Imatges de pàgina
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ENCYCLOPEDIA PERTHENSIS.

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TION, H was used by the ancients to denote bores bonorum; and H. S. corruptly for LLS. fefterce; and H A. for Hadrianus. II. As a NUMERAL, H denotes 200; and with a dafh over it, 200,000.

Is in English, as in other languages, afrong emiffion of the breath, without any conformation of the organs of fpeech, and is theretore by many grammarians accounted no letter. The bin English is fcarcely ever mute at the be-, Finning of a word, or where it immediately prees a vowel; as house, bebaviour: where it is flowed by a confonant it has no found, accorng to the prefent pronunciation: but anciently, as now in Scotland, it made the fyllable guttural; as, runt, bought.

(1.H is ufed, 1. as a letter; 2. as an abbreviaf; and, 3. as a numeral. 1, As a LETTER, H alphabet, and the 6th confonant.

is the 8th in our

Nog can be more ridiculous than to difpute its being a diftinct found, (See 1.) and formed in a particular manner by the organs of fpeech, at

leaf in our language: witnefs the words all and

ball, eat and beat, arm and barm, ear and hear, pronounced with or without

at and bat, &c. as

the b. It is pronounced by a strong exfpiration of the breath between the lips, clofing, as it were,

*HA. interje&. [ba, Latin.] 1. An expreffion of wonder, furprise, fudden question, or fudden exertion.

You shall look fairer ere I give or hazard: What fays the golden chest ? "ba! let me fee.

Shak.

Ha! what art thou! thou horrid headless trunk!

It is my Haftings! Rowe's Jane Shore. 2. An expreffion of laughter. Ufed with reduplication. He faith among the trumpets ba, ba. and he smelleth the battle afar off. Job xxxix. 25.

Ha, ha, 'tis what fo long I with'd and vow'd; Our plots and delusions

Have wrought fuch confufions,

That the monarch's a glave to the crown, Dryd.
HAA, an ifle on the N. coaft of Scotland, 34

by a cutle motion of the lower jaw to the upper, miles SE. of Farout Head,

and the tongue nearly approaching the palate. It

with that of the Romans, derived its figure from Inn. Lon. 12. 23. E. Lat. 48. 16. N.

kems to be agreed, that our H, which is the fame Bavaria, feated on a hill, on the W. fide of the

(1.) HAAG, or HAG, a town of Germany, in

the Hebrew . The Phoenicians, and moft an

cient Greeks and Romans, used the fame figure SE. of Ens: 2. eight m. WNW. of Schwanftadt.

(2, 3.) HAAG, 2 towns of Auftria; 1. ten miles

with our H, which in the series of all these alpha

bets keeps its primitive place, being the 8th letter; tho' the afterwards occupied its place in

(1.) * HAAK. n. f. A fish. Ainf-worth.
(2.) HAAK. See GADUS, N° 6; and HAKE, 2.
HAANO, one of the HAPAEE Ilands difcover-

the Greek alphabet, and its form was changed to ed by Capt. Cook, in 1777, in the S. Pacific QX; while its former figure, H, was used for the cean. Lon. 185. 43. E. Lat. 19. 41. S.

th letter Eta, or long

e.

(See E.) H fubjoined

tor, fometimes gives it the guttural found, as in burg Zell, feated on the Seeve, 7 miles S. of Hamas, fometimes the found of /b, as in Charlotte; burg. It was taken by the French, and retaken at, church, &c. and not feldom that of k, as in Ferro. Lat. 53. 33. N. more frequently that of th, as in charity, chit- by the Hanoverians in 1757. Lon. 27. 21, E. of

(1.) HAARBURG, a town and fort of Lunen.

other Greek proper names ought rather to have

saarader, Acbilles, &c. though the latter and all

(2.) HAARBURG, a town of Suabia.
HAAREN, 2 towns of Germany, in Weftpha,

the guttural found, agreeably to their original lia; 1. three miles NE. of Buren: 2. two miles E. pronunciation. H, fubjoined top and t, also al- of Hainm. ters the found of thefe letters; giving the for

the latter that of the Greek e, as in theology, truth,

mer the found of f, as in philofophy, &c. and tria, 3 miles N. of Efferding.

