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fual. During the course of enjoyment, the pleafure rifes infenfibly higher and higher till a habit be established ; at which time the pleasure is at its height. It continues not, however, ftationary: the fame cuftomary reiteration which carried it to its height, brings it down again by infentible degrees. Thofe things which at firft are but moderately agreeable, are the apteft to become habitual. Spirituous liquors, at firft fcarce agreeable, readily produce an habitual appetite: and cuftom prevails fo far, as even to make us fond of things originally difagreeable, fuch as coffee, affafoetida, tobacco, opium, &c. A walk upon the quarterdeck, though intolerably confined, becomes how. ever fo agreeable by cuftom, that a tailor in his walk on fhore confines himself commonly within the fame bounds. Lord Kaims mentions a man who had relinquifhed the fea for a country life; in the corner of his garden he reared an artificial mount with a level fummit, refembling moft accurately a quarter-deck, not only in fhape but in fize; and here he generally walked. In Minorca governor Kane made an excellent road the whole length of the inland; and yet the inhabitants adhere to the old road, though not only longer but extremely bad. Gaming, at first barely amuling by the occupation it affords, becomes in time extremely agreeable; and is often profecuted with avidity, as if it were the chief bufinefs of life. The fame obfervation is applicable to the pleasures of the internal fenfes, thofe of knowledge and virtue in particular; children have fcarce any fenfe of thefe pleasures; and men very little who are in the ftate of nature without culture: our tafte for virtue and knowledge improves flowly; but is capable of growing stronger than any other appetite in human nature. To introduce an active habit, frequency of acts is not fufficient without length of time; the quickest fucceffion of acts in a short time is not fufficient; nor a slow fucceffion in the longeft time. The effect must be produced by a moderate foft action, and a long feries of eafy touches, removed from each other by fhort intervals. Nor are these fufficient without regularity in the time, place, and other circumstances of the action: the more uniform any operation is, the fooner it becomes habitual. And this holds equally in a paffive habit; variety in any remarkable degree, prevents the effect: thus any particular food will fearce ever become habitual where the manner of dreffing is varied. The circumftances then requifite to augment a moderate pleasure, and at the long run to form a habit, are weak uniform acts, reiterated during a long course of time, without any confiderable interruption; every agreeable caufe that operates in this manner will grow habitual. Lord Kaims in his Elements of Criticism has treated this subject at confiderable length. And Dr Cullen in his Lectures on the Materia Medica, (ft edit.) fhows the effects of cuftom and habit on the animal econoiny.

(3.) HABIT, 1. def. 2. The principal part of the drefs worn by the Jews and Greeks was the and the xilar. The lo was an upper garment, confifting of a loofe fquare piece of cloth wrapped round the body; the x was an under garment or tunic, which was faftened round

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the body and embraced it clofely, falling down to the middle of the thigh. A perfon divested of the upper garment, in the eastern language, was styled naked, and in this fente DAVID danced naked before the ark. The feveral forts of garments in ufe with both fexes, amongst the Romans, were the toga, tunica, peluna, lacerna, chlamys, paluda. mentum, læna, ftola, pallium or palla. See ToGA, &c. For the habits of the priests amongst the Jews, Greeks, and Romans, fee PRIESTS.

(4.) HABIT is particularly used for the uniform garments of the religious, conformable to the rule and order whereof they make profeflion: as the habit of St Benedict, of St Auguftine, &c. In this fenfe we fay abfolutely, fuch a perfon has taken the kabit; meaning he has entered upon a noviciate in a certain order. So he is faid to quit the habit, when he renounces the order. See Vow. The habits of the feveral religious are not fuppofed to have been calculated for fingularity or novelty: the founders of the orders, who were at firft inhabitants of deferts and folitudes, gave their monks the habits ufual among the country people. Accordingly the primitive habits of St Anthony, St Hilarion, St Benedict, &c. are defcribed by the ancient writers as confifting chiefly of fheep fkins, the common drefs of the peafants of that time. The orders eftablished in and about cities and inhabited places took the habit worn by other ecclefiaftics at the time of their inftitution. What makes them differ fo much from each other, as well as from the ecclefiaftical habit of the prefeat times, is, that they have always kept invariably to the fame form; whereas the ecclefiaftics and laics have been changing their mode on every occafion.

