Imatges de pàgina

onger. Many lay hot horse-dung in the bottom f the trench under the bark; but this ought never > be done unless the bed is wanted fooner than the ark would heat of itself, and even then there ight only to be a small quantity of dung at the ottom. The frames which cover these beds, ould be proportioned to the feveral plants they e defigned to contain. If they are to cover the anas or pine-apple, the back part fhould be 3 tt high, and the lower part 15 inches: if the d be intended for taller plants, the frame muft made of a depth proportionable to them: but t be for fowing of feeds, the frame need not be ove 14 inches high at the back and 7 in the nt; by which means the heat will be much ater.


HOTBRAINED. D. adj [bot and brain.] Violent; -ment; furious Cerebrofus. You fhall find 'em either botbrain'd youth, Or needy bankrupts. Dryden's Spanish Fryar. 10-TCHI, a town of China, in Quang-fi, 1040 les SSW. of Pekin. Lon. 125. 10. E. Ferro. 24. 16. N. HOTCHPOT. n. f. [bache en poche, HOTCHPOTCH. French; or bachee en French, as Camden has it, as being boiled up anot; yet the former corruption is now geney ufed. A mingled hash; a mixture; a coned mafs. Such patching maketh Littleton's cbpot of our tongue, and, in effect, brings the e rather to a Babellish confufion than any one fre language. Camden's Remains. A mixture many difagreeing colours is ever unpleasant to eve, and a mixture or hotchpotch of many tastes pleasant to the tafte. Bacon's Natural hißory. Nor limbs, nor bones, nor carcafs would re


But a mash'd head, a botchpotch of the flain.

Dryden's Juv. 'HOTCOCKLES. n. f. [hautes coquilles, Fr.] A in which one covers his eyes, and gueffes who kes him.-The chytindra is certainly not our tuckies; for that was by pinching, not by strikArbuthnot and Pope.

As at botcockles once I laid me down, And felt the weighty hand of many a clown, Juxoma gave a gentle tap, and I Quick rofe, and read foft mischief in her eye. Gay. I. HOTEL, a French term, anciently fignify. a houfe or dwelling place; afterwards ufed the palaces of the king, princes, and great ds. Since the abolition of monarchy and nobi , it has been chiefly applied to public buildings nofpitals.

2) HOTEL, in Britain is ufed for a large inn, elegant lodging-house ready furnished.

HOTHEADED adj. [bot and head.] Vehement; dent; paffionate.-One would not make the ne perfon zealous for a ftanding army and pubhbrary; nor a botheaded, crackbrained coxcomb ward for a scheme of moderation. Arbuthnot. HOTHNY, a river of Wales, which rifes in knockshire, and runs into the Monnow, in nmouthshire.

1.) HOTHOUSE. n. [bot and boufe.] 1. A nio; a place to fweat and cup in.-Now, the effes a bothouse, which is a very ill houfe too. kefp. Measure for Meajure. 2. A brothel.

Where lately harbour'd many a famous whore, A purging bill, now fix'd upon the door, Tells you it is a bothoufe; fo it may, And ftill be a whorehoufe: th'are fynonyma. Ben Jonson.

(2.) HOT-HOUSE. See STOVE & HYPOCAUSTUM. HOTLY. adv. [from hot.] 1. With heat; not coldly. 2 Violently; vehemently.-The ftag was in the end fo hotly purfued, that he was driven to make courage of defpair. Sidney.I do conteft

As hotly and as nobly with thy love,
As ever in ambitions ftrength I did
Contend again't thy valour.

Shak. Coriolanus. -The ene ny, now at hand, began botly to fkirmish in divers places with the Chriftians. Knolles. -Though this controverfy be revived, and hotly agitated, I doubt whether it be not a nominal difpute. Boyle 3. Luftfully.