HAARKIRCHEN, a town of Germany, in Auf

dr. and in fome English words, as the, that, thefe, one of the 12 leffer prophets, whofe prophecies

HABAKKUK, (papan, Heb. i. e. a wrestler.]

kc. a ftil harder found. II. As an ABBREVIA

VOL. XI. PART 1.

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There is no precife time mentioned in Scripture when he lived; but from his predicting the deftruction of Jerufalem by the Chaldeans, it is evident that he prophecied before Zedekiah, probably about the time of Manaffeh. He is reported to have been the author of feveral prophecies which are not extant: but all that are indifputably his are contained in three chapters. In these he complains pathetically of the vices of the Jews; foretels their punishment by the Chaldeans; the defeat of the vaft designs of Jehoiakim; with the conquefts of Nebuchadnezzar, his metamorphofis, and death. The 3d chapter is a prayer to God, whofe majefty he deferibes with the utmoft grandeur and fublimity of expreflion.

HABAR, a town of Perfia, in Irak. HABAS, a town of France, in the dep. of Landes, 20 miles S. of Dax, and 9 NW. of Orthez. (1.) HABAT, a province of Barbary, in the kingdom of Fez; furrounded by the Mediterramean, the Straits of Gibraltar, and the Atlantic. The chief towns are Arzilla and Tetuan. Ceuta is in poffeffion of the Spaniards.

(2.) HABAT, a province of Morocco, 40 miles fquare. Sallee is the capital.

HABDALA, (Heb. i. e. diftinction, from 3, to feparate,] a ceremony of the Jews obferved on the fabbath evening. When all the family is come home, they light a taper or lamp, with two wicks at leaft. The mafter of the family then takes a cup, with fome wine, mixed with fragrant fpices, and having repeated a paffage of fcripture, (e. g. Pfal. cxvi. 13. or Efth. viii, 16.) he bleffes the wine and fpices. Afterwards he bleifes the light of the fire; and then cafts his eyes on his hands and nails, as remembering that he is going to work; to fignify, that the fabbath is over, and feparated from the day of labour which follows. After the ceremony is over, and the company breaks up, they with one another, not a good night, but a good week.

*

(1.) HABEAS CORPUS. [Latin.] A writ, the which, a man indicted of some trefpafs, being laid in prifon for the fame, may have out of the King's Bench, thereby to remove himself thither at his own cofts, and to answer the cause there. Cowel. (2.) HABEAS CORPUS is the great remedy in cafes of FALSE IMPRISONMENT. The incapacity of the 3 other remedies referred to under the article IMPRISONMENT, to give complete relief in every cafe, has almost entirely antiquated them, and caufed a general recourfe to be had, in behalf of perfons aggrieved by illegal imprisonment, to this writ, the most celebrated in the English law. Of this there are various kinds made ufe of by the courts at Weftminster, for removing prifoners from one court into another for the more eafy administration of justice. Such is the babeas corpus ad refpondendum, when a man hath a caufe of action against one who is confined by the procefs of fome inferior court; in order to remove the prifoner, and charge him with this new action in the court above. Such is that ad fatisfaciendum, when a prifoner hath had judgment againft him in an action, and the plaintiff is defirous to bring him up to fome fuperior court to charge him with proccfs of execution. Such are alfo thofe ad profequendum, telificandum, deliberandum, &c.; which

