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ous inftrument for catching fuch of the latter as have wings. He likewife ftudied attronomy, che mistry and anatomy; and invented a curious me thod of obtaining a reprefentation of the lungs in lead. Having made limfelf acquainted with the Newtonian fyftem, he contrived a machine for fhowing the phenomena on much the fame principles with that of the Orrery, afterwards made by Mr Rowley. About 1710 he was prefented to the perpetual cure of Teddington near Twickenham; afterwards to the living of Porlock in Somerfet fhire, which he exchanged r that of Faringdon in Hampshire. Soon after, he married Mary, the daughter and heiress of Dr Newce. On the 13th March 1718, he was elected F. R. S. and on the 5th March, 1719, he exhibited an account of fome experiments he had made on the effect of the fun's warmth in railing the fap in trees, which procured him the thanks of the fociety. On the 14th of June 1725, he exhibited a treatise on the fame fubject, which, being highly applauded by the fociety, he enlarged and improved; and, in April 1727, published it under the title of Vegetable Statics. This work he dedicated to the prince of Wales; afterwards K. George II; and he was the fame year chofen one of the council of the Royal Society. A fecond edition of this work was pub. lished in 1731; in the preface to which, he promifed a fequel, which he published in 1733 under the title of Statical Essays, &c. In 1732 he was appointed one of the truftees for eftablishing a new colony in Georgia. On the 5th of July 1733, the univerfity of Oxford made him D. D. although he had been educated at Cambridge. In 1734, he published anonymously; A friendly Admonition to the Drinkers of Brandy and other fpirituous Liquors; and a fermon preached at St Bride's before the rest of the truftees for establishing the colony in Georgia. His text was in Gal. vi. 2. In 1739, he printed Philofophical Experiments on Sea-water, Corn, Flefh, and other Substances; 8vo. dedicated to the lords of the admiralty. In 1739, he also exhibited to the Society an account of fome experiments towards the difcovery of medicines, for diffolving the ftone in the kidneys and bladder, and preferving meat in long voyages; for which he received Sir Godfrey Copley's gold me dal. In 1740, he published fome account of Experiments and Obfervations on Mrs Stephens's Medicines for diffolving the Stone, in which their diffolvent power is inquired into and demonftra ted. In 1741, he read before the Society an account of a VENTILATOR, for conveying freth air into mines, hofpitals, prifons, and the clofe parts of hips. See AIR-PIPE, and VENTILATOR. In 1743, he read before the Society a defcription of a method of conveying liquors into the abdomen during the operation of Tapping; afterwards printed in their Tranfactions. In 1745, he pub. fished fome experiments and obfervations on tarwater, which he had been induced to make by the publication of a work called Siris, in which Dr Berkley, B. of Cloyne, had recommended tarwater as an universal medicine. In the fame year he communicated to the public, by a letter to the editor of the Gentleman's Magazine, a deferipition of the back-beaver, for winnowing and cleaning corn. He alfo, by the fame channel,