to

* To HABIT. v. a. [from the noun.] To drefs;
accoutre; to array.-

Prefent yourself and your fair princefs
Before Leontes:

She fhall be habited as it becomes The partner of your bed. Shak. Winter's Tale. Having called to his memory Sir George Villiers, and the cloaths he ufed to wear, in which at that time he feemed to be habited, he thought him to be that perfon. Clarendon.-They babited themfelves like thofe rural deities, and imitated them in their ruftick dances. Dryden.

HABITABLE. adj. [habitable, Fr. habitabilis, Lat.] Capable of being dwelt in; capable of fuftaining human creatures.-By means of our folitary fituation, we know well moft part of the ba bitable world, and are ourselves unknown. Bacon.

That was her torrid and inflaming time; This is her habitable tropique clime. Donne. -The torrid zone is now found habitable. Corley. Look round the babitable world, how few Know their own good, or knowing it, pursue. Dryden.

* HABITABLENESS. n.f. [from habitable.] Capacity of being dwelt in.-The cutting of the Equinoctial line decides that controverfy of the habitableness of the torrid zone. More.-Thofe ancient problems of the spherical roundness of the earth, the being of antipodes, and of the babitableness of the torrid zone, are abundantly demonftrated. Rag.

*HABI

♦ HABITANCE. n. f. [habitatio, Lat.] Dwelling; abode.

What art thou, man, if man at all thou art. That here in defart haft thine babitance?

And thefe rich heaps of wealth do'ft hide apart From the world's eye, and from her right ufance. Spenfer's Fairy Queen. HABITANT. 1. f. [habitant, Fr. habitans, Latin. Dweller; one that lives in any place; in

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-Art is properly an habitual knowledge of cer

Lain rules and maxims. South.

By length of time

The fcurf is worn away of each committed crime: No fpeck is left of their babitual stains; But the pure ether of the foul remains. Dryden. 'Tis impoffible to become an able artift, without making your art babitual to you. Dryden.

HABITUALLY. adv. [from habitual.] Cuftomarily; by habit.-Internal graces and qualities of mind fanctify our natures, and render us habitally holy. Atterbury.

To HABITUAŤE. v. a. [babituer, Fr.] To accufiom; to ufe one's felf by frequent repetition;

with to.-Men are firft corrupted by bad counsel and company, and next they habituate themselves to their vicious practices. Tillotson.-Such as live in a rarer air are habituated to the exercife of a greater mufcular ftrength. Arbuthnot.

* HABITUDE. n. f. [habitudo, Latin, babitude, Fr] 1. Relation; refpect; ftate with regard to fomething elfe.- We cannot conclude this complexion of nations from the vicinity or habitude they hold unto the fun. Brown.-The will of God is like a ftreight unalterable rule; but the various comportments of the creature, either thwarting this rule, or holding conformity to it, occafions feveral babitudes of this rule unto it. Hale's Origin of Mankind.-It refults from the very nature of things, as they stand in fuch a certain babitude, or relation to one another. South-As by the objective part of perfect happiness we understand that which is beft and last, and to which all other things are to be referred; fo by the formal part must be understood the best and last babitude of man toward that best object. Norris.

2.

In all the babitudes of life

-

Dryden.

The friend, the mistress, and the wife, Variety we ftill pursue. Savift. Familiarity; converfe; frequent intercourfe.His knowledge in the noblest useful arts, Was fuch dead authors could not give; But habitudes with those who live. To write well, one must have frequent babitudes with the beft company. 3. Long custom; habit; inveterate ufe. This is more properly habit.-Mankind is willing to continue in a pleafing error, ftrengthened by a long babitude. Dryden.Thy ear, inur'd to charitable founds, And pitying love, muft feel the hateful wounds Of jett obfcene, and vulgar ribaldry, The ill-bred question, and the loud reply, Brought by long habitude from bad to worse; Must hear the frequent oath, the direful curfe.