iffue when it is neceffary to remove a prifoner, in order to profecute or bear teftimony in any court, or to be tried in the proper jurifdiction wherein the fact was committed. Such is, laftly, the common writ ad faciendum et recipiendum, which iffues out of any of the courts of Weftminster-hall, when a perfon is fued in fome inferior jurifdiction, and is desirous to remove the action into the fuperior court; commanding the inferior judges to produce the body of the defendant, together with the day and caafe of his caption and detainer (whence the writ is frequently denominated an babeas corpus eum canfa), to do and receive whatfoever the king's court fhall confider in that behalf. This is a writ grantable of common right, without any motion in court: and it inftantly fupercedes all proceedings in the court below. But, to prevent the furreptitious difcharge of prifoners, it is ordered by ftat. 1 & 2 P. & M. c. 13. that no habeas corpus fhall iffue to remove any prifoner out of any goal, unless figned by fome judge of the court out of which it is awarded. And, to avoid vexatious delays by removal of frivolous caules, it is enacted by ftat. 21 Jac. I c. 23. that, where the judge of an inferior court of record is a barrifter of 3 years ftanding, no caufe fhall be removed from thence by habeas corpus or other writ, after iffue or demurrer deliberately joined: that no caufe, if once remanded to the interior court by writ of proce dendo or otherwife, thail ever afterwards be again removed: and that no caufe fhall be removed at all, if the debt or damages laid in the declaration do not amount to the fum of five pounds. But an expedient having been found out to elude the latter branch of the ftatute, by procuring a nominal plaintiff to bring another action for L. §. or upwards (and then by the courfe of the court, the babeas corpus removed both a&ions together), it is therefore enacted by ftat. 12 Geo. I. c. 29. that the inferior court may proceed in such actions as are under the value of L. 5, notwithstanding other actions may be brought against the same defender to a greater amount. But the great and efficacious writ, in all manner of illegal confinement, is that of habeas corpus ad fubjiciendum; directed to the perton detaining another, and commanding him to produce the body of the prifoner, with the day and caufe of his caption and detention, ad faciendum, fubjiciendum, et recipiendum, to do, submit to, and receive whatsoever the judge or court awarding fuch writ fhall confider in that behalf. This is a high prerogative writ, and therefore by the common law iffuing out of the court of king's bench, not only in term time, but also during the vacation, by a fiat from the chief juftice, or any other judge, and running into all parts of the king's dominions: for the king is at all times intitled to have an account why the liberty of any of his fubjects is reftrained, wherever that restraint may be inflicted. If it iffues in vacation, it is ufually returnable before the judge himfelf who a warded it, and he proceeds by himself thereon; unless the term fhould intervene, and then it may be returned in court. Indeed, if the party were priviledged in the courts of common pleas and exchequer, as being an officer or fuitor of the court, an habeas corpus ad fubjiciendum might also have been awarded from thence; and, if the cause of imprisonment

