Imatges de pàgina

HAIFAR, a town of Palestine, at the foot of Mount Carmel, on the S. fide of a bay, 5 miles SE. of Acre.

HAIGERLOCH, a town of Suabia, in the County of Hohenberg, 44 miles SE. of Strafburg. (1) * HAIL. n. f. [hael, Sax.] Drops of rain frozen in their falling. Locke

Thunder mix'd with bail,

fo far as has been discovered, never produces any beneficial effect. Rain and dew invigorate and give life to the whole vegetable tribe; frolt, by expanding the water contained in the earth, pulverifes and renders the foil fertile; fnow covers and preferves the tender vegetables from being deftroyed by too fevere a froft. But hail does none of thefe. In winter, it lies not fufficiently clofe to cover vegetables from the nipping trofts; and in fpring and fummer it not only has a chilling and blafting effect, but often does great damage to the more tender plants by the weight of the ftones. In great hail ftorms the damage done in this manner is prodigious. Hail is one of the natural phenomena for which it is difficult to account in any fatisfactory manner. It is certain, that on the tops of mountains hail ftones, as well as drops of rain, are very small, and continually increase in bulk till they reach the lower grounds. It would feer, therefore, that during their paffage through the air, they attract the congealed vapour which increases them in fize. But here we are at a lofs how they come to be folid hard bodies, and not always foft, and compofed of many fmall ftars like fnow. The flakes of fnow, no doubt, increase in fize as they defcend, as well as the drops of rain or halftones; but why fhould the one be in foft cryftals, and the other in large hard lumps, seeing both are produced from congealed vapour? Some modern philofophers afcribe the formation of hail to electricity. Signior Beccaria fuppofes hail to be formed in the higher regions of the air, where the cold is intenfe, and where the electric matter is very copious. In these circumstances, great number of particles of water are brought near together, where they are frozen, and in their descent colle& other par ticles, fo that the denfity of the fubftance of the hailftone grows lefs and lets from the centre; this being formed first in the higher regions, and the furface being collected in the lower. Drops of rain and hail agree in this, that the more intenfe the electricity that forms them, the larger they Motion is known to promote freezing, and fo the rapid motion of the electrified clouds may produce that effect. A more intenfe electricity alfo, he thinks, unites the particles of hail more clofely than the more moderate electricity does thofe of fnow. In like manner we fee thunder clouds more denfe than thofe that merely bring rain; and the drops of rain are larger in proportion, though they fall not from fo great a height.

Hail mix'd with fire, muft rend th' Egyptian sky. Milton, (2.) HAIL, in natural history, a meteor generally defined frozen rain, but differing from it in that the halftones are not formed of fingle pieces of ice, but of many little fpherules agglutinated together. Neither are thefe fpherules all of the fame confiftence; fome being hard and folid like perfect ice; others foft, and moftly like fnow hardened by a fevere froft. Sometimes the hailItone has a kind of core of this foft matter; but more frequently the core is folid and hard, while the outfide is formed of a fofter matter. Hailftones are of various figures; fome round, others pyramidal, crenated, angular, thin, and flat, and fome ftellated, with fix radii like the small crystals of fnow. Natural hiftorians record various inftances of furprising showers of hail, in which the hailftones were of extraordinary magnitude. Mezeray, speaking of the war of Lewis XII. in Italy, in 1510, relates, that there was for fome time an horrible darknefs, thicker than that of night; after which the clouds broke into thunder and lightning, and there fell a thower of hailftones, or rather (as he calls them) pebble ftones, which deftroyed all the fish, birds, and beatts of the country. It was attended with a strong smell of fulphur; and the ftones were of a bluish colour, fome of them weighing toolb. Hift. de France, Tom. II. p. 339. At Lifle in Flanders, in 1686, hailftones fell of a very large fize; fome of which contained in the middle a dark brown matter, which, thrown on the fire, gave a very great report. Phil. Tranf. N° 203. Dr Halley and others relate, that in Chefhire, Lancashire, &c. April 29, 1697, a thick black cloud, coming from Caernarvonthire, disposed the vapours to congeal in such a manner, that for about the breadth of two miles, which was the limit of the cloud, in its progrefs for 60 miles, it did inconceivable damage; not only killing all forts of fowls and other fmall animals, but splitting trees, knocking down horfes and men, and even ploughing up the earth; fo that the hailstones buried themfelves under ground an inch or an inch and half deep. The hailftones, many of which weighed 5oz. and fome 1b. being 5 or fix inches about, were of va-y rious figures: fome round, others half round; fome fmooth, others embossed and crenated: the icy fubftance of them was very transparent and hard, but there was a fnowy kernal in the middle of them. In Hertfordshire, May 4, 1697, after a fevere ftorm of thunder and lightning, a shower of hail fucceeded, which far exceeded the former: fome perfons were killed by it, their bodies beat all black and blue; vaft oaks were fplit, and fields of rye cut down as with a fcythe. The ftones measured from 10 to 13 or 14 inches about. Their figures were various, fome oval, others picked, fome flat. Philof. Tranf. N° 229. Hail,