communicated a cheap and easy way to preferve corn fweet in facks; an invention of great benefit to farmers. He also published directions how to keep corn fweet in heaps without turning it, and to fweeten it when multy. He published a long paper, containing an account of feveral methods to preferve corn by ventilators; with a description, of feveral forts, illuftrated by a cut, fo that the machine may be conftructed by any carpenter. He publifhed alfo, but anonymously, a detection of the fallacious boafts concerning the efficacy of the liquid fhell in diffolving the ftone in the bladder. In 1746, he communicated to the Royal Society a propofal for bringing fmall paffable fiones foon, and with eafe, out of the bladder. In the Gent. Mag, for July 1747, he published an ac count of a very confiderable improvement of his back-heaver, by which it became capable of clearing corn of the very fmall grain, feeds, blacks, fmut-balls, &c. to fuch perfection as to make it fit for feed-corn. In 1748 he communicated to the Society a propofal for checking the progrefs of fires; with 2 memoirs, one on ventilators, and the other on fome experiments in electricity. All thefe papers were printed in the R. Society's Tranfactions. In 1749 his ventilators were fixed in the Savoy prifon; and the benefit was so great, that though from 80 to roo in a year often died of the gaol diffemper before, yet from 1749 to 1752 inclufive, only 4 perfons died, and of those 4, one died of the fmall-pox, and another of intemperance. In 1750, he published fome confiderations on the caufes of earthquakes; (occalioned by the fhocks felt that year in London; ) and exhibited an examination of the ftrength of feveral purging waters, especially that of Sefop's well. Both these are printed in the Philof. Tranf. He had now been feveral years honoured with the friendship of Frederick Prince of Wales; who frequently vifited him at Teddington. Upon that prince's death in 1750, he was appointed almoner to the Princefs Dowager. In 1751 he was chofen by the college of phyficians to preach the fermon called Crowne's lecture: Dr W. Crowne having left a legacy for a fermon to be annually preached on "the wifdom and goodness of God difplayed in the formation of man." Dr Hales's text was in Job xii. 12. In the end of 1752, his ventilators, worked by a windmill, were fixed in Newgate, with branching trunks to 24 wards, and it appeared that the difproportion of those that died in the gaol before and after this establishment was as 16 to 7. He published also a farther account of their fuccefs, and fome obfervations on the great danger arifing from foul air, exemplified by a narrative of feveral perfons feized with the goal fever by working in Newgate. In 1753, Dr Hales was elected a member of the Academy of Sciences at Paris. This year he published in the Gent. Mag. farther confiderations about means to draw the foul air out of the fick rooms of occafional army hospitals, and private houses in town; with many other curious particulars on the the use of ventila tors: alfo a description of a sea gage, which he invented, to measure unfathomable depths. This paper he had drawn up about 1732 or 1733, for the late Colin Campbell, Efq; who employed the ingenious Mr Hawkfbee to make the machine it

defcribes

half out of the noble families, and half out of the plebeian. Addison on Italy.-Half the misery of life might be extinguished, would men alleviate the general curfe by mutual compaffion. Addison. Her beauty in thy fofter half, Bury'd and loft, the ought to grieve. Prior. -Natural was it for a prince, who had proposed to himself the empire of the world, not to neglect the fea, the half of his dominions. Arbuthnot. 2. It fometimes has a plural fignification when a number is divided.-Had the land felected of the best, Half had come hence, and let the world provide Dryden.

the reft.

(2.) * HALF. adv. 1. In part; equally.

describes, which was tried in various depths, and answered with great exactness, but was at laft loft near Bermuda. In 1754, he communicated to the Society fome experiments for keeping water and fifh fweet with lime-water; an account of which was published in the Philof. Tranf. He continued to enrich their memoirs with many ufeful articles from this time till his death, parti. carly a method of forwarding the diftillation of fresh from falt water, by blowing fhowers of freth air up through the latter during the operation. In 1757, he communicated to the Gent. Mag. an ealy method of purifying the air, and regulating its heat in melon-frames and green-houfes; allo further improvements in his method of diftilling fea-water. Being nominated by K. George II. a canon of Windfor, he engaged the princess to requeft his majesty to recal his nomination. But he has been justly blamed for this, as indicating a want of benevolence: for if he had no wish for more for himfelf, a liberal mind would furely have been highly gratified by the distribution of fo confiderable a fum as a canonry of Wind for would have put into his power, in the reward of indatry, the alleviation of distress, and the fupport of helplefs indigence. He was, however, remarkable for focial virtue and sweetness of temper; his life was not only blameless, but exemplary. He died at Teddington, in 1761, aged 84; and the princess of Wales erected a monument to his memory in Weftminter abbey.

HALESIA, in botany: A genus of the monogynia order, belonging to the dodecandria class of plants; and in the natural method ranking under the 18th order, Bicornes. The calyx is quadridentated, fuperior; the corolla quadrifid; the at quadrangular and difpermous.

HALES OWEN, a town of Salop, inclosed by Worcefterh. famous for nails; 8 m. SW. of Birmingham, and 124 NW. of London.

HALESWORTH, a town of Suffolk, feated on an ifthmus between two branches of the Blith, having a trade in linen yarn and fail-cloth. It has one large church, and about 700 good houses; bat the freets are narrow. Near it is raised a great deal of hemp. It is 32 miles NE. of Ipf. wich, and 101 of London. Lon. 1. 40. E. Lat. 5. 25. N.