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fions of magna charta, and a long fucceffion of ftatutes enacted under Edward III. To affert an abfolute exemption from imprisonment in all cafes, is inconfiftent with every idea of law and political fociety; and in the end would destroy all civil li berty, by rendering its protection impoffible: but the glory of the English law confifts in clearly defining the times, the caules, and the extent, when, wherefore, and to what degree, the imprisonment of the fubject may be lawful. This it is which induces the abfolute neceflity of expreffing upon every commitment the reafon for which it is made; that the court, upon an habeas corpus, may examine into its validity; and according to the cir cumftances of the cafe may difcharge, admit to bail, or remand the prifoner. And yet, early in the reign of Charles I. the court of king's bench, relying on fome arbitrary precedents (and those perhaps misunderstood), determined that they could not, upon an babeas corpus, either bail or deliver a prifoner, though committed without any, cause affigned, in cafe he was committed by the special command of the king, or by the lords of the privy council. This drew on a parliamentary inquiry, and produced the petition of right, 3 Car. 1. which recites this illegal judgment, and enacts that no freeman hereafter fall be imprifoned or detained. But when, in the following year, Mr Selden and others were committed by the lords of council, in purfuance of his majefty's fpecial command, under a general charge of "notable contempts and ftirring up fedition against the king and government," the judges delayed for two terms (including alfo the long vacation) to deliver an opinion how far fuch a charge was bailable; and when at length they agreed that it was, they however annexed a condition of finding fureties for the good behaviour, which still protracted their imprisonment; the chief juftice Sir Nicholas Hyde, at the fame time declaring, that "if they were again remanded for that cause, perhaps the court would not afterwards grant a habeas corpus, being already made acquainted with the caule of the imprisonment." But this was heard with indignation and aftonishment by every lawyer prefent; according to Mr Selden's own account of the matter, whofe refentment was not cooled at the diftance of 24 years.-Thefe pitiful evasions gave rife to the ftatute 16 Car. II. cap. 10. § 8. whereby it is enacted, that if any perfon be committed by the king himself in perfon, or by his privy council, or by any of the members thereof, he shall have granted unto him, without any delay upon any pretence whatsoever, a writ of habeas corpus, upon demand or motion made to the court of king's bench or common-pleas; who fhall thereupon, within 3 court-days after the return is made, examine and determine the legality of fuch commitment, and do what to justice shall appertain, in delivering, bailing, or remanding fuch prifoner. Yet ftill in the cafe of Jenks, before alluded to, who, in 1676, was committed by the king in council for a turbulent fpeech at Guild hall, new fhifts and devices were made ufe of to prevent his enlargement by law; the chief juftice (as well as the chancellor) declining to award a writ of habeas corpus ad fubjiciendum in vacation, though at laft he thought proper

impilonment were palpably illegal, they might have difcharged him: but if he were committed for any criminal matter, they could only have remanded him, or taken bail for his appearance in the court of king's bench; which occafioned the Common Pleas to discountenance fuch applications. It has also been said, by very refpectable authorities, that the like babeas corpus may iffue out of the court of chancery in vacation: but, upon the famous application to lord Nottingham by Jenks, notwithstanding the moft diligent fearches, no precedent could be found where the chancellor had iffued fuch a writ in vaca tion; and therefore his lordship refufed it. In the court of King's Bench it was, and is ftill, neceffary to apply for it by motion to the court, as in the cafe of all other prerogative writs, (artrari, prohibition, mandamus, &c.) which do not iffue as of mere course, without showing fome propable cause why the extraordinary power of the crown is called in to the party's affiftance. For, as was argued by lord chief juftice Vaughan, granted on motion, because it cannot be had of courfe; and there is therefore no necepty to grant it; for the court ought to be fatisfied that the party hath a probable caufe to be delivered." And this feems the more reafonable, becaufe, when once granted, the perfon to whom it is directed can return no fatisfactory excufe for net binging up the body of the piifoner. So that, if it ifued of mere courfe, without fhowing to the court or judge fome reasonable ground for awarding it, a traitor or felon under fentence of death, a foldier or mariner in the king's fervice, a , a child, a relation, or a domeftic, confined for infanity or other prudential reafons, might obtain a temporary enlargement by fuing out an baeas corps, though fure to be remanded as foon as brught up to the court. And therefore Sir Edward Coke, when chief juftice, did not fcruple, Jac. I. to deny a babeas corpus to one confined by the court of admiralty for piracy; there appearing, upon his own thowing, fufficient grounds to confine him. On the other hand, if probable ground be fhown, that the party is prined without juft caufe, and therefore has right to be delivered, the writ of habeas corpus is then a writ of right, which" may not be deied, but ought to be granted to every man that as committed, or detained in prifon, or otherwife ehramed, though it be by the command of the the privy-council, or any other." Under the cies LIBERTY and RIGHTS, will be found a fall account of the perfonal liberty of the fubject. This is a natural inherent right, which cannot be rendered or forfeited, unless by the commiffion of fome great and atrocious crime, and which cat not to be abridged in any cafe without the Special permiffion of law. A doctrine coeval with the firt rudiments of our conftitution; and handed down to us from the Anglo-Saxons, notwithStanding all their struggles with the Danes, and the violence of the Norman conqueft: afferted afterwards and confirmed by the conqueror himfelf and his defcendants: and though fometimes a litthe impaired by the ferocity of the times, and the occafional defpotifm of jealous or ufurping princes, yet established on the firmeft bafis by the provi