Voracious birds, that botly bill and breed, And largely drink, because on falt they feed. Dryden. HOTMAN, Francis, one of the most learned civilians in the 16th century. He professed law at Bourges: but, on account of religion, retired to Geneva, read lectures on civil law there, and publifhed books with fuch ftrength against the perfe cutors, that great offers were made to him, to engage him not to write any more in that manner; but he did not regard them. He died at Befil in 1590. His Franco-Gallia is well known, having been tranflated into English by lord Molefworth. He is laid to have been the author of Vindiciæ contra Tyrannos. All his works were printed at Geneva in 1590, in 3 vols, folio.

* HOTMOUTHED. adj. [hot and mouth.] Headftrong; ungovernable.

I fear my people's faith, That hotmouth'd beast that bears against the curb, Hard to be broken. Dryden's Spanish Fryar. * HOTNESS n. f. [from bot.] Heat, violence; fury.

"HOTOWACZIN, a town of Lithuania.

HO-TSIN, a town of China, in Chan-fi.

* HOTSPUR. n. f. [bot and spur.] 1. A man vio. lent, paffionate, precipitate, and heady.—

My nephew's trefpafs may be well forgot; It hath the excufe of youth and heat of blood, A hairbrain'd hotspur govern'd by a spleen. Shak. Wars are begun by hairbrained diffolute captains, parafitical fawners, unquiet botspurs, and reftlefs innovators. Burton. 2. A kind of pea of fpeedy growth.-Of fuch peas as are planted or fown in gardens, the botspur is the speedieft of any in growth. Mortimer.

HOTSPURRED. adj. [from hotspur.] Vehement; rafh; heady.-To draw Mars like a young Hippolytus, with an effeminate countenance, or Venus like that bot purred Harpalice in Virgil, this proceedeth from a fenfelefs judgment. Peacham. HOTTENPLOZ. a town of Moravia.

(1.) HOTTENTOTS, a people in the fouthern part of Africa, whofe country furrounds the empire of Monomotapa, in the form of a horte fhoe, extending, according to Magin, from the Negroeft of Cabo as far as the Cape of Good Hope; and from thence northward to the river Magnica, or Rio de Sancto Spirito, including Mattatan a dif

tint kingdom. According to Sanutus, this coaft,

beginning at the Mountains of the Moon under

the tropic of Capricorn in 234° S. Lat. extends

N. beyond the Cape to the coat of Zanguebar;

baving the Indian fea on the E. the Ethiopic on

the W. the fouthern ocean on the S. and on the

N. the kingdoms of Mattatan, Monomotapa, and

the coaft of Zanguebar; or rather the Mountains

of the Moon, which divide it from the rest of the



TRY OF THE. The Europeans first became ac-

quainted with this country in 1493, when Bartho-

lomew Diaz, a Portuguese admiral, discovered the

moft foutherly point of Africa now called the Cape

of Good Hope, but by him Cabo dos totos tormentos,

or Cape of all Plagues, on account of the ftorms

he met with in the neighbourhood; but John II,

K. of Portugal, concluding from Diaz's account,

that a paffage to the East Indies was now difco-

vered, changed the name to that of the Cape of

Good Hope. In 1497, it was circumnavigated by

Gafco de Gama, who made a voyage to India

that way; however, it remained ufelefs to Euro-

peans till 1650, when Van Ricbeck a Dutch furgeon

firft faw the advantages that would accrue to the

East India company in Holland, from a setilement

at fuch a convenient didance between Holland and

India. The colony which he planted has ever

fince continued in the hands of the Dutch, till

Aug. 17, 1796, when it was taken by the British;

hut, by the preliminaries of peace figned Oct. 1st,

1801, it is agreed to be restored to them. It has

greatly increased in value, and is vifited by all the

European fhips trading to the East Indies. See

GOOD HOPE, N° 2. The country poffeffed by

the Dutch is of confiderable extent, and compre

hends that part of the African coaft on the W.

called TERRA DE NATAL. It is naturally barren

and mountainous; but the industry of the Dutch

has overcome all difficulties, and it now produces

not only a fufficiency of all the neceffaries of life

for the inhabitants, but alfo for the refreshment of

all the Europeans who pafs and repafs that way.

The coaft abounds in capes, bays, and roads: 30

leagues E. of the Cape of Good Hope, in S. Lat.

