosophy. Each of these is in the practice of granting degrees ; the three first of Bachelor and Doctor, and the last that of A.M. The Professors of Divinity are better rewarded than any of the others, as besides their salaries, each has also a living, and the eldest professor in that faculty is, ex officio, Dean of the cathedral. In the same faculty are also four adjuncts who hold public lectures, and besides these there are four private teachers. The Faculty of Law comprises three professors, two adjuncts, and two private teachers; the Medical Faculty eight professors and two adjuncts; and the Philosophical Faculty fourteen professors and eight or ten adjuncts, besides a host of private teachers. Each of these professors delivers public lectures four hours a week, and very few of them give private lectures. Such private lectures as are given are delivered by the adjuncts and the private teachers. The professors being paid according to the value of grain, their salaries consequently vary considerably in amount. Each season, after harvest, a taxation committee sits in every province to regulate the value of the different descriptions of grain for the year, and the professors receive payment according to the valuation of the committee. Their stipends are fixed at about 240 barrels of corn, one half being of rye, and the other half of barley; the average value of which in money is, at 5 rix dollars banco per barrel, 1200 rix banco, or 1001. The adjuncts are paid 75 barrels of corn, which is inadequate to their support; but many of them make as much more by delivering private lectures ; and as these situations are considered the stepping stones to professorships, they are eagerly sought after. The students do not live in college, but are scattered over the whole town, almost every house having lodgings to let; and these, it must be acknowledged, are very cheap, ranging between twenty and fifty shillings English a year. The furniture consists only of a bedstead, a deal table, some chairs of the same material, and a few shelves for books; and many persons in humble life at Upsala make a comfortable living by hiring out bed-clothes and furniture to the students.
At the meetings of the students held in the rooms of their respective nations, disputations, either in Latin or Swedish, and sometimes, though rarely, in one of the modern languages, are held. Students are not bound to study any certain length of time before being allowed to pass their examinations, nor are they even obliged to attend the lectures; and it consequently happens very often that a professor has only ten or fifteen auditors. It is true that at the beginning of every session a list is circulated among the students of each pation, on which they are required to intimate which lectures they purpose to attend, and from these lists the professors are furnished with the names of the students who ought to attend their lectures; but it seldom happens that more than one tenth of these are present. It is, indeed, only in the medical faculty, and in that of law, that the attendance on lectures is at all regular; the reason for which is that, in the first mentioned faculty, the number of students is so small that the professor would have no difficulty in remarking who were absentees, and the neglect would be sure to recoil upon them, when their time came for undergoing their examinations. The average course of study for passing the examination for A.M., is from five to seven years; for M.D., from seven to ten years. In the faculties of law and divinity degrees are seldom taken; in the latter the degree of D.D. is only conferred by the king as a grace, and the highest honours that can be taken in the faculty independently of D.D. is Licentiate of Divinity, and this is rarely taken excepting by such as have an eye to a professorship in the faculty. The examinations are sufficiently rigid to make an Upsala degree honourable, and this is one of the Universities which has not prostituted itself by selling diplomas.
AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF FITZROY PIKE.
CHAPTER THE FIRST. Birth, Parentage, and Babiography; comprising a learned Discussion on “Proper
Names," -The Temple of Minerva ; its High-Priest; and Initiation into its Mysteries. I was born- Truly one would think this a sufficiently near period at which to commence the history of my life! but no,-fathers and grandfathers possessing, by the laws of Nature, a priority of existence, demand also, by the laws of society, a priority of notice. The untimely phrase, “ I was born,” must, therefore, be retracted, and “my grandfather,” substituted for the egotistical letter.
My grandfather, then, was born at Rotherhithe, in a house, the envy of all poets and painters ; it was, they said, perfectly picturesque : -the door was rotten, and hung on a single hinge; the roof was dropping to pieces, except where, at one part, the crumbling chimney had fallen through, and there it had dropped already; the walls were of rotten plaster, supported by rotting beams; the windows were ventilators, innocent of glass; the whole literally overhung the Thames. What an honour to dwell in a house like this ! -A house which young ladies came miles to see and sketch as they sat in their carriages ; which inspired poets in the neighbouring garrets with dreams of ruin
N.S. VOL. VI.
and romance; which painters by profession committed to canvass, on the first floor front of the public-house over the way.
Shaded by this glorious tenement, my father's sire increased unto man's estate, and here inherited the arduous occupation of a long line of ancestry, the philanthropic task of providing for his fellow creatures the means of warmth and sustenance, as indicated by an inscription above his warehouse, written in blue letters, on a yellow ground; the whole tanned by age and exposure:
“TATARs is soled hear
Cole and Coak to Cuk em with.” In the course of time, my respected grandfather died, leaving the business, or “ line,” to his eldest son, Bob Pike, my destined father. The marriage of this son and heir, being the most important circumstance connected with myself, is all I shall, at present, relate. Bob Pike, since he could neither write nor read, carried on the intercourse of love without billet doux, and though his language was not of the most refined, it was eloquent enough to convince a confiding young maiden (Heaven save the mark!), subsequently my mother, that matrimony, and that, too, in partnership with himself, was the best state in which her life could be continued.
My father's philanthropic occupations, as above stated, proved so lucrative, that, on adding to his own gains a fortune of one thousand pounds, bequeathed him by my grandfather, he found himself sufficiently rich to retire from the potato business; and having taken a family mansion,-family prospective,-in some shady street near Camberwell,—an elegant four-roomed house, with green ditch in front, and rustic bridge, leading to a green gate that opened on a green grass-plat, traversed by a gravel walk, that led you to a green door with a bright brass knocker and brass plate,-“B.” (Bub!) “ PIKE, ESQ.,”—for respectability's sake-there I was born.
Although, from the accounts of friends, a most remarkable baby, I was yet unable, until some time, at least, after birth, to take particular cognizance of surrounding events. The few lines on babiography, therefore, that follow, are carefully compiled from the authentic and impartial records of my nurse.
Babiography Why are not volumes written upon that “interesting” subject ?- Is it because all babes are red, soft things alike? I cannot stay to argue; but if my nurse tell truth, and all babies are as I have been, then, truly, is the new-born race a generation of infant phenomena !
I have, in my note-book, much relating to infant life; but I see the word “dreadful dull!” in the reader's mind, and pass it over accordingly.
When the time arrived for christening the juvenile Pike innominatus, my Christian name gave rise to a hotly contested election. Five uncles required that I should be christened after them; two maiden aunts desired, one to call me Zacharias, the other Jerusalem; my grandmother voted for Timothy Babylon; my father, Fitzroy ; and my accommodating mother could see no reason why I should not please every body, and—have these names, every one, in succession, after the manner of the aristocratic circles !