(3.) HALL. interj. [hoel, health, Saxon: bail, therefore, is the fame as falve of the Latins, or

of the Greeks, health be to you.] A term of falutation now used only in poetry; health be to you. It is ufed likewise to things inanimate.— Hail, bail brave friend!

Say to the king the knowledge of the broil. Shak.
Her fick head is bound about with clouds:
It does not look as it would have a bail,
Or health wish'd in it, as on other morns.
Ben Jonfon

The angel bail
Beftow'd, the holy falutation us'd
Long after to bleft Mary, fecond Eve. Milton,
Farewell, happy fields,

Where joy for ever dwells! bail horrors! bail

Infernal world! and thou profoundest hell
Receive thy new poffeffor!

All hail, he cry'd, thy country's grace and


Once first of men below, now first of birds above. Dryden. Hail to the fun! from whofe returning light The cheerful foldier's arms new luftre fhine. Rowe. (1.) To HAIL. v. a. [from the noun. To falute; to call to.-A galley drawing near unto the fhore, was bailed by a Turk, accompanied with a troop of horsemen. Knolles

Thrice call upon my name, thrice beat your breaft,

And hail me thrice to everlasting reft. Dryden. (2.) To HAIL. v. n. To pour down hail.My people ball dwell in a peaceable habitation when it fhall bail, coming down on the foreft. I. xxxii. 19.

HAILBRON, a ftrong town of Germany in Wirtemberg, famous for its baths; feated on the Neckar, 5 miles NE. of Stutgard. Lon. 9. 25. E. Lat. 49. 19. N.

from E. to W. is between 60 and 70 leagues, and from N. to S. 45 ; and about 480 miles in circumference. KIUN-TCHEOU FOU is the capital. Two different kinds of mandarins command here, the terary and military. The greater part of the island is under the emperor of China; the rest is independent, and inhabited by a free people, who have never been fubdued. Compelled to abandon their plains and fields to the Chinefe, they have retreated to the mountains in the centre of the ifland, where they are sheltered from their infults. They formerly had a free correfpondence with the Chinefe. Twice a-year they expofed, in an appointed place, the gold which they dug from their mines, with their eagle wood and calamba, fo much efteemed by the Orientals. A deputy was fent to the frontiers, to examine the cloths and other commodities of the Chinese, whofe principal traders re paired to the place of exchange fixed on; and after the Chinese wares were delivered, they put into their hands with the greateft fidelity what they had agreed for. The Chinese governors made immenfe profits by this barter. The emperor Kang-hi, informed of the prodigious quantity of gold which paffed through the hands of the mandarins by this traffic, forbade his subjects, under pain of death, to have any communication with thefe ifianders: however, fome private emiffaries of the neighbour. ing governors fill find means to have intercourfe with them. The natives are very deformed, fmail in ftature, and of a copper colour: both men and women wear their hair thruft through a ring on their forehead; and above they have a fmall ftraw hat, from which hang two ftrings that are tied under the chin. Their drefs confifts of a piece of black or dark blue cotton cloth, which reaches from the girdle to their knees: the women have robes of the fame ftuff, and mark their faces from the eyes to the chin with blue ftripes made with indigo. Among their animals is a curious fpecies of large black apes, which have the fhape and features of a man; they are faid to be very fond of women. There are alfo crows with a white ring round their necks; ftarlings which have a small crefcent on their bills; black-birds of a deep blue colour, with yellow ears rifing half an inch; and a multitude of other birds, remarkable for their colour or fong. Belides mines of gold and lapis lazuli, there are various kinds of curious and vaJuable wood. The predeceffor of the late empe *HAILY. adj. (from bail.] Confifting of hail.-ror Kien-Long caufed fome of it to be transportFrom whofe dark womb a rattling tempeft ed to Peking, at an immenfe expence, to adorn an pours, edifice which he intended for a maufoleum. The most valuable is called by the natives HOALI, and by the Europeans rofe or violet avood from its fmell; it is very durable, and of a beauty which nothing can equal; it is therefore referved for the ufe of the emperor. Hainan lies near San-cian, between 18° and zo° Lat. N.