(1.) HALF. n. f. plural halves. [healf, Sax. and the Teutonick dialects. The is often not Sounded.] 1. A moiety; one part of two; an equal part.-An balf acre of land. 1 Sam. xiv. 14. Many might go to heaven with half the labour they go to hell, if they would venture their induftry the right way. Ben Jonson.

Well chofen friendship, the most noble Of virtues, all our joys makes double, Aad into halves divides our trouble. Denham. Or what but riches is there known Which man can folely call his own; In which no creature goes his half, Uaels it be to fquint and laugh? Hudibras. No mortal tongue can half the beauty tell; For none but hands divine could work fo well. Dryden.

-Of our manufactures foreign markets took off one half, and the other half were confumed angtonrielves. Locke.-The council is made up VOL XI. PART 1.

I go with love and fortune, two blind guides, To lead my way; half loth, and half confent

ing.

Dryden. 2. It is much ufed in compofition to fignify a thing imperfect, as the following examples will fhow:

(1.) HALF-BLOOD. n.. One not born of the fame father and mother.-Which thall be heir of the two male twins, who, by the diffection of the mother, were laid open to the world? Whether a fifter by the half-blood thall inherit before a brother's daughter by the whole-blood. Locke.

(2.) HALF-BLOOD, in law. See CONSANGUI NITY and INHERITANCE.

* HALF BLOODED. adj. [balf and blood.] Mean; degenerate.

The let alone lies not in your good will.
-Nor in thine, lord.
-Half blooded fellow, yes.

Shak. K. Lear.

* HALF-CAP. n.f. Cap imperfectly put off, or faintly moved.

With certain half-caps and cold moving nods, They froze me into filence.

Shak.

* HALFENDEAL. n. f. [half and dæl, Saxon.] Part. Spenfer.

*HALF-FACED. adj. (half and faced.] Showing only part of the face; small faced: in contempt. Proud encroaching tyranny

Burns with revenging fire, whofe hopeful colours Advance, a half-faced fun friving to shine. Shak. This fame kalf-faced fellow, Shadow; give me this man: he prefents no mark to the enemy; the foeman may with as great aim level at the edge of a penknife. Shak.

HALF-HATCHED. adj. [half and hatch.] Imperfectly hatched.

Here, thick as hailftones pour Turnips, and half batch'd eggs,amingled fhow'r, Among the rabble rain. Gay. * HALF-HEARD. adj. Imperfe&tly heard; not heard to an end.

Not added years on years my task could close; Back to thy native iflands might'ft thou fail, And leave balf-beard the melancholy tale. Pope. HALF-MERK, a noble, or 6s. 8d.

(1.) * HALF-MOON. n. 1. The moon in its appearance when at half increase or decrease. 2. Any thing in the figure of a half-moon.

See how in warlike mufter they appear, In rhombs and wedges, and half-moons and wings.

Milton.

(2.) HALF-MOON, in fortification; an outwork compofed of two faces, forming a faliant angle, whofe

D

whofe gorge is in form of a crefcent, whence the name. See FORTIFICATION, Part. Se&t. V.

HALF-PENNY. 7. f. plur. half-pence. [half and penny.] 1. A copper coin, of which two make a penny.-Bardolph ftole a lute-cafe, bore it twelve leagues, and fold it for three balf-pence. Shak.I thank you; and fure, dear friend, my thanks are too dear of a halfpenny. Shak

He cheats for half pence, and he doffs his coat To fave a farthing in a ferryboat. Dryden. -Never admit this pernicious coin, no not fo much as one fingle half penny. Swift. 2. It has the force of an adjective conjoined with any thing of which it denotes the price.-There fhall be in England feven half-penny loaves fold for a penny. Shak.-You will wonder how Wood could get his majefty's broad feal for fo great a fum of bad money, and that the nobility here could not obtain the fame favour, and make our own half-pence as we used to do. Swift.

HALF-PIKE. . f. [half and pike.] The fmall pike carried by officers.-The various ways of paying the falute with the half pike. Tatler.

HALF-PINT... [half and pint.] The fourth part of a quart.—

One half-pint bottle ferves them both to dine; And is at once their vinegar and wine. Pope. HALF-SCHOLAR. n. One imperfectly learn ed.—We have many half fcholare now-a days, and there is much confufion and inconsistency in the notions and opinions of fome perfons. Watts.

