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the great Thor. The cathedral in which this statue is placed, is internally handsome, and contains likewise the tomb of Gustavus Ericson, the founder of the Vasa dynasty, whose memory is still the most popular of all the Swedish monarchs. The tomb is ornamented by a recumbent figure of the royal tenant, which is placed between similar mementos of his two beautiful queens. The chapel of the cathedral wbich contains this tomb is now undergoing the process of being ornamented, and having all the more distinguished events of this king's life very tastefully delineated in fresco on its walls. The tomb and monument of Linnæus in this church are also interesting ; but the father of Botany does not seem to have been fortunate in engrafting his floral taste on the minds of his countrymen, for I have observed in Sweden few or none of those flowery windows, and verdant balconies, which proved last year so attractive in Germany. The hours of our arrival and departure did not enable us to see either the museum of the University, or the site of the ancient Upsala ; but this latter is, I am told, now only distinguishable by a few mounds of earth, which reveal the spot on which it stood.
Our having bad the benefit of an excellent steam-vessel to convey us both to and from Upsala, is one of many proofs here met with of the extent to which Sweden has already begun to profit by this new power, and of this, the steam cotton-factory, which has been established in Upsala within the last two years, affords still further evidence.
Capital is, however, so scarce in Sweden, that unless, as in Germany, the capital of joint-stock companies is brought in to the aid of private enterprise, manufactures are not likely to advance with much rapidity. Though England has hitherto been the chief gainer by the discovery of steam-power, I yet fear that she will ultimately be seriously injured by that all-powerful agent, which in the process of time may deprive her of much of that advantage which the superior energy of her people formerly commanded. Steam-power may, on the contrary, be considered as the great equalizer, and the mechanism it sets in motion revolves as rapidly for the slothful as for the active-for the somewhat torpid Swede, as for the ceaselessly active enterprise of Manchester or America.
Having applied to my estimable and intelligent friend Dr. C. Dickson, of Gottenburg, for some information in regard to the habits of university life at Upsala, I find I shall best do justice to the graphic sketch with which he has furnished me by giving it as much as possible in his own words, which are as follow :
At the age of sixteen I left my father's house, at Gottenburg, for the University, and having never been from home before, felt much delighted at the prospect of change. I had made choice of the medical profession-the one which certainly required the longest course of study; but at that moment I did not think of any disagreeables, but felt pleased that I should at length become my own master, and longed accordingly for the 24th of September, which was to set me free from my school-boy chains. The University was three hundred miles distant from my home; and as it would require five days at least to reach Upsala, travelling post as we do in Sweden, always putting up
N. S.-vol. VI.
at some inn during the night, it was considered proper that I should not go alone. By good fortune, one of my acquaintances, who had already been a year at college, and had spent the summer vacation at home, agreed to accompany me, and we consequently procured a peasant's carriage, a rude cart on four wheels without any springs, which, with two horses, was much more pleasant than to have gone alone in a onehorse cart. After all my baggage had been properly packed up, my kind mother presented me with four pounds, in a small box, which she deposited in my portmanteau, and I thought I carried with me an inexhaustible fund, having never before had in my possession at any time a sum exceeding the value of a shilling. I imagined I should never be able to spend such a vast treasure, and formed the most extravagant ideas of the uses to which I should apply it. My ardour was, however, a little damped on the morning of our departure by bad weather; and not even the extra delicacies put down on the breakfasttable could reconcile me to the dreary prospect without, as well as some peculiar feelings which began to arise within. The starting tear came indeed often to my eye, but pride also came to my aid, so that I was enabled to repress it, and tried to eat, though it seemed at the risk of being choked by every morsel I took. After a tender farewell, I mounted the carriage,--a sorry concern, and quite open,-having previously received from my father a sum equal to two pounds ten shillings, which was to serve me for travelling post three hundred miles ; and from this you may judge how cheap travelling is in Sweden. I will not detain you by any description of my journey, as you have gone over the same ground; but let it suffice, that after six days' travelling I arrived safely at Upsala, where I was consigned to the care of a clergyman, with whom I was boarded, my parents thinking me too inexperienced to be left to my own discretion.