HAILES, Lord. See DALRYMPLE, N° 2. HAILLAN, Bernard de Girard, lord of, a celebrated French historian. After having made fome figure in the literary world, Charles IX. made him hiftoriographer of France, in 1571. His hiftory of France extends from Pharamond to the death of Charles VII. and is the first complete hiftory of that kingdom compofed in the French tongue. He was honoured by Henry III. with feveral marks of favour. He died at Paris in 1610.

HAILSHAM, or HALESHAM, a town of Suffex, 14 miles E. of Lewis, and 58 SSE. of London.

HAILSHOT. n.. [hail and hot.] Small hot fcattered like hail.-The master of the artillery did vist them fharply with murdering bailshot, from the pieces mounted towards the top of the bill. Hayward.

HAILSTONE. #. f. [hail and ftone.] A particle or fogle ball of hail.

You are no furer, no,

Than is the coal of fire upon the ice,
Or bailitone in the fun.

Hard bailftones lie not thicker on the plain,
Nor fhaken oaks fuch thow'rs of acorns rain.

Which the cold North congeals to baily showers.

HAIMEN, a town of China, in Tche-Kiang.
HAIN, a town of S. Gotha, 5 miles WNW. of

HAINA, a town of Heffe, 24 m. SW. of Caffel. HAINAN, one of the moft confiderable iflands of Afia, fubject to China, and belonging to the province of Quang-ton. It has on the N. the proFuce of Quang fi; on the S. the channel between the bank Paracel and the E. coaft of Cochin-China; on the W. the fame kingdom and part of TongLog, and on the E, the Chinese fea. Its extent

(I.) HAINAULT, a province of the Netherlands, formerly divided between France and Auf tria, but now wholly included in the French republic. It was bounded on the S. by Champagne and Picardy; on the N. by Flanders; on the E. by the duchy of Brabant, the county of Namur, and the bishopric of Liege; and on the W. by Artois and Flanders. Its extent from N. to S. was about 45 miles, and about 48 from E. to W. The


each hair confifts of 5 or 6 others, wrapt up in a common tegument or tube. They grow as the nails do, each part near the root thrufting forward that which is immediately above it, and not by any liquor running along the hair in tubes, as plants grow. Quincy.

air is temperate, and the foil fruitful: it abounds in rich paftures, corn-fields, woods, and forefts; coal, iron, lead, marble, flates, &c. It is well watered by rivers and lakes, and breeds abundance of black cattle, and fine-woolled fheep. Its principal rivers are the Scheld, the Selle, and the Dender. It contains 24 walled towns, and 950 villa- My fleece of woolly hair uncurls. Shakefp. ges. Under the old government it contained one-Shall the difference of hair only, on the skin, be duchy, feveral principalities, earldoms, and ba- a mark of a different internal conftitution between ronies; and 27 abbeys. The ftates confifted of a changeling and a drill? Locke. 2. A fingle hair. the clergy, nobility, and commoners, or deputies Naughty lady, of the towns. This county had counts of its own, till 1436; when Philip the Good, D. of Burgundy, fucceeded on the death of the countefs Jaqueline, without iffue. Before the revolution it was divided into Auftrian and French Hainault.