34. 21. is another Cape which runs out beyond

35°, called by the Portuguese, who first doubled

it, Cabo dos Agulhas, or the CAPE OF NEEDLES,

on account of fome ftrange variations in the mag-

netical needle obferved as they came near it. Near

this Cape is a flat fhore, with plenty of fith: it

begins in the W. near a fresh water river, and, ex-

tending 15 leagues in the main fea, ends in the E.

near Fish-bay. Cabo Falfo, or FALSE CAPE, fo

called by the Portuguese, who returning from In-

dia miftook it for the Cape of Good Hope, lies to

the E. between thefe two capes, about 8 or 9

leagues beyond that of Good Hope. Along the

coafts, on both fides of the Cape of Good Hope,

are many fine bays: 27 leagues to the NW. is

SALDONHA BAY, fo named from a Portuguese

captain fhipwrecked on the coaft. The largest

and moft commodious is TABLE BAY, on the S.

near the mountain of that name, 6 leagues in cir-

cumference, with four-fathom water clofe to the

beach. Oppofite to this bay is ROBU EILAN, or

the ISLAND OF RABBITS, in 34. 30. S. Lat. 67

leagues E. from the Cape of Good Hope.

Both, in 1661, difcovered a bay, which he na

ULEEST, fheltered only from N. winds, in w

is a (mall ifland, and on the W. a rivulet of vå

water extremely convenient for European ra

ners. About 25 or 30 leagues farther E. Both

covered MARSHAL BAY, named by the Porter

SENO FORMOso. Next to this is SENO DE L

from its refemblance to a lake. There are fre

roads in this bay, and an inland called les

Caos. Cape S. Francifco, and Cape Serras are

tween thefe two bays. Near the latter is

Arecito, and the island Contento; and fome

more NE. is Rio de San Chriflovans, or &t C

topher's river, called by the Hottentots

Between the Cape of Good Hope and the C

Needles, are the SWEET, SALT, and JAGU

rivers, which run into the fea, and Sweet wa

river flows from the Table-mountain. Thes

remarkable mountains in this country are Ta


the TIGER HILLS. The three first be der Ta

Bay, and furround Table Valley, where the

town ftands. (See GooD HOPE, N°2) Mr.

ter, in his voyage, informs us, that "the

mity of Africa towards the S. is a mafs

mountains of which the outermol are cu

black, and barren, confifting of a coarfe

which contains no heterogeneous parts, zi

petrified thells, &c. nor any volcanic produt

The ground rifes on all fides towards the

mountains which lie round the bottom of th

keeping low and level only near the fea t

growing fomewhat marfy in the Ifthmus b

Falle and Table Bays, where a falt rivulett

to the latter. The marthy part has fome ver

but intermixed with a great deal of find. "

higher grounds, which, from the fea fide, tr

parched and dreary appearance, are, bes

covered with an immenfe variety of plants, a

which are a prodigious number of fhrubs

searce one or two fpecies that deferve the t

of trees. There are alfo a few fmall plat

wherever a little run of water moiftens the gr


TION OF THE. Many accounts have beers

lithed concerning the extreme naftiness and

cuftoms of the Hottentots; but from the e

tions of late travellers it appears, that the

either been exaggerated, or that the Hotte

have in fome meature laid afide their former ***

ners. Dr Sparrman defcribes them in much

difguftfal terms, and M. Vaillant feems to

been charined with their innocence and fimp

According to the Doctor, these people art

as the generality of Europeans, though more

der in their perfons, which he attributes to

fcanty fupply of food, and not accuttoming

felves to hard labour. The characteristic‹ *

nation, however, and which he thinks has not

obferved by any one before, is, that they

fmatl hands and feet in proportion to the t

parts of their body. The diftance between

eyes appears greater than in Europeans, b

of the root of the note being very low. The

is pretty flat, and the iris of the eye bas q** ***

ly a dark-brown caft, fometimes approach

black. Their fkin is of a yellowish brown ;