A 2

to award the ufual writs ad deliberandum, &c. whereby the prisoner was discharged at the Old Bailey. Other 'abufes had alfo crept into daily practice, which had in fome measure defeated the benefit of this great constitutional remedy. The party imprisoning was at liberty to delay his obedience to the firft writ, and might wait till a ad. and 3d. called an alias and a pluries, were iffued, before he produced the party: and many other vexatious fhifts were practifed to detain ftate prifoners in cuftody. But whoever will attentively confider the English hiftory, may obferve, that the flagrant abufe of any power, by the crown or its minifters, has always been productive of a ftruggle; which either discovers the exercife of that power to be contrary to law, or (if legal) restrains it for the future. This was the cafe in the prefent inftance. The oppreffion of an obfcure indi. vidual gave birth to the famous babeas corpus act, 31 Car. II. c. 2. which is frequently confidered as another MAGNA CHARTA of the kingdom; and by confequence has alfo in fubfequent times reduced the method of proceeding on thefe writs (though not within the reach of that ftatute, but iffuing merely at the common law) to the true ftandard of law and liberty. (See ENGLAND, 7.) The ftatute itself enacts, 1. That the writ thall be returned and the prifoner brought up, within a limited time according to the diftance, not exceed ing in any cafe 20 days. 2. That fuch writs fhall be endorsed, as granted in purfuance of this act, and figned by the perfon awarding them. 3. That on complaint and request in writing, by or on behalf of any perfon committed and charged with any crime, (uniefs committed for treafon or felony expreffed in the warrant, or for fufpicion of the fame, or as acceffary thereto before the fact, or convicted or charged in execution by legal procefs), the lord chancellor, or any of the 12 judges in vacation, upon viewing a copy of the warrant, or affidavit that a copy is denied, fhall (unless the party has neglected for two terms to apply to any court for his enlargement) award a habeas corpus for fuch prifoner, returnable immediatel, before himfelf or any other of the judges; and upon the return made fhall difcharge the party, if bailable, upon giving fecurity to appear and anfwer to the accufation in the proper court of judicature. 4. That officers and keepers, neglecting to make due returns, or not delivering to the prifoner or his agent within fix hours after, demand a copy of the warrant of commitment, or fluifting the cuftody of a prifoner from one to another without fufficient reafon or authority, (fpecified in the act,) fhall for the first offence forfeit 100l. and for the zd. 2001. to the party grieved, and be difabled to hold his office. 5. That no perfon, once delivered by habeas corpus, fhall be recommitted for the fame offence, on penalty of sool. 6. That every perfon committed for treafon or felony fhall, it he requires it the first week of the next term, or the fut day of the next feffion of aver and terminer, be indicted in that term or feffion, or elfe admitted to bail; unless the king's witneftes cannot be produced at that time: and if acquitted, or if not indicted and tried in the 2d. term or feffion, he shall be difcharged from his imprisonment for fach imputed offence: but that no pufon, after the