I. HAINAULT, AUSTRIAN, the N. part of the above province, (N° I.) was formerly divided into 330 communes. After the battle of Gemappes, the whole country fubmitted to the French; and on the ad March, 1793, it was, at the requeft of the inhabitants, annexed to the French republic, and erected into the department of GEMAPPES. See GEMAPPES, N° 1 & 2. Mons is the capital. 2. HAINAULT, FRENCH, the S. part of the above province, was acquired under the old French government, partly by the peace of the Pyrenees, and partly by thofe of Nimeguen and Ryfwick. Upon the revolution in 1789, it was erected, along with the ci-devant French Flanders, and Cambrefis, into the department of the NORTH. Douay is the capital.

(II.) HAINAULT, a forest of England, in Effex, fo named from its having been anciently stocked with deer from the above province, (N° 1.) There is a very large oak in it, called Fairlop, the branches whereof extend over an area of 300 feet in circumference, where an annual fair has been long held on the 22d of July. The Hainault Foreflers, a fociety of the principal gentlemen and ladies in the country, march round this tree in their uniforms.

(1.) HAINBURG, or HAIMBURG, a town of Auftria, on the Danube. In 1482, it was taken by Matthias K. of Hungary. It has a cloth manufacture, and lies 8 miles W. of Prefburg, and 20 SSE. of Vienna. Lon. 34, 6. E. of Ferro. Lat. 48. 6. N.

(2.) HAINBURG, a town of Bavaria, to miles NW. of Velburg, and 20 WSW. of Amberg.

HAINE, OF HAISNE, a river of the French republic, in the dep. of Gemappes, and ci-devant prov. of Auftrian Hainault, which it runs through from E. to W. pailing by Mons and St Ghilan, and falls into the Scheldt at Condé.

HAINFELDEN, a town of Germany, in Auftria, 20 miles SW. of Vienna.

HAINGEN, a town of Suabia, 21 miles SW. of Ulm.

HAINSTAL, a town of Auftria, 4 m. E. of Laab. (1.) * HAIR. n.f. {bær, Saxon.] 1. One of the common teguments of the body. It is to be found upon all the parts of the body, except the fules of the feet and palms of the hands. When we examine the hairs with a microfcope, we find that they have each a round bulbous root, which lies pretty deep in the kin, and which draws their nourishment from the furrounding humours: that

These hairs which thou do'ft ravish from my chin,

Will quicken and accufe thee. Shak. King Lear. Much is breeding;

Which, like the courfer's hair, hath yet but life,
And not a ferpent's poifon. Shak. Ant, and Cieop.
3. Any thing proverbially small.→
If thou tak'ft more

Or lefs than just a pound; if the scale turn
But in the estimation of a hair,
Thou dieft.

Shak. Merchant of Venice. He judges to a hair of little indecencies, and knows better than any man what is not to be written. Dryden. 4. Course; order; grain; the hair falling in a certain direction.-lle is a curer of fouls, and you a curer of bodies: if you should fight, you go against the bair of your profellion. Shakespeare's Merry Wives of Windfor.

