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Sad winter now declines,
large share of matter of mere amusement, chiefly rela- with hope that it might, and fear lest it should not, St Valentine's Day is alluded to by Shakspeare and tive to the old country. We observe, from a number be the name of his sweetheart. This was repeated by Chaucer, and also by the poet Lydgate (who died before us, that in future a portion of the paper is to three times ; the third time was the conclusion of in 1440), who thus writesconsist of English translations of the principal articles this part of the sport. Some drew beloved names the “ Seynte Valentine. Of custome yeere by yeere in Gaelic, for the benefit of those immigrants who do third time with rapturous joy, others drew names of
Men have an usa unce, in this regioun, not understand the Gaelic tongue. certain respectable widows and old ladies of the village,
To loke and serche Cupides kalendere,
And chose theyr choyse, by grete affeccioun ; While expressing our best wishes for the success of introduced by the art of the schoolmaster, and the
Such as ben move with Cupides mocioun, this creditable effort to improve the condition of emi- victims mourned their un pitied, derided sufferings. Takyng theyre choyse as theyr sort doth falle: grants from the Scottish Highlands, we cannot imagine After the lasses, the names of the young men were But I love oon whiche excellith all." that any means could be more advantageously employed written and drawn by the girls in the same manner, One of the earliest known writers of valentines, or for keeping alive the warmest feelings of patriotism and a threefold success was secretly hailed as a sureti- poetical amorous addresses for this day, was Charles towards the mother country in our North American ship of bearing the name of the fortunate youth. The Duke of Orleans, who was taken at the battle of possessions. drawing of this lottery was succeeded by the essence
Agincourt. Drayton, a poet of Shakspeare's time, of the amusement, for the valentines were to be re
full of great but almost unknown beauties, wrote thus lieved.' The relieving of the valentine was a scene POPULAR ENGLISH FESTIVALS. of high amusement. Each young man had a right to
TO IIS VALENTINE.
“ Muse, bid the morn awake,
This day's St Valentine's; festival, the only observance of any note consisting siderable value, as a token of regard."*
For that good bishop's sake merely of the sending of jocular anonymous letters to In that curious record of domestic life in England
Get up, and let us see,
What beauty it shall be parties whom one wishes to quiz, and this confined in the reign of Charles II.
, Pepys's Diary, we find some notable illustrations of this old custom of reliev.
That fortune us assigns. very much to the humbler classes. The approach of ing valentines. It appears that married and single
But lo! in happy hour, the day is now heralded by the appearance in the were then alike liable to be chosen as a valentine, and
The place wherein she lies,
In yonder climbing tower printsellers' shop windows of vast numbers of missives that a present was regularly given to the choosing
Gilt by the glittering rise;
Oh, Jove! that in a shower, calculated for use on this occasion, each generally party. Mr Pepys enters in his diary, that on Valentine's Day, 1667, “ This morning came up to my
As once that thunderer did, consisting of a single sheet of post paper, on the first wife's bedside (I being up dressing myself) little
When he in drops lay hid, page of which is seen some ridiculous coloured carica- Will Mercer to her valentine, and brought her name
That I could her surprise ! ture of the male or female figure, with a few burlesque written upon blue paper in gold letters, done by him
JIer canopy I'll draw,
With spangled plumes bediglit, verses below. More rarely, the print is of a senti- self, very pretty; and we were both well pleased with
No mortal ever saw mental kind, such as a view of Hymen’s altar, with a it. But I am also this year my wife's valentine, and
So ravishing a sight; it will cost me L.5 ; but that I must have laid out if
That it the gods might awe, pair undergoing an initiation into wedded happiness we had not been valentines.” Two days after, he adds
And powerfully transpierce before it, while Cupid flutters above, and hearts trans _“ I find that Mrs Pierce's little girl is my valentine,
The globy universe, fixed with his darts decorate the corners. Maid she having drawn me ; which I was not sorry for, it
Out-shooting every light.