Prior. 4. The power of doing any thing acquired by frequent repetition.-It is impoffible to gain an exact habitude, without an infinite number of acts and perpetual practice. Dryden.

HABNAB. adv. [hap ne hap, or nap; as would nould, or ne would; will nill, or ne will; that is, let it happen or not.] At random; at the mercy of chance; without any rule or certainty of effect.--He circles draws and fquares, With cyphers, aftral characters; Then looks 'em o'er to understand 'em, Although fet down habnab at random. Hudið. HABOST, a town of Perfia, in Segeftan. (1.)HABSBURG, or HAPSBURG, an ancient caf tle and ci-devant bailiwic of the Helvetic republic,

in the canton of Lucerne, near the lake, and E.

of the town of Lucern. Lon. 8. 1o. E. Lat. 47. 22. N.

(2.) HABSBURG. See HAPSBURG, N° 1. HABSHEIM, a town of France, in the dep. of the Upper Rhine, 9 miles NNE. of Altkirch. It was burnt by the Swifs in 1468.

HABUR, an ifland in the Red Sea, 6 miles from the coaft of Arabia.

HACHA, a sea port town of Terra Firma, feated at the mouth of the Hacha. Here the Spanish galleona

galleons touch at their arrival in S. America, and fend expreffes to all the fettlements to give them notice. Lon. 72. 8. W. Lat. 11. 28. N. HACHENBURG, a town of Germany, in Weftphalia and county of Sayn, 17 miles NE. of Coblentz.

HACHILAH, a hill in the SE. part of Judea, S. of Jefhimon, about 10 miles S. of Jericho. It was one of David's retreats from Saul: and Jonathan, the Maccabee, built the ftrong caftle of Maffada upon it.

HACHÓWKA, a town of Poland, in Volhynia. HACHUT, or HAHET, a town of Hungary. (1.) To HACK. v. a. (haccan, Saxon; hacken, Dutch; bacher, Fr. from acafe, an axe, Saxon.] 1. To cut into fmall pieces; to chop; to cut flightly with frequent blows; to mangle with unfkilful blows. It bears commonly fome notion of contempt or malignity.-He put on that armour, whereof there was no one piece wanting, though backed in fome places, bewraying fome fight not long fince paffed. Sidney.-What a flave art thou, to back thy fword as thou haft done, and say it was in fight! Shakespeare's Henry IV.—

.

Richard the Second here was back'd to death.
Shakespeare.
I'll fight 'till from my bones my flesh be backt.
Shakespeare.

One flourishing branch of his most royal root Is backt down, and his fummer leaves all faded, By envy's hand, and murder's bloody axe. Shak. Burn me, back me, hew me into pieces. Dryd. Not the back'd helmet, nor the duty field, But purple vefts and flow'ry garlands please. Addison. But fate with butchers plac'd thy prieftly ftall, Meek modern faith to murder, hack and mawl. Pope. 2. To speak unreadily, or with hesitation.-Difarm them, and let them question; let them keep their limbs whole, and back our English. Shakefp. (2.) To HACK. v. n. To hackney; to turn hackney or proftitute.

HACKANBO, a town of Sweden, in Upland. HACKEMBERG, a mountain of the Helvetic republic, in the canton of Glaris, 6 m. N. of Schweitz. HACKERY, n.. a imall covered carriage much ufed by the natives in Calcutta, chiefly by the ladies. It has two wheels and is drawn by bullocks. HACKET, John, Bp. of Litchfield and Coventry, was born in 1592. It 1623, he was made chaplain to James I. prebendary of Lincoln, and obtained feveral other promotions, but loft them during the troubles, about 1645. He then lived retired at Cheam until the Refloration, when he recovered his preferiments. In 1661 Charles II. made him Bp. of Litchfield and Coventry. Find ing the cathedral almoft battered to the ground, be in 8 years finished a complete church fuperior to the former, chiefly at his own expence of 20,000l. He also laid out roool. on a prebendal houfe. He died in 1670. He published, before he entered into orders, a comedy intitled Loyola, which was twice acted before king James I. Atter his death was published A Century of his fer

mons on feveral remarkable subjects, and The life of Abp. Williams, both in folio.