affifes fhall be opened for the county in which he is detained, fhall be removed by babeas corpus, till after the amfes' are ended; but fhall be left to the justice of the judges of affife. 7. That any fuch prifoner may move for and obtain his babeas corpus, as well out of the chancery or exchequer, as out of the king's bench or common pleas; and the lord chancellor or judges denying the fame, on fight of the warrant, or oath that the fame is refufed, forfeit feverally to the party grieved the fum of 500l. 8. That the writ of habeas corpus fhall run into the counties palatine, cinque ports, and other privileged places, and the islands of Jerfey and Guernsey. 9. That no inhabitant of England (except perfons contracting, or convicts praying to be transported; or having committed fome capital offence in the place to which they are fent) thall be fent prifoner to Scotland, Ireland, Jerley, Guernsey, or any places beyond the leas, within or without the king's dominions: on pain that the party committing, his advers, aiders, and affiftants, fhall forfeit to the party grieved a fum not lefs than 500l. to be recovered with treble coits; fhall be difabled to bear any office of truit or profit; fhall incur the penalties of præmunire; and thall be incapable of the king's pardon. This is the fubftance of that great and important ftatute: which extends only to the cafe of commitments for fuch criminal charge, as can produce no inconvenience to public juftice by a temporary culargement of the prifoner; all other cafes of unjuft imprisonment being left to the habeas corpus at common law. But even upon writs at the common law, it is now expected by the court, agreeable to ancient precedents and the fpirit of the act of parliament, that the writ fhould be immediately obeyed, without waiting for any alius or pluries; otherwife an attachment will ifue. By which admirable regulations, judicial as well as parliamentary, the reinedy is now complete for removing the injury of unjuft and illegal confipement. A remedy the more neceffary, because the oppreffion does not always arife from the ill nature, but fometimes from the mere inattention, of government. For it frequently happens in foreign countries (and has happened in England during the temporary fufpenfions of the flatute), that perfons apprehended upon fufpicion have suffered a long imprisonment, merely because they were forgotten.

HABEEBA, an ifland near Algiers.

(1.) * HABERDASHER. n. ƒ. (This word is ingeniously deduced by Minjhew from habt ihr days, German, have you this? the expreffion of a shopkeeper offering his wares to fale.] One who fells fmall wares; a pedlar.-Because thefe cunning men are like haberdashers of small wares, it is not amifs to fet forth their fhop. Lacon.-A haberdafer, who was the oracle of the coffeehoute, decla red his opinion. Addijon.

(2.) HABERDASHER. See BERDASH. This word is now ufed in a much more extensive sente thau that above defined by Dr Johnson, § 1. Mr Creech, in his letters to Sir J. Sinclair, tays it itu cludes many trades, the mercer, milliner, linen draper, hatter, hofter, glover, and many others.' (Stat. Acc. VI. 593.) The mafter and wardens of the company of haberdafners in London; calling

to their affiftance one of the company of cappers, and another of the hat-makers, and mayors, &c. of towns, may search the wares of all hatters who work hats with foreign wool, and who have not been apprentices to the trade, or who dye them with any thing but copperas and galls, or woad and madder; in which cafes they are liable to peBalties by ftat. 8 Eliz. cap. 7. and 5 Geo. II. c. 22. HABERDINE. n. f. A dried falt cod. Ain/w. HABERE FACIAS SASINAM, a writ judical, which lies where a man has recovered lands, commanding the theriff to give poffeffion of them.

(1.) HABERGEON. n. f. [baubergeon, Fr. balbergium, low Lat.] Armour to cover the neck and breaft; breaft-plate: neck-piece; gorget.

And halbert some, and fome a habergeon; So every one in arms was quickly dight. Fairf, The fhot let fly, and grazing

Upon his fhoulder, in the paffing, Lodg'd in Magnano's brass habergeon. Hudib. (4) HABERGEON, HABERGETUM, [from haut Fr. bigh, and berg, armour.] was a coat of mail; #ancient piece of defenfive armour, in form of a coat, defcending from the neck to the middle, and formed of little iron rings or mafhes, linked into each other.

HABESAN, a town of Perfia in Segeftan. HABICOT, Nicholas, a celebrated French furEron, horn at Ronny in Gatinois, who acquired great reputation by his skill, and by his writings. He wrote a treatife on the plague, and feveral other curious works. He died in 1624. HABILIMENT. n.. [babilement, Fr.] Drefs; clothes; garment.—

He the faireft Una found,
Strange lady, in fo ftrange babiliment,
Teaching the fatyres.