* HALF-SEAS OVER. A proverbial expreffion for any one far advanced. It is commonly uled of one half drunk.

I am half-feas o'er to death ;
And fince I muft die once, I would be loth
To make a double work of what's half finish'd.
Dryden.

HALF SIGHTED: adj. [half and fight.] Seeing imperfectly; having weak difcernment.-The officers of the king's houfhold had need be provi dent, both for his honour and thrift: they must look both ways, elfe they are but half fighted. Ba

con.

* HALF-SPHERE. n. S. [half and sphere.] Hemifphere.

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Letnight grow blacker with thy plots; and day, At fhewing but thy head forth, ftart away From this half-sphere. Ben Jonfon. HALF STRAINED. adj. [half and strain.] Half bred; imperfect.-

I find I'm but a half train'd villain yet, But mungrel-mischievous; for my blood boil'd To view this brutal act Dryden. HALF-SWORD. n.f. Clofe fight; within half the length of a fword. I am a rogue, if I were not at half-fword with a dozen of them two hours together. Shak.

HALF-WAY. adv. [half and way.] In the

middle.

Fearless he fees, who is with virtue crown'd, The tempeft rage, and hears the thunder found; Ever the fame, let fortune fmile or frown; Serenely as he liv'd refigns his breath; Meets deftiny half-way, nor fhrinks at death. Granville. * HALF-WIT. n. f. [balf and wit.] A blockhead; a foolish fellow.

Half-its are fleas, so little and fo light,

We scarce could know they live, but that they bite. Dryden,

* HALF-WITTED. adj. [from half-wit.] Imperfectly furnished with understanding.-I would rather have trusted the refinement of our language, as to found, to the judgment of the women than of half-qvitted poets. Swift.-Jack had passed for a poor, well-meaning, half-witted, crack-brained fellow: people were strangely surprised to find him in fuch a roguery. Arbuthnot.-When half is added to any word noting perfonal qualities, it commonly notes contempt.

HALITOS. See FALCO, No 9.

HALI-BEIGH, firft dragoman or interpreter at the Grand Signior's court in the 17th century, was born of Chriftian parents in Poland; but having been taken by the Tartars when a boy, they fold him to the Turks, who brought him up in their religion in the feraglio. His original name was Bobow/ki. He learnt many languages, and Sir Paul Ricaut owns he was indebted to him for feveral things, which he relates in his Present fate of the Ottoman empire. He held a great correfpondence with the English, and intended to return into the Christian church, but died in 1675, before he could accomplish his defign. Dr Hyde published his book Of the liturgy of the Turks, their pilgrimages to Mecca, Sc. at Oxford, 1691. He tranflated the catechilm of the church of England, and the bible, into the Turkish language. The MS. is lodged in the library of Leyden. He wrote likewife a Turkish grammar and dictionary.

* HALIBUT. . f. A fort of fifh. Ainsworth. HALIBUT ISLAND, an ifland in the N. Pacific Ocean, discovered by Capt. Cook, the coasts of which abound with halibuts, weighing from 20 to rooib. each. It is 2x miles in circumference, but low and barren. Lon. 164. 15. W. Lat. 54. 48. N.

HALICARNESSENSIS, (the HALICARNAS

HALICARNASSEUS, or SIAN, the gentilitious name of Herodotus and Dionyfius. See DIONYSIUS, No 5; and HERODOTUS.

HALICARNASSUS, in ancient geography, a principal town of Caria, built by the Argives, and fituated between two bays, the Ceramicus and Jafius. It was anciently called ZEPHYRA, and was the royal refidence of Maufolus. See ARTEMISIA, No H.

HALICZ. See HALITZ.

* HALIDOM. n. f. [baligdom, holy judgment, or balig and dame, for lady.] Our bleffed lady. In this fenfe it should be Halidam.—

By my balidom, quoth he,

Ye a great mafter are in your degree. Hubb.Tale. HALIEUTICA, } [AMIETTIKA, formed of axavs, HALIEUTICS, fisherman, from as, fea ;} books treating of fishes, or the art of fishing. The halieutics of Oppian are still extant.