(2.) HAIR, (§ 1, def. 1.) confits of imal! filaments iffuing out of the pores of the fkins of animals; and ferving moft of them as a covering. See ANATOMY, Index. Hair grows longeft on the head, chin, and breaft; in the arm pits, and about the privities. Hairs ordinarily appear round or cylin drical; but the microfcope alfo difcovers triangu lar and fquare ones; which diverfity of figure a rifes from that of the pores, to which the hairs always accommodate their form. Their length depends on the quantity of the proper humour to feed them, and their colour on the quality of that humour: whence, at different ftages of life, the colour ufually differs. Their extremities split into 2 or 3 branches, especially when kept dry, or fuffered to grow too long; fo that what appears only a fingle hair to the naked eye, feems a brush to the microfcope. The hair of a moufe, viewed by Mr Derham with a microfcope, feemed to be one fugle transparent tube, with a pith made up of fibrous fubitances, running in dark lines, in tome hairs tranfverfely, in others fpirally. The darker medullary lines, he obferves, were small fibres convolved, and lying cluler together than in the other parts of the hair. They run from the bottom to the top of the hair; and he imagines, may ferve to make a gentle evacuation of foine humour out of the body. Hence the hair of hry animals, may not only ferve as a fence against cold, &c. but as an organ of ingtible perfpiration. Citizen Monge has made fome curious obfervations of hair and wool. The furfaces of these bodies (he Pays,) are not smooth; they feem to be formed either of mail laminæ placed over each other in 3 flanting direction from the root towards the point, like the icales of fith; or of zones placed one upon another, as in the horns of animals. When a hair is laid hold of by the root in one hand, and drawn between the fingers of the other, from the root


collection, gives a relation of a man hanged for theft, who, in a little time, while he yet hung upon the gallows, had his body ftrangely covered over with hair. Some, however, doubt the authenticity of these and fimilar inftances.

towards the point, fearce any friction or refiftance is praived, and no notle is heard; but, if graspMay it by the post, it be patied in the time manMirbtween the Gngers of the other hand, from * towards the root, a refiftance is felt, a Mauna Tout un is evident to the touch, and a stay be diftinctly beard. It is obvious therehot the texture of the furface of hair is not the same from the root towards the point, as it is this the poist towards the root. Thefe obferva ots are equally applicable to the filaments of The furface of thefe bodies is therefore med of rigid laminæ, laid upou each other like om the root to the point. And it is this Pre which is the principal cause of the difput to felting, which the hair of animals gery poffcis. See HAT-MAKING.

Ha, in farriery. See FARRIERY, PARTI, 41; PART III, Seď. XIV, ý I & III. 14. HAIR, ANCIENT AND MODERN OPINIONS OTECTING. The ancients held the hair a fort Amazement, fed only with excrementitious matand to proper part of a living body. They it generated of the fuliginous parts of xd, exhaled by the heat of the body to the 1ract, and there condenfed in paffing through The pores. Their chief reafons were, that the hair teng cut will grow again, even in extreme old when life is very low: that in hectic and a prive people, where the rest of the body is cay emaniating, the hair thrives; nay, that even grow again in dead carcafes. They at hair does not feed and grow like the her parts, by introfufception, i. . by a juice g within it; but, like the nails, by juxta 1.) But the moderns are agreed, that roy hair properly and truly lives, and restment to fill it like the other parts; they prove hence, that the roots do not ed perions fooner than the extre, but the whole changes colour at once; wow that there is a direct communication, that at the parts are affected alike. In fi& ty, however, it must be allowed, that the growth of hairs is of a different kind from if the reft of the body; and is not immedideed therefrom, or reciprocated therewith. Aather of the nature of vegetation. They at plants do, or as fome plants fhoot from the parts of others; from which though they draw ter fhment, yet each has, as it were, its sad ide and economy. They derive their food fme juices in the body, but not from the tous jnces of the body, whence they may though the body be ftarved. Wulferus, in Faprical Collections, gives an account of a buried at Norimberg, whole grave being ed 45 years after her death, hair was found kth plentifully through the clefts of the The cover being removed, the whole corps appeared in its perfect fhape; but, from the crow of the head to the fole of the foot, covered wer with thick-fet hair, long and curled. The fense going to handle the upper part of the head with his fingers, the whole fell at once, leaving sating in his band but an handful of hair: there wether full nor any other bone left; yet the hair was fond and ftrong. Mr Arnold, in the fame VOL, XL PART L.

