Bulletin, Edició 28

U.S. Government Printing Office, 1901
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17 inches adults Androscoggin attacked trees August 11 BALSAM FIR bark and wood bark beetles bark dry Barkers Lake beneficial insects Big Island birds Black Spruce Bracon broods Brunswick Camp Caribou Cary catkins clerid cocoons Colebrook Coleoptera commence Cupsuptic River Dead River dead spruce dead timber dead trees decay Dendroctonus galleries Dendroctonus piceaperda destruction Diameter different stages dying and dead eggs emerge entomologist evidence excavated favorable feet felled five trees forest Forestry four trees frontalis fungi fungus genus girdled on June girdled trees Group hack-girdled Hampshire heartwood hibernating Hopk Hudson Bay inches inches in diameter inches long infested by Dendroctonus infested trees infested with Dendroctonus insect enemies investigation Island Pond July 11 July 26 July 9 June 19 Kennebago Kennebago River killed Lake Lake Superior large number larvae larvse leaves fallen Lightly attacked living bark living trees logs Magalloway Magalloway River Maine woods matured methods near observed October October 9 old dead trees outer bark ovipositor parasite peeled Picea pitch tubes PLATE Polygraphus Portland predaceous probably pulp wood pupa Rangeley Lakes recently developed beetles reddish appearance Report River sapwood September sound roots species spruce beetle spruce destroyer spruce trees spruce-destroying beetle standing stumps summer tarsus terebrans Tetropium Thanasimus three-toed woodpecker tibia tical timber tion trees girdled trunk Twin Brook West Virginia White Mountain White Spruce Wight's winter wood borers wood dry woodpeckers Xyloterus York State Museum

Passatges populars

Pàgina 48 - The principal enemy of the spruce-destroying beetle, and other bark-Infesting enemies of the spruce, consists of the woodpeckers, which destroy, it is believed, from 50 to 75 per cent of the broods of the spruce beetle In many hundreds of trees each...
Pàgina 48 - ... the broods of the insect attracted to them either peeled or placed in water before the first of the succeeding June. The trees selected to be girdled should be sound and healthy and not less than 15 inches in diameter, and the girdling should be done by hacking the tree with an ax through the bark into the sapwood and around the trunk 2 or 3 feet above the base. A large percentage of dead spruce remains sound for a considerable period after being killed by these insects, and should be salvaged...
Pàgina 18 - Activity then commences, the mature larvae change to pupae, and by the middle of June those that pass the winter in the adult stage emerge and commence to excavate galleries and deposit eggs. The adults from the hibernating larvae of different stages, develop and continue to emerge possibly until the last of August.
Pàgina 27 - THE DESTRUCTIVE SPRUCE BARK BEETLE.1 This is ii small black beetle, .08 of an inch long and .1 of an inch broad. It is easily distinguished from all other spruce bark beetles of similar size and form by the fact that each of its compound eyes is divided by a smooth narrow space. It passes the winter in all stages within the bark of spruce stumps, logs, and tops of trees cut the previous winter or summer; also in the bark on all parts of such standing trees as may have died during the previous spring...
Pàgina 48 - ... before the beetles leave the bark. For the eastern spruce beetle: (1) Regulate the winter cutting so as to include as many of the infested, dying, and dead trees as possible, and place the logs from tnem in water before the first of June...
Pàgina 16 - PUPA (fig. 23, c) is nearly white, of the .same size and somewhat the same form as the adult, but without free legs and wings, and is found in oblong cavities in the bark of trees where the broods develop. HABITS OF THE ADULT AND LARVA. Many pairs of l>eetles make a simultaneous attack on the lower half of the main trunk of medium-sized to large trees.
Pàgina 25 - Estimating 100 beetles to the square foot of bark in the average infested tree, and an average of 60 square feet of infested bark, it is possible for each tree to yield an average of 6,000 individuals; 100 trees, 600,000, and so on. It is therefore plain that, if one-half or two-thirds of this number are destroyed by the birds and other enemies, the amount of timber the remainder can kill will be lessened. This is all the more apparent when it is remembered that it is only when the beetles occur...
Pàgina 11 - ... the extreme, and those mountain slopes, except where burnt or cut, are heavily and evenly covered with spruce. These townships that I have referred to form a barrier separating the upper from the lower course of the Androscoggin. To the south is the lower river flowing approximately east for fifty miles, catching streams from both sides of its course. To the north of that barrier lies the Rangeley lake system, again with its axis east and west, and about thirty miles in length.
Pàgina 25 - As has already been stated, woodpeckers are the most important enemies of the bark beetle, and appear to be of inestimable value to the spruce-timber interests of the Northeast. Indeed, I feel confident that in the many hundreds of infested trees examined at least one-half of the beetles and their young had been destroyed by the birds, and in many cases it was evident that even a greater proportion had perished from this cause alone. Estimating 100 beetles to the square foot of bark in the average...

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