We arrived at Upsala the day preceding the opening of the session, and I was very well received by the reverend gentleman and his lady, and by them introduced to four fellow students of about my own age, who were likewise boarded with him. The clergyman instructed ine how to proceed in order to be enrolled as a student, viz. to call on the curator of the nation to which I belonged, who would present me to the Dean of the Faculty of Arts. Every nation chooses one of its oldest members to become its curator, to call it together to its weekly meetings, and to keep its library, and common financial account—that is to say, to receive the yearly subscriptions towards defraying the expenses of their meeting-room and library. The following day I presented myself to the curator, where I found four young students from my own district, who had likewise come up to college, and we all proceeded under his guidance to call upon the Dean.
With great fear and trembling did I present myself before this first specimen of a professor I had ever seen, and I was agreeably surprised to find him a gentleman with peculiarly kind and conciliating manners. Professor A- is one of the few poets modern Sweden has produced. The following morning was appointed for the examination, which every person must pass in Sweden, before he is admitted as a student; and at 9 o'clock we presented ourselves accordingly, and were ushered into the professor's library; where, after fire hours, we were all declared duly competent. By good fortune, the Dean was the Professor of Belles Lettres; and in consequence of being tolerably versed in modern languages, I got rather a good testimonial; and remember well his doubting inquiry, as to whether I had any knowledge of English? I replied without hesitation, “ Yes;" and the professor immediately brought forward Byron's “ Childe Harold," and having opened it at the 3rd Canto, was so well satisfied with my reading, that we did not leave off before I had quite finished it. I suppose it is to this cause I owe my good testimonial, which was, * Non sine laude approbatus ;” though, at the moment, I scarcely knew enough of Latin to interpret it; by which you may judge of the state of classical knowledge in the schools of Sweden. The day after the examination, we were presented to the Rector of the University, and entered our names in the book of matriculation; and I now had become a regular student. Before proceeding to give any description of our course of study, I had better give a short sketch of our mode of living in the house of the reverend gentleman with whom I was boarded. The boarders were five in number, and had each one room, furnished with a sofa, bedstead, &c. &c.; but no carpet, that being an extreme luxury anywhere in Sweden. Each morning, at six o'clock, the servant came to make the fire; and at seven, a cup of coffee and two rusks were brought to us. At nine o'clock, we had breakfast, consisting of the hard Swedish rye bread, with butter, and cheese, and sometimes, by way of a treat, some cold meat. Dinner was served up at one o'clock, and before sitting down to it, we partook of the whet usual in Sweden, consisting of a dram of spirits, with some bread and cheese, or anchovies. Our dinner always consisted of three removes, of which the second was some sort of soup, generally made with milk, or rice, seldom bouillon. Sometimes we had no animal food for dinner; indeed, this was generally the case, when the first course consisted of fish. On Sundays, there was always a roast for the third course, besides an extra course of pudding, or tart, and a glass of punch; small beer was always à discretion. After dinner, we had a cup of coffee each, with again two rusks. At six, if at home, which was very seldom the case, tea was served in the Swedish way; that is to say, one teaspoonful of tea to half a gallon of water. Supper, which was served at nine o'clock, was generally a rechauffé of the remains of dinner, with a glass of boiled or cold milk. By all this, you may perceive, that though we did not fare luxuriously, we were yet by no means very ill off. For our board and lodging, as thus described, the clergyman was paid 251. for the session of eight months, from October to June; besides which, we had separately to pay for our washing, and clubbed together to keep a boy for brushing our boots and clothes. We were not kept in particularly strict order, and had, indeed, quite as much liberty as we could desire; in proof of which, during a whole month, on one occasion, I did not once sup at home; and the only observation the clergyınan made, was, that I must have an extensive circle of acquaintance.