HACKETSTOWN, a town of New Jersey, 120 miles NE. of Philadelphia. Lon. c. 18. E. of that city. Lat. 40. 32. N.

(1.) HACKINSAC, a river of New Jersey, which runs into the Atlantic, 6 miles N. of Staten Inland. (2.) HACKINSAC, a town of New Jerfey, on the above river, 6 miles NNE. of Philadelphia. * HACKLE. n. f. Raw filk; any flimsy subftance unfpun.-Take the backle of a cock or capon's neck, or a plover's top: take off one fide of the feather, and then take the backle filk, gold or filver thread, and make these faft at the bent of the hook. Walton's Angler.

*To HACKLE. v. a. [from back.] To dress flax. (1.)* HACKNEY. n. f. [bacnai, Welsh; backeneye, Teuton. baquenee, Fr.] 1. A pacing horse. 2. A hired horfe; hired horfes being ufually taught to pace, or recommended as good pacers.-Light and lewd perfons were as eafily fuborned to make an affidavit for money, as post-horses and hackneys are taken to hire. Bacon.

Who, mounted on a broom, the nag
And hackney of a Lapland hag,
In queft of you came hither poft.
3. A hireling; a prostitute.--

Hudibras,

Three kingdoms rung With his accumulative and hackney tongue. Rofcommon.

That is no more than every lover

Does from his hackney lady fuffer. Hudibras
Shall each spurgalled hackney of the day,
Or each new penfion'd fycophant, pretend
To break my windows?

4. Any thing let out for hire.

Pope.

A wit can study in the ftreets: Not quite fo well, however, as one ought; A hackney coach may chance to spoil a thought. Pope. 5. Much ufed: commont.-Thefe notions young ftudents in phyfick derive from their backney authors. Harvey.

(2.) HACKNEY, a parish of Middlefex, on the NE. fide of London, containing 12 hamlets. At the bottom of Hackney Marth, there have been difovered the remains of a great ftone causeway, which, by the Roman coins &c. found there, was no doubt one of the highways made by the Ro

mans.

(3.) HACKNEY, a rich and populous village in the above parish', (N° 2.) nearly joined to London on the NNE. The church was founded in the reign of Edward II. The number of houfes is near 8co. It has 3 meeting-houses, a tree fchool, a charity fchool, and 17 almthoufes. From this place it is faid the HACKNEY COACHES (4.) first received that name, (hough Dr Johnston gives a different derivation; fee § 1.) for in the 17th century, many people having gone to fee their friends at Hackney, it occafioned them often to hire horfes or carriages, fo that in time it became a common name for fuch horfes, coaches, and chairs, as were let to the people of London.

(4.) HACKNEY COACHES, Coaches expofed to

hiree

Of this last definition, Dr Johnfon ought to have formed a feparate article. HACKNEY, in this fenfe, is an adjective, as is evident from the citation from HARVEY, as well as from that above quotea

from ROSCOMMON, and the fecond quotation from HUDIBRAS.