(473 hing like that of an European who has the jaun. ice a high degree; though this colour does ot in the leaft appear in the whites of the eyes. heir lips are thinner than thofe of their neighurs the Negroes, Caffres, or Mozambiques. The ir of the head is black and frizzled, though not like wool, but is harfher. and appears clofe; hey feldom have any beard, or hair upon other irts of their bodies; and when any thing of this An opinion are is vifible, it is very flight. prevailed, that the Hottentot women have a id of natural veil which covers the sexual parts; this is denied by our author. "The women ys he have no parts uncommon to the reft of ir fex: but the clitoris and nymphæ, particuly of thofe who are paft their youth, are pretty ich elongated; a peculiarity which has undoubt y got footing in this nation, in confequence of relaxation neceffarily produced by the method have of befmearing their bodies, their flothnefs, and the warmth of the climate." HOTTENTOTS, CUSTOMS OF THE. The tentots befmear all their bodies copioufly with "This (fays Dr mixed up with a little, foot. arman) is never wiped off; on the contrary, ever faw them ufe any thing to clean their skins, pting that when in greafing the wheels of their ggons, their hands were befmeared with tar pitch, they used to get it off very easily with dung, at the fame time rubbing their arms into hargain up to the fhoulders with this cofmeThe Hottentots perfume their bodies, by bing them all over with the powder of an herb, fmell of which is at once rank and aromatic, roaching to that of the poppy mixed with es. For this purpose they use various fpecies the diofma, called by them bucku, and which imagine to be very efficacious in the cure of rders. One fpecies of this plant, growing aGoud's rivier, is faid to be fo valuable, that more than a thimble-full of its powder is given change for a lamb. See § 6.


473 )
poison is taken from the most venemous ferpents;
moft deadly in all that part of the world. The
and, ignorant as the Hottentots are, they all know
that the poison of ferpents may be swallowed with
fafety. See BOSHIESMEN. In 1779, Lieut. Wil-
liam Paterfon, who took a long and dangerous
excurfion from the Cape along the W. fide of the
continent, difcovered a new tribe of Hottentots,
whofe living, he fays, is in the highest degree
wretched, and who are apparently the dirtiest of
all the Hottentot tribes. Their drefs is compofed-
of the skins of the seals and jackals, which they
feed upon. If a grampus happen to be caft a-
fhore, they remove their huts to the place, and
feed upon the carcafe as long as it iafts, though
weather. They befmear their skins with the oil;
perhaps it may be half rotten by the heat of the
that their approach may be perceived before they
by which means they fell fo exceedingly rank
come in fight. Their huts, however, are much
fuperior to thofe of the fouthern Hottentot, (See
$8.) being higher thatched with grats, and fur-
nifhed with ftools made of the back-bones of the
grampus. They dry their fish in the fun; as the
lieutenant found feveral kinds of fith near their
huts fufpended from poles, probably for this pur-
pofe. He found alfo feveral aromatic plants which
they had been drying. Lieut. Paterfon has given
the following account of the CAFFRES, a nation
inhabiting the country NE. of the Cape as far down
às 31° Lat. S. The men are from 5 feet 10 inches
to 6 feet high, and well proportioned; and in ge-
neral manifest great courage in attacking lions or
other wild beafts. The nation when he visited
them, was divided into two parties, one to the
northward, commanded by a chief named Cha-
tha-Bea, or Tambufhie, which latter appellation
Hottentot tribe named Tambukies. This man was
he had obtained from his mother, a woman of an
the fon of a chief named Pharkoa, who died about
3 years before, and left two fons Cha-Cha-Bea,
and Dirika, who claimed the fupreme authority
on account of his mother being of the Caffre na-
tion. This occafioned a conteft between the two
brothers, in the courfe of which Cha-Cha-Bea was
of his party; after which he took up his refidence
driven out of his territories with a great number
at a place named Khouta, where he had an oppor
tunity of entering into an alliance with the Bo-
fhies-men.-The Caffres are of a jet black colour,
The men wear tails of different animals tied round
their eyes large, and their teeth as white as ivory.
their thighs, pieces of brafs in their hair, and large
rings of ivory on their arms: they are likewife
adorned with the hair of lions, feathers faftened
on their heads, &c. They are fond of dogs, which
they exchange for cattle, and will even give two
them. They are expert in throwing lances, and
bullocks in exchange for one dog which pleases
They cultivate feveral vegetables which
in time of war ufe thields made of the hides of
do not naturally grow in their country, viz. to-
bacco, water melons, kidney-beans, and hemp.
The men are very fond of their cattle, and cut
their horns in fuch a manner as to be able to turn
them into any fhape they please. Mr Paterfon
thinks that the country they inhabit is greatly fu-
perior to any part of Africa. See CAFFRARIA