(1.) HALIFAX, a parish of England, in the W. riding of Yorkshire, famous for the clothier trade; faid to be the moft populous, if not the most extenfive, in England. It contains above 12,000 people, and is above 30 miles in circumference. Befides the established church at Halifax, and 16 meeting houses, it has 12 chapels, two of which are parochial. All the meeting-houses, except that of the quakers, have bells and burying grounds. The

The woollens principally manufactured are kerfeys and thalloons. Of the former it is affirmed, that one dealer fent by commission 60,000l. worth yearly to Holland and Hamburgh; and of the latter, it is faid, 100,000 pieces are made in this parish yearly. The inhabitants here and in the neigh bouring towns are fo entirely employed in thefe manufactures, that agriculture is little minded. blot of their provitions are brought from the N. and E. Ridings, and from Lancashire, Che thire, Nottinghamfire, and Warwickihire. The markets are much crowded.

(2.) HALIFAX, a town in the above parish, feated on the Calder, among hills. The houses are of ftone, but irregularly built. The cloths, at the frit erection of the woollen manufactures, having tean often stolen in the night, a law was made, by which the magiftrates of Halifax were empowred to execute all offenders, if they were taken in the fact, or owned it, or if the ftolen cloth was found upon them, provided the crime was comitted, and the criminal apprehended, within the liberties of the foreft of Hardwick. Thofe found guilty were thus executed: an axe was drawn by a pully to the top of a wooden engine, and fastened by a pin,which being pulled out, the axe fell down in an inftant. If they had ftole an ox, horfe, or aby other beaft, it was led with them to the scaffold, and there faftened by a cord to the pin, that held up the axe; and when the fignal was given by the jurors, who were the firft burghers within the feveral towns of the foreft, the beatt was driven away, and the pin plucked out, upon which the axe fell, and beheaded the criminal.. This is faid to bave been the firft fpecies of the GUILLOTINE. This fevere and fummary course of juftice gave occasion to a prayer ftill common among the vaarts of these parts; "From Hell, Hull, and Hala, good Lord deliver us:" though both the fine, and manner of proceeding are now out of ufe. Halifax lies 16 miles SW. of Leeds, 40 of York, and 197 NNW. of London. Lon. 1. 45. W. Lat. 53. 45. N.

(3) HALIFAX, the capital of Nova Scotia. It was founded in 1749, to fecure the British fettlements from the French and Indians. It was divided into 35 fquares, each containing 16 lots of 40 by 60 feet; with one established church, and one meeting-houfe. It was surrounded by picket. tings, and guarded by forts on the outfide; and has ince been very strongly fortified. Along the Chebutto, S. of the town, are buildings and fish flakes for at leaft two miles, and N. on the river for about one mile. The plan, however, was contri. ved and improved by the earl of Halifax. The proclamation iffued for this fettlement, in March 1749, offered fuch favourable terms to settlers, that in May, 3750 perfons had offered themselves. They accordingly embarked, and established themfelves in the bay of Chebucto; calling their city Halifax, after their patron. Before the end of October, 350 comfortable wooden houfes were built, and as many more during the winter. Government granted the fettlers 40,000l. for their expences. In 1750, they granted them 57,5821. 175. sid.; in 1751, 53,9271. 148. 4d. ; in 1752, 61,4921. 198. 4 d.; in 1733, 94,615l. 128. 4d.; in 1754, 58.4471. 29.; and in 1755, 49,4181. 76. 8d.-The