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hire in the ftreets of London, and other great clties, at rates fixed by authority. See COACH, $5. The firit began to ply in London, in 1625, when they were only 20 in number; but in 1635 they were fo much increased, that king Charles I. i. fued out an order of council to reftrain them. In 1637, he allowed 50 hackney coachmen, each of whom might keep 12 horfes. In 1652, their number was limited to 200; and in 1654, it was extended to 300. In 1661, 400 were licensed, at sl. each annually. In 1694, 700 were allowed, and taxed by the 5 and 6 of W. & M. at 41. a year each. By 9 Anne c. 23. 800 coaches were al lowed in London and Westminster; but by 8 Geo. III. cap. 24. the number is increased to 1000, which are cenfed by commiffioners, and pay a duty of per week. On Sundays there were formerly only 175 hackney coaches allowed to ply; but their number is now unlimited. The fare of hackney coachmen in London, or within ten miles of itsas. 6d. per day. By the hour it is 1s. 6d. for the art, and 18. for every hour after; and 18. for ary ditance not exceeding a mile and a half; or 15. d. two miles. Hackney coachmen refuling to goat, or exacting more than, their limited hire, are subject to a forfeit of from ros. to 31. which recommiffioners have power to determine. Eey hackney coach muft have check ftrings, and every coachman plying without them incurs a pemaity of is. The drivers muft give way to perfons efully and gentlemen's coaches, under the pealty of sl. The duty, arifing from licences to Hackney coaches and chairs in London, forms a Branch of the king's extraordinary and perpetual AVENUE, governed by commiffioners, and is a public benefit; as the expence of it is not felt, and regulations have eftablished a competent jon, whereby a very refractory race of

nen are kept in order.

(5.) HACKNEY MARSH. See N° 1. TO HACENRY. v. a. [from the noun.] To practic in one thing; to accuftom, as to the road. He is long backney'd in the ways of men. Shakespeare. HACQUETON. n. f. [baquet, old French, are bone. Some piece of armour.-You may fee the very fashion of the Irish horfeman in his og hole, riding fhoes of coftly cordwain, his bes, and his habergeon. Spenfer. HACQUEVILLE, d. of Eure, 5 miles W. of Gifors. a town of France, in the HACZAC, or a town and territory of Tran. HACZEG, fylvania, 30 m. S. of Hunyad, *HAD. The preterite and part. paff. of bave. I had better, you had better, &c. means the lame would be better for me or you; or, it would eligible: it is always ufed potentially, not ively; nor is have ever ufed to that import. We say likewile, it had been better or worse. Ibad rather be a country fervant maid, Tan a great queen with this condition. Shak.

Had we not better leave this Utica, Farm Numidia in our caufe? Add. Cato. HADAGIA, a town of Fez, 70 m. S. of Melila. HADAMAR, a town of Germany, the capital of Nadau-Hadamar, 15 m. SW. of Dillenburg; takes by the French under Kleber, 4th June, 2796. VOL. XI. PART 1

HADAU, a town and caftle of Bavaria. HADDAM, a town of Connecticut, in Middle fex county, 12 miles S. of Middleton.

(1.) HADDINGTON, a parish of Scotland, in E. Lothian, 6 miles fquare, containing about 12,000 acres of ground, "all arable, except a few hundred acres of hilly ground, and fome wood, lands. It is divided into 30 farms, of various foils, all inclosed and in high cultivation, except a few fields near the town. (N° 2.) The air is temperate and falubrious. The population in 1792, ftated by the rev. Dr George Barclay of Middleton, in his report to Sir J. Sinclair, was 3,915, and had decreafed 60 fince 1755

(2.) HADDINGTON, an ancient borough in the above parith, (N° 1.) which joins with Jedburgh, Dunbar, Lauder, and N. Berwick, in fending a member to parliament. It confifts of 4 freets, which interfect each other nearly at right angles, It is governed by a provoft, 3 bailies, dean of guild, treasurer, 12 counsellors, and 7 deacons. Its revenue is about 400l. a-year. It was the birthplace of J. KNOX, our juftly celebrated reformer. Before the reformation, it had an abbey now in ruins, founded in 1178, by Ada, mother of K. Malcolm IV. and William I. It has a manufac ture of coarfe woollens, 2 fairs, and a weekly market, the greateft in Scotland for grain. It has fuffered often both by fire and water. On Oct, 4, 1775, the Tyne rofe 17 feet, and overflowed half the town. It is 17 miles E. of Edinburgh Lon. 2. 25. W. Lat. 55. 59. N. (3.) HADDINGTON, or HADDINGTON-SHIRE, HADDO, a town of Scotland, in Aberdeensh. 9 miles NNE. of Inverury.