(5.) HAIR, ANCIENT CUSTOMS RESPECTING THE WEARING or. By the Jews hair was worn naturally long, just as it grew; but the priests had theirs cut every fortnight, while waiting at the temple; they ufed fciffars only. The Nazarites, while their vow continued, were forbidden to touch their heads with a razor. See NAZARITE. The falling off of the hair, or a change of its colour, was regarded amongst the Hebrews as a fign of the leprofy. Black hair was esteemed by them as the most beautiful. Abfalom's hair was cut once a year, and is faid to have weighed 200 Mekels, or 31 07. The law of God gives no particular ordinances with respect to the hair. The hair of both Jewish and Grecian women engaged a principal fhare of their attention, and the Roman ladies feem to have been no lefs curious with respect to theirs. They generally wore it long, and dreffed it in various ways, ornamenting it with gold, filver, pearls, &c. On the contrary, the men amongst the Greeks and Romans, and amongst the later Jews, wore their hair fhort, as may be collected from books, medals, ftatues, fec. This formed a principal diftinction in drefs betwixt the fexes. This obfervation illuftrates a paffage in St Paul's epifle to the Corinthians, (1 Cor. gi. 4, 5, 6.) where he forbids the Corinthian women, when praying by divine infpiration, to have their hair dishevelled; becaufe this made them refembie the heathen priefteffes, when actuated by the pretended influence of their gods. Among t the Greeks, both fexes, a few days before marriage, cut off and confecrated their hair as an offering to their favourite deities. It was alfo cuftomary among them to hang the hair of the dead on the doors of their houfes previous to interment. They like wife tore, cut off, and fometimes fhaved their hair, when mourning for their deceased friends, which they laid upon the corpfe or threw into the pile, to be confumed together with the body. The ancients imagined that no perfon could die till a lock of hair was cut off; and this act they fuppofed was performed by the invisible hand of death, or Iris, or some other meffenger of the gods. This hair, thus cut off, they fancied confecrated the perion to the infernal deities, under whofe jurifdiction the dead were fuppofed to be. It was a fort of firft fruits which fanctified the whole. (See Virg. En. 4. 694.) Whatever was the fashion, with respect to the hair, in the Grecian ftates, flaves were forbidden to imitate the freemen. Their hair was always cut in a particular manner, called fę. ardeawoods, which they no longer retained after they procured their freedom. Both the Greeks and Romans wore falfe hair. The ancient Gauls efteemed it an honour to have long hair; whence the appellation Gallia Comata. Julius Cæfar, on fubduing the Gauls, made them cut off their hair as a token of fubmission. In imitation of this, fuch as afterwards quitted the world to live in cloifters had their beads tha ven, to fhow that they bid adieu to all earthly ornaments, and made a vow of perpetual subjection C


to their fuperiors. The ancient Britons were proud of the length and beauty of their hair, and were at much pains in dreffing it. Some of them carried this to an extravagant height. A young warrior, who was taken prisoner and condemned to be beheaded, requested that no flave might be permited to touch his hair, which was remarkably long and beautiful, and that it might not be stain ed with his blood. We hardly ever meet with a defcription of a fine woman or beautiful man in Offian's Poems, but their hair is mentioned as one of their greatest beauties. Not content with the natural colour of their hair, which was commonly fair or yellow, they used wathes to render it fill brighter. One of these was a composition of lime, the athes of certain vegetables, and tallow. They ufed various arts also to make the hair of their heads grow thick and long; which laft was confidered as a mark of dignity and noble birth. Boadicea, queen of the Iceni, is defcribed by Dio with very long hair, flowing over her fhoulders, and reaching down below the middle of her back. The Britons fhaved their beards, all but their upper lips; the hair of which they, as well as the Gauls, allowed to grow to a very inconvenient length. In aftertimes, the Anglo Saxons and Danes alfo confidered fine hair as one of their greateft ornaments, and were at great pains in dreifing it. Young ladies before marriage wore their hair uncovered and untied, flowing in ringlets over their fhoulders; but as foon as they were married they cut it thorter, tied it up, and put on a head-drets. To have the hair entirely cut off was fo great a difgrace, that it was a punishment inflicted on women guil. ty of adultery. The Danith foldiers who were quartered upon the English, in the reigns of Edgar and of Ethelred II. were particularly attentive to the dreffing of their hair; which they combed at least once every day, and thereby captivated the affections of the English ladies. Gregory of Tours affures us, that in the royal family of France, it was long the peculiar mark and privilege of kings and princes of the blood to wear long hair, drefied and curled all others wore it polled, or cut round, in fign of inferiority. Some fay that there were different cuts for all the different qualities and conditions; from the prince who wore it at full length, to the flave or villain who was quite cropt. -To cut off the hair of a prince under the firft race of French kings, was to declare him excluded from the right of fucceeding to the crown. In the 8th century, people of quality had their children's hair cut the first time by persons they had a particular esteem for; who hence were reputed a fort of fpiritual parents or godfathers. And long before this, Conftantine fent the pope the hair of his fon Heraclius, as a token that he defired him to be his adoptive father.