j) HOTTENTOTS, DIFFERENT NATIONS OF. re is a tribe of Hottentots, named Bobiefwho dwell in the woody and mountainous ts, and fubfift entirely by plunder. They ufe boned arrows, which they thoot from bows ait a yard long and an inch in thicknefs in the dle, very much pointed at both ends. The gs were made, fome of finews, and others of ind of hemp, or the inner bark of fome vegele; but most of them in a very flovenly manThe arrows are about a foot and an half & headed with bone, and a triangular bit of 1; having alfo a piece of quill bound on very ngly with finews, about an inch and an half the top to prevent it from being eally drawn of the flesh. The whole is laftly covered over ha very deadly poifon of the confiftence of an ract. Their quivers are two feet long and four bes in diameter; and are fupposed by our auor to be made of the branch of a tree hollowed E, or probably of the bark of one of the brans taken off whole, the bottom and cover be- made of leather. It is daubed on the outfide an unctuous fubftance which grows hard en dry, and is lined about the aperture with fkin of the yellow ferpent, fuppofed to be the VOL. XI. PARTII.



and CAFFRES. Befides thefe nations, M. VailJant describes a wandering people, called Houzouanas, who inhabit the country from Caffraria on the E. to the Greater Nimiquas on the W. and from whom he fuppofes all the different tribes of the Hottentots are defcended. See HouzouANAS, and NIMIQUAS.

formed of a fheep's fkin with the woolly turned inwards; this forming a kind of cla which is tied forwards over the breaft: th fometimes, inftead of a sheep's fkin, fome fault kind of fur is ufed as a material. In warm so ther they let this cloak hang carelessly over t fhoulders, fo that it reaches down to the ca of their legs, leaving the lower part of the be ftomach, and fore-part of the legs and thighs h but in cold weather they wrap it round them that the fore-part of the body is likewile p well covered by it as far as the knees: but as fheep-skin is not fufficient for this purpoí, few on a piece on the top at each fide w thong or catgut. In warm weather they times wear the woolly fide outwards, bat frequently take off the cloak altogether, and ry it under their arm. This cloak or kro them not only for clothes, but bedding alfe; in this they lie on the bare ground, drawra their bodies fo clofe, that the cloak is abunda fufficient to cover them.-The cloak ufed b women differ little from these already de excepting only that they have a long pa them, which they turn up; forming with little hood or pouch, with the hairy tid me In this they carry their young children, to the mother's breafts are now and then th over the fhoulders; a cuftom common amon other nations, where the breasts of the female continual want of support, grow to an eno length. The women commonly, wear no cove on their heads, though our author fays feen one or two who wore a greafy made of skin with the hair taken off. Tho live nearest the colonifts have taken a liking t European hats, and wear them flouched all ra or only with one fide turned up. The w also frequently go bare headed; though they for times wear a cap made in the fhape of a truncated cone. This appears to be the of fome animal's ftomach, and is perfectly ba by foot and fat mixed up together. Thefec frequently prepared in such a manner as to fhaggy; others have the appearance of atte and in our author's opinion not inelegant. (l this they fometimes wear an oval wreath or La of crown made of a buffaloe's hide, with the outermoft. It is about four fingers bread height, and furrounds the head fo as to go a way down upon the forehead, and the fame cra on the neck behind, without covering the up part of the cap above defcribed. The edge this wreath, both upper and under, are al fmooth and even; each of them fet with ar fmall fhells of the cyprea kind, to the number more than 30, in fuch a manner, that, being p quite clote to one another, their beautiful w enamel, together with their mouths, are tur outwards. Between two rows of these thes two others parallel, or elfe waved and indente various ways. The Hottentots never adornos ears or notes as other favages do: though the ter are fometimes marked with a black fire foot; at others, though more rarely, with a fpot of red lead; of which laft, on festivals and lidays, they likewife put a little on their ches The necks of the men are baie, but thofe of