Fairy Queen.

My riches are thefe poor babiliments, Of which if you thould here disfurnish me, Youtake the fum and fubftance that I have. Shak. -The cergy should content themselves with wearing gowns and other babiliments of Irish drapery. Savift.

*To HABILITATE. v. n. [habiliter, Fr.] To quality; to entitle. Not in ufe.-Divers perfons in the bonfe of commons were attainted, and thereby not legal, nor babilitate to ferve in parliament, being disabled in the highest degree. Bacon. HABILITATION. n.. [from habilitate.] Qualification. The things are but habilitations wards arms; and what is habilitation without ineation and act? Bacon.

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HABILITY. n.f. (babilité, French.] Faculty: power: now ability. HABINGTON, William, an English poet and toran, was the fon of Thomas Habington, Efq. He was born in 1605, at Hendlip in WorcesterAre; and educated at St Omers and Paris. He Card in 1654, and left feveral MSS. in the hands fun. His printed works arc, 1. Poems under the title of Captura. 2. The queen of Arraon, a tragi-comedy. 3. Obfervations upon Hif. tory. 4. The hiftory of Edward IV. king of EngLard, written in a very florid ftyle, and publified

at the defire of Charles I.

(1.) * HABIT. n. S. [babitus, Lat.] 1. State of any thing: as, babit of body. 2. Drefs; accoutrement; garment.

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Both the poets being dreffed in the fame Englifh habit, ftory compared with ftory, judgment may be made betwixt them. Dryden.

The scenes are old, the habits are the fame We wore laft last year.

Dryden. Changes there are in veins of wit, like those of habits or other modes. Temple.-There are among the ftatues feveral of Venus, in different babits. Addifon. The clergy are the only fet of men who wear a diftin&t babit from others. Swift. 3. Habit is a power or ability in man of doing any thing, when it has been acquired by frequent doing the fame thing. Locke.-He hath a better bad habit of frowning than the count Palatine. Shak. 4. Cuftom; inveterate ufe. The laft fatal ftep is, by frequent repetition of the finful act, to continue and perfift in it, 'till at length it fettles into a fixed confirmed babit of fin; which being that which the apostle calls the finishing of fin, ends certainly in death; death not only as to merit, but also as to actual infliction. South

No civil broils have fince his death arose,
But faction now by habit does obey;

And wars have that respect for his repose, * As winds for halcyons when they breed at sea. Dryden. -The force of education is fo great, that we may mould the minds and manners of the young into what shape we please, and give the impreffions of fuch babits, as thall ever afterwards remain. Atterbury.

(2.) HABIT, in philofophy, § 1. def. 3, 4. See CUSTOM, § 1, 2. Cuftom and habit have fuch influence upon many of our feelings, by warping and varying them, that their operations demand the attention of all who would be acquainted with human nature. The fubject, however, is intricate. Some pleasures are fortified by cuftom: and yet cuftom begets familiarity, and confequentiy indifference. In many inftances, fatiety and difguft are the confequétices of reiteration: again, though cuftom blunts the edge of diftrefs and of pain, yet the want of any thing to which we have been long accustomed is a fort of torture. Whatever be the cause, it is certain we are much influenced by cuftom: it has an effect upon our pleafures, upon our actions, and even upon our thoughts and fentiments. Habit makes no figure during the vivacity of youth: in middle age it gains ground; and in old age governs without control. In that period of life, generally speaking, we eat at a certain hour, take exercife at a certain hour, go to rest at a certain hour, all by the direction of habit: nay, a particular feat, table, bed, comes to be effential; and a habit in any of thefe cannot be controlled without uneafinefs. Any flight or moderate pleasure, frequently reiterated for a long time, forms a peculiar connection between us and the thing that caufes the pleasure. This connection termed habit, has the effect to awaken our defire for that thing when it returns not as

ufual.

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