My lips I'll softly lay servants and young fellows interchange such epistles easing me of something more that I must have given to others. But here I do first observe the fashion of
Upon her heavenly cheek, with each other on the 14th of February, no doubt drawing of mottoes as well as names
, so that Pierce,
Dyed like the dawning day,
As polish'd ivory sleek : conceiving that the joke is amazingly good ; and, who drew my wife, did draw also a motto, and this
And in her ear I'll say, generally, the newspapers do not fail to record that girl drew another for me. What mine was, I forget;
• Oh thou bright morning star,
'Tis I that come so far, the London postmer delivered so many hundred thou- but my wife's was 'Most courteous and most fair,
My valentine to seck. sand more letters on that day than they do in general. which, as it may be used, or an anagram upon each Such is nearly the whole extent of the observances wards, the jewels of the celebrated Miss Stuart, who name, might be very pretty.” Noticing, soon after
Each little bird, this tide,
Doth choose her loved peer,
Which constantly abide now peculiar to St Valentine's Day. became Duchess of Richmond, he says—“ The Duke
In wedlock all the year, At no remote period it was very different. Ridi- of York, being once her valentine, did give her a jewel
As nature is their guide: culous letters were unknown; and, if letters of any of about 1.800 ; and my Lord Mandeville, her valen
So may we two be true kind were sent, they contained only a courteous pro- were undoubtedly given in order to reliere the obliga, tine this year, a ring of about L.300.” These presents
This year, nor change for new,
As turtles coupled were. fession of attachment from some young man to some tion under which the being drawn as valentines had
Let's laugh at them that clioose young maiden, honeyed with a few compliments to placed the donors. In February 1608, Pepys notes
Their valentines by lot;
To wear their names that use, her various perfections, and expressive of a hope that as follows—“This evening my wife did with great
Whom idly they have got. his lore might meet with return. But the true proper pleasure show me her stock of jewels, increased by
Such poor choice we refuse,
Saint Valentine befriend ; ceremony of St Valentine's Day was the drawing of a the ring she hath made lately, as my valentine's gift
We thus this morn may spend, kind of lottery, followed by ceremonies not much un- this, and what she had, she reckons that she hath year, a Turkey-stone set with diamonds. With
Else, Muse, awake her not." like what is generally called the game of forfeits. above one hundred and 'fifty pounds' worth of jewels Donne, another poet of the same age, remarkable for Misson, a learned traveller, of the early part of the of one kind or other; and I am glad of it, for it is fit rich though scattered beauties, writes an epithalamium last century, gives apparently a correct account of the the wretch should have something to content herself on the marriage of the Princess Elizabeth to Frederick principal ceremonial of the day. “On the eve of St with.” The reader will understand wretch to be used Count Palatine of the Rhine-the marriage which as a term of endearment.
gave the present royal family to the throne-and Valentine's Day,” lio says, “the young folks in Eng Notwithstanding the practice of reliering, there which took place on St Valentine's Day, 1614. The land and Scotland, by a very ancient custom, celebrate seems to have been a disposition to believe that the opening is finea little festival. An equal number of maids and person drawn as a valentine had some considerable * Ilail, Bishop Valentine! whose day this is; bachelors get together ; each writes their true or likelihood of becoming the associate of the party in
all the air is thy diocese, some feigned name upon separate billets, which they would be gladly and easily arrived at. where the party wedlock. At least, we may suppose that this idea
And all the chirping choristers
And other birds are thy parishioners : roll up, and draw by way of lots, the maids taking so drawn was at all eligible from other considerations.
Thou marry'est every year
The lyrie lark and the grave whispering dove; the men's billets, and the men the maids”; so that There was, it appears, a prevalent notion amongst the The sparrow that neglects his life for love, each of the young men lights upon a girl that he calls common people, that this was the day on which the
The household bird with the red stoniachier; his ralentine, and each of the girls upon a young man birds selected their mates. They seem to have ima
Thou mak'st the blackbird speed as soon
As doth the goldfinch or the halcyonwhom she calls hers. By this means each has two rendered in some degree binding the lot or chance by gined that an influence was inherent in the day, which
This day, more cheerfully than ever shine, valentines ; but the man sticks faster to the valentine which any youth or maid was now led to fix his atten.
This day which might intame thyself, old Valentine!" that is fallen to him than to the valentine to whom tion on a person of the opposite sex. It was supposed, Valentine's Day is a subject of some obscurity. The
The origin of these peculiar observances of St he is fallen. Fortune having thus divided the com- | for instance, that the first unmarried person of the saint himself, who was a priest of Rome, martyred pany into so many couples, the valentines give balls other sex whom one met on St. Valentine's morniry in the third century, seems to bave had nothing to do and treats to their mistresses, wear their billets several in walking abroad, was a destined wife or a destined with the matter, beyond the accident of his day being
husband. Thus Gay makes a rural dame remark-days upon their bosons or sleeves, and this little sport
used for the purpose. Mr Douce, in his Illustrations often ends in love."