(6.) HOTTENTOTS, DRESSES AND ORNAMENTS OF THE-By the ointment of foot and greafe fuck full of the powder of bucku, (See §4.) a pafte is formed which defends the bodies of the Hottentots in a great meafure from the action of the air; fo that they require very few clothes, and in fact go almoft quite naked. The only covering of the men consists of two leather ftraps, which generally hang down the back from the chine to the thighs, each of them in the form of an ifoficles triangle, th. ir points uppermoft and faftened to a belt which goes round their wafte, their bafes not being above three fingers broad; fo that the covering they form is extremely trifling. Thefe ftraps have very little dreffing beftowed upon them, so that they make a rattling noife as the Hottentot runs along; and our author fuppofes that they may produce an agreeable cool nefs by fanning him. Befides this, the men have a bag or flap made of skin which hangs down before, and is fastened to the belt already mentioned. The hollow part of this feems defigned to receive that which with us modefty requires to be concealed; but being only fastened by a ímall part of its upper end to a narrow belt, in other refpects hanging quite loofe, it is but a very imperfect concealment; and when the wearer is walking, or otherwife in motion, it is none at all. They call this purfe by the Dutch name of jackall, it being almost always prepared of the skin of that animal, with the hairy fide turned outwards. The women cover themselves much more fcrupulously than the men, having always two, and very often three coverings like aprons; though even thefe feem to be abundantly fmall for what we would term decency in this country. The outermoft of thefe, which is the largest, meafures only from about fix inches to a foot in breadth. All of them are made of a fkin well prepared and greafed, the outermoft being adorned with glafs beads ftrung in different figures. The outermoft reaches about half way down the thighs, the middle about a third, or one half lefs, and the third fcarcely exceeds the breadth of the hand. The firft is faid to be defigned for ornament, the fecond as a defence for modefty, and the third to be ufeful on certain occafions, which, however, are much lefs troublefome to the Hottentot than to the European females. Dr Sparman, with great probability, fuppofes, that it was the fight of this innermost apron which mifled Jefuit Tackard, who, on his return to Europe, first propagated the ftories concerning the natural veils or excrefcences of the Hottentots. A ftory was likewife comnionly believed, that the men in general had but one telticle, and that fuch as were not naturally formed in this manner were artificially made to. But this our author likewife denies; and though he fays that fuch an operation might have been tormerly performed upon the males, yet it is not fo now. The other garments worn by the Hottentots are