See LOTHIAN, EAST.

(1.) * HADDOCK. n. f. [badət, Fr.] A fea filh of the cod kind, but inall.-The coat is plentifully ftored with pilchards, herrings, and haddocks. Carew.

(2.) HADDOCK. See GADUS, No 3.

HADDON, Dr Walter, a great restorer of the learned languages in England, was born in 1516. He diftinguished himself by writing Latin in a fine ftyle, which he acquired by a constant ftudy of Cicero. He was a strenuous promoter of the reformation under Edward VI, and fucceeded Bp. Gardiner in the maftership of Trinity-hall, Cambridge. He concealed himself in Mary's reign; but acquired the favour of Q. Elizabeth, who fent him one of the 3 agents to Bruges in 1566, to reftore commerce between England and the Nether lands. He was alfo engaged with Sir John Cheke in drawing up in Latin that ufeful code of ecclefiaftical law, published in 1571 by the learned John Fox, under the title of Reformatio legum ecclefiaf ticarum; his other works are published under the title of Lucubrations. He died in 1572.

HADELAND, a town of Norway.

HADELN, a fertile territory of Germany, a

bout 8 miles fquare, belonging to his majesty as elector of Hanover, near the Elbe and the duchy of Bremen. Its revenue is 10,000 rixdollars. HADEMARSH, a town of Holstein. HADEQUIS, a town of Morocco. HADERSLEBEN, a fea-port town of Denmark, in Slefwick, with a ftrong citadel, builf u

B

pon

pon a small island, feated on a bay of the Baltic, with a well frequented harbour. Lon. 9. 35. E. Lat. 55. 24. N. HADERSTORF, a town of Auftria.

HADES, in feripture, fometimes fignifies the invifible regions of the dead, fometimes the place of the damned, and fometimes the grave. In Greek authors it fignifies the regions of the dead. See HELL.

HADHRAMUT. See HADRAMAUT.

HADLEIGH, a village in Effex, with an ancient ruinous castle, near Prittlewell, on the Thames. (1.) HADLEY, a town of Suffolk, feated on the Prefton. It has about 6co houses, with a hand. fome church, a chapel of eafe, and a Prefbyterian meeting-house. Large quantities of yarn are fpun for the Norwick manufacture. On the top of the fteeple, which affords a fine view of Effex, there is an irou pitch-pot, originally placed there as a beacon. Lon. 1. 6. E. Lat. 52. 7. N.

(2.) HADLEY, a town of Maffachufetts, in Hampfhire county, 97 miles W. of Boston.

HADLEY'S QUADRANT. See QUADRANT. HADMERSLEBEN, a town of Magdeburg. (1.) HADRAMAUT, a fertile province of Arabia Felix, bounded on the W. by Yemen, N. by the Defert, NE. by Oman, and SE. by the Sea; containing feveral large towns and fea ports.

(2.) HADRAMAUT, the capital of the above province, 150 miles W. of Careffen. Lon. 45. 30. E. Lat. 15. o. N.

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HADRANUM. See ADRANUM.
HADRIAN. See ADRIAN.

HADRO, a town of Turkey, in Curdiftan. HADSJAR. See LACHSA. HÆBUDE. See HEBRIDES, N° I. HÆGALOS, a woody hill near Athens. HÆMAGOGOS, among phyficians, a com. pound medicine, confifting of fetid and aromatic fimples, mixed with black hellebore, and preferibed in order to promote the menftrua and hæ morrhoidal fluxes; as alfo to bring away the lochia. HÆMANTHUS, the BLOOD FLOWER: A ge. nus of the monogynia order, in the hexandria clafs of plants; and ranking under the 9th natural order, Spathacea. The involucrum is hexaphyt. lous and multiflorous; the corolla fexpartite fuperior; the berry trilocular. There are 4 fpecies.