After having been at the University nearly two years, I began to think it bigh time to take my examination as Bachelor of Arts, which
is in Sweden indispensable for every one who desires to study medicine. If in doing so I had no great stock of classical knowledge, I was not altogether deficient in the more available fund of modest assurance, by dint of which I got through better than my qualifications strictly perhaps entitled me to. Six months were now allowed me to pass the private examinations, or, as we called them, “ Tentamina," before the general public examination came on; and as we had to be examined by ten different professors, it was rather a busy time. I received a sad blow, nevertheless, for the first person I went to for examination being the Professor of Greek, I was sent away with the intimation that I might come again at the expiration of six months. This, however, only roused my pride, and spurred me on to greater exertions, and by good fortune I passed my examination generally with eclat. It was now permitted me to commence my medical studies; and as Upsala is not a good school of anatomy, I preferred going to Stockholm, where I had the benefit of attending the large hospitals, and likewise of studying chemistry under Professor Berzelius. This eminent professor has since resigned, and retired into the enjoyment of the otium cum dignitate. At Stockholm I remained a year, and afterwards went back to Upsala, where I had to study two years more before being permitted to pass my examinations for M.B., for which we have also to defend a thesis, generally, but not invariably, written by ourselves. After obtaining the degree of M.B., I went back to Stockholm, and served some months as a dresser and clerk at the hospital, and then studied another year at Upsala, before obtaining the degree of Licentiate of Medicine. After having passed this last examination our studies are considered finished, and we have only to write and defend publicly a medical dissertation, after which the degree of Doctor of Medicine is granted. A person is often, however, compelled to remain a licentiate a long time, as the degree of Doctor is only conferred once in five or seven years; or, more properly speaking, only when a sufficient number of candidates can be collected to repay the expenses. The candidates amounted to thirty-two on the occasion when I obtained my degree, and the ceremony was a very solemn one; a large platform having been erected in the choir of the cathedral of Upsala, and divine service performed both before and after the inauguration. We had each a silk cap put on our heads, a sword girded on, a ring put on our fingers, and our diplomas handed to us—all this being accompanied by the firing of cannon, the blowing of trumpets, and beating of kettledrums. After the ceremony, we adjourned to the college library, where a dinner had been prepared in the large hall for all the civil, military, and academic dignitaries; and the day finished with a ball, the whole affair being at the expense of the newly made Doctors. At the time I considered the expense enormous; but it does not sound much in English money, being about £13 each, all fees and stamp duties included. I must not, however, omit to mention, before finishing this sketch of my college life, the military part of it. Every man in Sweden is liable to be called out in time of war for five years service, from the age of twenty to twenty-five; and the first year embraced in those ages, they are called out for a month's drill. This is regularly done every year at Upsala, and the students like it very much, the more
of candidates can be continue
especially as they are allowed to form a division by themselves, wearing a separate uniform, and not subject to such strict discipline as the poorer conscripts.
The number of students liable to be called out every year amounts, on an average, to 100 or 120, and they are formed into four divisions, with a corporal chosen from among themselves, to command them when not on the drill ground. I had the honour of being chosen corporal to one of these divisions; but honour, alas! is, I found, seldom to be gained without expense. I was likewise appointed paymaster to the division, receiving the daily pay of three-pence, which each had from government as long as they were in activity, and which went so far to pay for their breakfasts and suppers. To meet the extra expenses of these, a great number of fines of different descriptions were also imposed, and the deficiency was usually made up by a contribution. Each division patronised a separate tavern, and there gave suppers to the officers and corporals of the other divisions in rotation; and I do not exceed the truth in saying, that during the three weeks we were exercised, a great many of the students were never quite sober. I must (however) say for them, that they were always ready when required for duty. In this respect, we were, for example, called out at five in the morning and drilled till ten, when each division went to its tavern for breakfast. At four in the afternoon we met again, and continued exercising till eight, when we adjourned again to the tavern, and kept it up convivially till the early hours of morning. As soon as our drilling was over, the publicans sent in their bills, and I, being the responsible person, had to make up the deficiency out of my own private funds, for nearly the half of my division were literally unable to pay their proportion of the expenses. The students are divided, as you may conceive, into several cliques, according to their rank, and the sums of money they can afford to spend ; but there is little exclusive feeling among them. There are always a great many young noblemen at Upsala; but very few of them pass through any regular course of study, though some undergo the so-called civil examination, which qualifies them for entering into the various departments of government. Most of them, however, remain there some years under their tutors, and when arrived at the proper age, they generally enter the army. I do not know any example of a nobleman having studied medicine,-nor is it usual in Sweden for the sons of the nobility to study for the church. In so far as my memory extends, I know of but two cases of this description, in one of which a count held a living, and in the other a baron was raised to a diocese from the army, without having been in orders before; the only qualification he possessed, and which was a conditio sine qua non, being the degree of A. M. He, however, happily turned out quite an ornament to the Swedish Church. The young tufts lead a very lazy life, and being generally very young, they have tutors : but these are too well bred to impose very severe tasks on their pupils; and the consequence is, that beyond riding, fencing, dancing, and perhaps some lessons in modern languages, they learn very little. Riding is their chief amusement, and they are easily distinguished by generally wearing leather breeches and enormous jack boots, somewhat resembling those worn by the French