(6.) HAIR, CLERICAL ZEAL AGAINST WEARING LONG. Pope Anicetus is faid to have been the first who forbade the clergy to wear long hair: but the prohibition is of an older date in the churches of the eaft; and the letter, where in that decree is written, is much later than that pope. The clerical tonfure is related by Ifidorus Hifpalenfis, as of apoftolical inftitution. Long hair was anciently held fo odious, that there is a canon ftill extant, of 1096, importing, that fuch

as wore long hair fhould be excluded coming into church while living, and not be prayed for when dead. Luitprand made a furious declamation againft the emperor Phocas, for wearing long hair. The French hiftorians have been very exact in defcribing the hair of their kings. Charlemagne wore it very fhort; his fons fhorter; Charles II. had none at all. Under Hugh Capet it began to appear again; but the pricfts excommunicated all who let their hair grow. Peter Lombard expoftulated fo warmly with Charles VI. that he cut off his hair; and his fucceffors for fome generations wore it very fhort. A profeffor of Utrecht, in 1650, wrote exprefsly on the queftion, Whether it be lawful for men to wear long hair? and concluded for the negative.-Another divine, named Reves, who had written for the affirmative, replied to him. The clergy, both fecular and regular, were obliged to have the crowns of their beads, and keep their hair fhort, which diftinguifhed them from the laity; and feveral canons were made against their concealing their tonfure, or allowing their hair to grow long. The fhape of this clerical tonfure was the fubject of long and violent debates between the English clergy on the one hand, and those of the Scots and Pics on the other; that of the former being circular, and that of the latter only femicircular. Long flowing hair was univerfally esteemed a great ornament; and the tonfure of the clergy was confidered as an act of mortification and self-denial, to which many of them fubmitted with reluctance, and endeavoured to conceal as much as poffible. Some, who pretended to fuperior fanctity, inveighed with great bitterness against the long hair of the laity; and laboured to perfuade them to cut it fhort, in imitation of the clergy. Thus St Wulftan, Bp. of Worcefter, declaimed with great vehemence against luxury of all kinds, but chiefly against long hair as moft criminal and most universal. "When any of thofe yain people who were proud of their long hair, (tays William of Malmbury) bowed their heads before him to receive his blefling, before he gave it, he cut a lock of their hair with a little knife, which he carried about him for that purpose; and commanded them, by way of penance of their fins, to cut all the reft of their hair in the fame manner. If any of them refused to comply with this command, he denounced the most dreadful judgments upon them, reproached them for their effeminacy, and foretold, that as they imitated women in the length of their hair, they would imitate them in their cowardice when their country was invaded; which was accomplished at the landing of the Normans." This continued to be long a topic of declamation among the clergy, who even reprefented it as one of the greatest crimes, and moft certain marks of reprobation. Anfelm Abp. of Canterbury went fo far as to pronounce the then terrible fentence of excommunication against all who wore long hair, for which pious zeal he is very much commended. Seilo, a Norman bishop, acquired great honour by a fermon which he preached before Henry 1. in 1104, againft long and curled hair, with which the king and all his courtiers were fo much affected, that they confented to refign their flowing ringlets, of which they had been to vain. The prudent prelate gave

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