city has at length attained a degree ‹ fplendor that bids fair to rival the first cities in the United States; for which it has been equally indebted to the late war, to the great increase of population from the exiled loyalists, and the foftering care of Great Britain. The harbour is perfectly sheltered from all winds at the diftance of 12 miles from the fea, and is to fpacious, that 1000 fhips may ride in it without the leaft danger. Upon it there are many commodious wharts, which have from 12 to 18 feet water at all tides. The streets are regularly laid out, and cross each other at right angles; the whole riking gradually from the water upon the fide of a hill, whofe top is regularly fortified. Many confiderable merchants refide at this place, and are poffeffed of shipping to the amount of feveral thousand tons, employed in a flourishing trade with Europe and the West Indies. There is a fmall but excellent careening yard for hips of the royal navy that may come in to refit, and take water, fuel, or provitions on board, in their paffage to and from the Weft Indies. It is well provided with naval flores; and ships of the line are hove down and repaired with the greatest ease and fafety. Several batteries of heavy cannon command the harbour, particularly thofe upon George's Ifland, which being very steep and high, and fituated in mid-channel, below the town, is well calculated to annoy veffels in any direction. Above the careening yard, which is at the upper end of the town, there is a large bafon, or piece of water, communicating with the harbour below, near 20 miles in circumference, and capable of containing the whole navy of England, entirely fheltered from all winds, and having only one narrow entrance, which leads into the harbour. There are many detached fettlements formed by the loyalifts upon the bafon; the lands at a small diftance from the water being generally thought better than those near Halifax. An elegant building is erected near the town for the convalefcence of the navy; but the healthinefs of the climate has as yet prevented many perfons from becoming patients, fcarcely any ships in the world being fo free from complaints of every kind, in regard to health, as thofe that are employed upon this station. There is a good light-houfe, ftanding upon a small ifland, just off the entrance of the harbour, which is visible, either by night or day, 6 or 7 leagues off. Lon. 63. 26. W. Lat. 44. 40. N.

(4.) HALIFAX, a town of the United States, in Mallachusetts, 23 miles SSE. of Bolton.

(5.) HALIFAX, a town of N. Carolina, 60 miles N. of Newbern, and 75 S. of Richmond.

(6.) HALIFAX, a town of Virginia, 9 miles SW. of Richmond.

(7.) HALIFAX, Earl of. See SAVILLE.

(8.) HALIFAX, John. See SACROBOSCO. (9.) HALIFAX Bay, a bay on the E. coaft of Hifpaniola. Lon. 61. 20. W. Lat. 15. 40. N.

(10.) HALIFAX BAY, a bay on the NE. coaft of New Holland. Lat. 18. 49. S.

(1.) * HALIMASS. n. J. [halig and mass.] The feaft of All-fouls.-

She came adorned hither like fweet May; Sent back like halimass or shorter day. Shak. (2.) HALIMass, or HALLAMASS, Nov. 1, is D 2

ONE

one of the crofs quarters of the year, which was computed, in ancient writings, from Hallamas to Candlemas.

· HALIMOTE. See HALMOTE. HALIOTIS, the EAR-SHEL, a genus of infects belonging to the order of vermes teftacei. This is an animal of the fnail kind, with an open fhell refembling an ear. There are 7 species, diftin. guifhed by the figure of their fhells. See Plate CLXXII, fig. 1.

* HALITUOUS. adj. [balitus, Lat.] Vaporous: fumous. We speak of the atmosphere as of a peculiar thin and halituous liquor, much lighter than spirit of wine. Boyle.

HALITZ, or a town and territory of Poland, HALITZCH, S in Red Ruffia, with a caftle; feated on the Dneifter: feized by the Emperor Joseph II, in 1773, and included in his new kingdom of GALICIA. The town is 58 miles SE. of Lemberg. Lon. 25. 19. E. Lat. 49. 20. N.

HALIZONES. See CHALYBES.

HALKETSTEIN, a town of the Batavian Republic, in the dep. of the Rhine, and ci-devant prov. of Guelderland; ro m. S. of Harderwyck. HALKET, Lady. See MURRAY, No 2. HALKETS, a town of New Jersey, 19 miles W. of Morristown.

(1.) HALKIRK, a parish of Scotland, in Caithnefs, including the ancient parish of SKINNET, 24 miles long from N. to SW. and from 7 to 12 broad. The foil is good, though various; the surface moftly level, with a few small hills; the climate cold, inconftant, and ftortay, yet extremely falubrious. Instances of longevity are frequent. There are feveral lakes and rivulets, and a mineral fpring in the parith. The river THURSO runs through it; and it abounds with lime-ftone and marl, hares, otters, foxes, woodcocks, fnipes, partridges, moorfowls, wild geefe, ducks, fwans, &c. The population, in 1791, ftated by the rev. Jo. Cameron in his report to Sir J.Sinclair, was 3180, and had increased 305 fince 1753. The number of horses was 1650, fheep 2890, black cattle 4963, goats 130, and fwine 190.. The annual produce in bear and oat meal is 15,500 bolls, of which 1800 are exported, and 1oco head of cattle. There are many antiquities in the parish. Sir John Sinclair has introduced many improvements into it; but fervices and fhort leafes still prevail.