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omen are ornamented with a thong of undreffed uther, upon which are firung 8 or 10 fhells. Thefe lls are fold at an enormous price, no less than heep for each; as it is faid that they come from moft diftant coaft of Caffraria. Both men and men are very fond of European beads, particuy the blue and white ones of the size of a pea; which they tie feveral rows round the middle, Inext to the girdles which hold the coverings we mentioned. Befides thefe ornaments they rings on their arms and legs; moft of them de of thick leather straps generally cut in a cirar fhape; which, by being beat and held over fire, are rendered tough enough to retain the vature that is given them. From these rings as been almost univerfally believed, that the ttentots wrap guts about their legs in order to them occafionally. The men wear from one ive or fix of thefe rings on their arms, juft ae the wrift, but seldom on their legs. The rons of a higher rank have frequently a confiable number of them both on their arms and especially on the latter; fo that they are coed with them from the feet up to the knees. le rings are of various thickneffes, from that #goofe-quill to 2 or 3 times that fize. Somethey are made of pieces of leather forming entire ring fo that the arms and feet muft put through them when the wearer wishes to them on. They are ftrung upon the legs, and great, without any nicety; but are fo , that they thake and get twilted when the fon walks. Rings of iron or copper, but efially of brafs, of the size of a goofe quill, are fidered as more genteel than those of leather. wever, they are fometimes worn along with Matter to the number of 6 or 8 at a time, par. larly on the arms. The girls are not allowed ife any rings till they are marriageable. The (tentots feldom wear any fhoes; but fuch as 7 do make ufe of, are of the fame form with fe worn by the African peasants, by the Etho18, and Livonians, as well as by fome Finlandfo that it is impoffible to say whether they the invention of the Dutch or the Hottentots melves. They are made of undreffed leather, the hairy fide cutward; without any other paration than that of being beat or moistened. 7.) HOTTENTOTS, DUTCH AND OTHER CONISTS AMONG THE. Of the Dutch fettlement 1 policy at the Cape, there is no occafion to be Y particular, as, in confequence of its becoming ree port, these will now be at an end. Mr For fays, "The principal inhabitants have often im 20 to 30 flaves, who are in general treated th great lenity, and fometimes become great farites with their masters, who give them very od clothing, but oblige them to wear neither des nor ftockings. The flaves are chiefly brought om Madagascar, and a veffel annually goes from e Cape thither on that trade; there are, howe. T, befides them, a number of Malays and Benlete, and fome negroes. The colonifts are for e greatest part Germans, with fome families of Dutch, and fome of French Proteftants. The haracter of the inhabitants of the town is mixed. hey are induftrious, but fond of good living, ofpitable, and social; though accuftomed to hire

their apartments to ftrangers for the time they' touch at this fettlement, and used to be compli mented with rich ftuffs, &c. by the officers of merchant thips. They have no great opportunities of acquiring knowledge, there being no public fchools of note at the Cape; their young men are therefore commonly fent to Holland for improvement, and their female education is too much neglected. A kind of diflike to reading, and the want of public amufements, make their converfation uninterefting, and too frequently turn it upon fcandal, which is commonly carried to a degree of inveteracy peculiar to little towns. The French, English, Portuguese, and Malay languages, are very commonly spoken, and many of the ladies have acquired them. This circumstance, together with the accomplishments of finging, dancing, and playing on the lute, frequently united in an agreeable person, make amends for the want of refined manners and delicacy of fentiment. There are, however, among the principal inhabitants, persons. of both fexes, whofe whole deportment, extenfive reading, and well cultivated understanding, would be admired and diftinguished even in Europe. Their circumftances are in general easy, and very often affluent, on account of the cheap rate at which the neceffaries of life are to be procured: but they feldom amafs fuch prodigious riches here as at Batavia; and I was told the greatest private fortune at the Cape did not exceed 100,000 dol lars, or about 22,500l. fterling. The farmers in the country are very plain hofpitable people; but those who dwell in the remoteft fettlements feldom come to town, and are very ignorant; because they have no better company than Hottentois, their dwellings being often several days journey afunder. The vine is cultivated in plantations within a few days journey from the town; which were established by the first colonifts, and of which the ground was given in perpetual property to them and their heirs. The company never part with the property of the ground, but let the furface to the farmer for an annual rent, which, though only 25 dollars for 60 acres, yet does not give fufficient encouragement to plant vineyards. The diftant fettlers, therefore, chiefly raise corn and rear cattle; and fome have very numerous flocks. We were told there were two farmers who had each 15,000 sheep, and oxen in proportion; and several who poleffed 6000 or 8000 fheep, of which they drive great droves to town every year: but lions and buffaloes, and the fatigue of the journey, destroy numbers of their cattle before they can bring them fo far. They commonly take their families with them in large waggons covered with linen or leather, spread over hoops, and drawn by 8, 10, or fometimes 12 pair of oxen. They bring butter, tallow, the flesh and fkins of fea cows, together with lion and rhi noceros' fkins to fell. They have feveral flaves, and commonly engage in their fervice fome Hottentots of the poorer fort, and of the BOSHIES. MEN. (See § 5.) The opulent farmers fet up a young beginner by intrufting to his care a flock of 400 or 500 sheep, which he leads to a diftant spot, where he finds plenty of good grafs and water; the one half of all the lambs which are yeaned fall to his fhare, by which means he foon becomes as 0002


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