I. HEMANTHUS CARINATUS, with keel-fhaped leaves, has a taller ftalk and paler flowers than the COCCINEUS, (N° 2.) its leaves are not Яat, but hollowed like the keel of a boat.

2.HAMANTHUS COCCINEUS, with plain tonguefhaped leaves, rifes about a foot high, with a stalk fupporting a cluster of bright red tubulous flow. ers. It has a large bulbous root, from which in autumn comes out two broad flat leaves of a fleshy confiftence, fhaped like a tongue, which turn backward on each fide, and spread on the ground, fo that they have a strange appearance all the winter. In the fpring thefe decay; fo that from May to the beginning of Auguft they are deftitute of leaves. The flowers are produced in the autun.n just before the leaves come out.

3. HEMANTHUS PUNICEUS, with large fpear fhaped waved leaves, grows about a foot high, and hath flowers of a yellowish red colour. Thefe

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are fucceeded by berries, which are of a beautif,! red colour when ripe. This fpecies fhould be conftantly kept in a dry ftove.-All these plants are natives of the Cape of Good Hope, and do not propagate very faft in Europe, their roots feldom putting forth many off-sets. The best method of managing them is to have a bed of good earth in a bricked pit, where they may be covered with glailes, and in hard froft with mats and straw. The earth in the frame should be two feet deep. and the frame should rife two feet above the fur face, to allow height for the flower-tems to grow. The roots thould be planted 9 or 10 inches afunder; and in winter, if they are protected from froft, and not fuffered to have too much wet, but in mild weather expofed to the air, they will flower every.year, and the flowers will be much ftronger than with any other management.

HEMAPTYSIS. See HÆMOPTYSIS. HÆMATITES, the BLOOD-STONE, a hard mineral fubitance, red, black, or purple, bat the powder of which is always red. It is found in mafies, fpherical, femi-fphetical, pyramidal, or cellular, i. e. like a honeycomb. It contains a large quantity of iron: 40 lb. of this metal have been extracted from a quintal of stone; but the iron is of fuch a bad quality, that this ore is not commonly fmelted. The great hardness of hæmatites renders it fit for burnishing metals.

HÆMATOPUS, the SEA PYE, in ornithology, a genus belonging to the order of grallæ. The beak is comprefled, with an equal wedge-shaped point; the noftrils are linear; and the feet have three toes without nails. There is but one fpecies,

viz. the

HEMATOPUS OSTRALEGUS, or OYSTER CATCHER, a native of Europe and America. See Plate CLXXII, fig. 1. It feeds upon fhell-filh near the fea fhore, particularly oyfters, and lim pets. On obferving an oyfter which gapes wide enough for the infertion of its bill, it thrusts it in and takes out the inhabitant; it will also force the limpets from their adhefion to the rocks with suf ficient cafe. It alfo feeds on marine infects and worms. With us thefe birds are often fecn in con fiderable flocks in winter: in fummer they ar met with only in pairs, though chiefly near the te or falt rivers. The females lay 4 or 5 eggs, on th bare ground, on the fhore, above high-water mark they are of a greenish grey, blotched with black The young are faid to be hatched in about 3 wek Thefe birds are pretty wild when in flocks; y are eably tamed, if taken young.

HEMATOXYLON, or LOGWOOD, or Ca HEMATOXYLUM Speachy Wood; a g nus of the monogynia order, belonging to the d candria clafs of plants, and in the natural meth ranking under the 35d order, Lomentaces. T calyx is quinquepartite; the petals five; the ca fule lanceolated, unilocular, and bivalved; t valves navicular or keeled like a boat. Of t genus there is only one species, viz.

HEMATOXYLUM CAMPECHIANUM. It gro naturally in the bay of Campeachy at Hondur and other parts of the Spanith Weft Indies, wh it rifes from 16 to 24 feet high. The ftems generally crooked, and seldom thicker than man's thigh. The branches, which come out

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