(2.) HALKIRK, a town of Scotland in the above parith, 5 miles S. of Thurfo.

HALKSHEAD, a cape of Denmark, on the E. coaft of Slefwick, to miles ESE. of Haldenfleben. Lon. 9. 42. E. Lat. 55. 12. N.

(1.) HALL, John, an English furgeon, who flourished in the reign of Q. Elizabeth, at Maidftone in Kent. He was born in 1529, and published, 1. a Compendium of Anatomy; and, 2. A Collection of Hymns, with mufical notes, in 1565: befides feveral tracts on medicine and furgery.

(2.) HALL, John, a poet of diftinguished learning, born at Durham, in 1617, and educated at Cambridge, where he was efteemed the brightest genius in that univerfity. In 1646, when he was but 19 years of age, he published his Hore lacive, or Essays; and the fame year came out his poems. He tranflated from the Greek "Hierocles upon the golden verfes of Pythagoras;" to which is pre

fixed an account of the tranflator and his works, by John Davies of Kidwelly. He also translated Longinus, and died in 1656, aged 29.

(3.) HALL, Jofeph, an eminent English prelate, born at Ashby de la Zouch, in 1574, and educated at Cambridge. He became profeffor of rhetoric. in that univerfity, and was made rector of Halfted, prebendary of Wolverhampton, dean of Worcester, Bp. of Exeter, and laftly of Norwich. His works teftify his zeal against Popery, and are much efteemed. He lamented the divifions of the Proteftants, and wrote on the means of putting an end to them. In July 1616, he attended lord Doncafter into France, and upon his return was appointed by K. James one of the divines who fhould attend him into Scotland. In 1618 he was fent to the fynod of Dort, and appointed to preach a Latin fermon before that affembly. Being obliged to return before the fynod broke up, on account of his health, he was by the ftates prefented with a gold medal. He wrote, 1. Mifcellaneous epifties. 2. Mundus alter et idem. 3. A juft cenfure of tra vellers. 4. The Chriftian Seneca. 5. Satires, in fix books. 6. A century of meditations; and many other works, which, befides the fatires, make 5 vols. in folio and 4to. He died in 1656. (4.) * HALL. n.. [hal, Saxon; bulle, Dutch.] 1. A court of juftice; as Weftminfter Hall.

O loft too foon in yonder houte or ball. Pope. 2. A manour-house fo called, because in it were held courts for the tenants.-Captain Sentry, my mafter's nephew, has taken poffeffion of the ball, the houfe, and the whole eftate. Addifon. 3. The public room of a corporation.

4.

With expedition on the beadle call, To fummon-all the comp'ny to the hall. Garth. The firit large room of a house.-

That light we fee is burning in my ball. Shak. Courtely is fooner found in lowly theds With fmoky rafters, than in tap'stry balls And courts of princes.

Milton.

(5.) HALL, in architecture. See § 4. def. 4. Vi. truvius mentions 3 kinds of halls; the tetraftyle, with 4 columns fupporting the platform or ceiling; the Corinthian, with columns all round let into the wall, and vaulted over; and the Egyptian, which had a periftyle of infulated Corinthian columns, bearing a fecond order with a ceiling. The hall is properly the fineft as well as firft member of an apartment: and in the houses of minitters of ftate, magiftrates, &c. is the place where they dif patch bulinefs, and give audience. In very magnificent buildings, where the hall is larger and lots tier than ordinary, and placed in the middle of the houfe, it is called a SALOON. The length of a hall should be at least twice and a quarter its breadth; and in great buildings, three times its breadth. The height may be two thirds of the breadth; and, if made with an arched ceiling, it will be much handsomer, and lefs liable to accidents by fire. In this cafe, its height is found by dividing its breadth into 6 parts, 5 of which will be the height from the floor to the under fide of the key of the arch.

(6.) HALL, § 4, def. 1. See WESTMINSTER

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