“ Last Valentine, the day when birds of kind
of Shakspeare, says—" It was the practice in ancient A more recent writer states how the ceremony was
Their paramours with mutual chirpings find, Rome, during a great part of the month of February,
to celebrate the Lupercalia, which were feasts in conducted, not many years ago, in a rural situation in Before the sun had chased the stars away:
honour of Pan and Juno, whence the latter deity was the south of Scotland. This person, with a friend,
A-field I went, amid the morning dew,
named Februata, Februalis, and Februlla. On this
To milk my kine (for so should housewives do); had wandered from his road on the evening of the
occasion, amidst a variety of ceremonies, the names of
Thee first I spied-and the first swain we see, 14th of February, and at last was obliged to apply for In spite of Fortune, shall our true-love be."
young women were put into a box, from which they
were drawn by the men as chance directed. The the hospitality of the inhabitant of a modest mansion A forward miss in the Connoisseur, a series of essays pastors of the early Christian church, who, by overy which chance threw in his way. “ The good man published in 1754-6, thus adverts to other notions with possible means, endeavoured to eradicate the vestiges heard our story, welcomed us to a seat beside a blazing respect to the day :-"Last Friday was Valentine's of pagan superstitions, and chiefly by some commutafire of wood and turf, and appeared delighted with our
Day, and the night before, I got five bay-leaves, and tions of their forms, substituted, in the present in
pinned four of them to the four corners of my pillow, stance, the names of particular saints instead of those coming. We found ourselves in the house of ren- and the fifth to the middle; and then, if I dreamt of of the women ; and as the festival of the Lupercalia dezvous for the lads and lasses of a neighbouring vil- my sweetheart, Betty said we should be married be had commenced about the middle of February, they lage to celebrate St. Valentine's Eve Our entrance fore the year was out. But to make it more sure, I appear to have chosen St Valentine's Day for celehad damped the pleasantry, and inquisitive eyes were boiled an egg hard, and took out the yolk, and filled brating the new feast, because it occurred nearly at
it with salt; and when I went to bed, ate it, shell and the same time. This is, in part, the opinion of a directed towards us ; it was our business to become all, without speaking or drinking after it. We also learned and rational compiler of the Lives of the familiar with our new acquaintances, and the pastimes wrote our lovers' names upon bits of paper and rolled Saints,' the Rev. Alban Butler. It should seem, howwere renewed. Our sudden appearance had disturbed them up in clay, and put them into water, and the ever, that it was utterly impossible to extirpate altothe progress of the village schoolmaster, who had first that rose up was to be our valentine. Would gether any ceremony to which the common people finished writing on small slips of paper the names of you think it ?–Mr. Blossom was my man. I lay a-bed had been much accustomed-a fact which it were each of the blooming lasses of the village. Each lad and shut my eyes all the morning, till he came to our easy to prove in tracing the origin of various other
house; for I would not have seen another man before popular superstitions. And, accordingly, the outline hard dictated the name of her he loved. These pre- him for all the world."
of the ancient ceremonies was preserved, but modified cious slips of paper were now put into a bag and well
by some adaptation to the Christian system. It is mixed together, and each youth drew out a ticket,
* Hone's Year Book, p. 200.
| reasonable to suppose, that the above practice of
BASLE TO BADEN-EN-SUISSE.
choosing mates would gradually become reciprocal in circumstances. A considerable number of them are self acting as driver. Around every inn you see a the sexes, and that all persons so chosen would be proprietors of the cottages in which they reside, and crowd of such persons; and I rather believe the hotel. called Valentines, from the day on which the cere- for the last thirty years they have supported a keepers give them and their horses free quarters, as a mony took place."
Savings Bank, which is rich in accumulated earnings. preinium for bringing customers. The lohnkutscher
sideration, takes care that no citizen shall grow up in ticular dress, and is on the whole not extortionate. A FEW WEEKS ON THE CONTINENT. a state of ignorance dangerous to the community- His regular fare is twenty francs per day, provided
parents are compelled, on pain of imprisonment, to you bring him back to where you started, but as
send their children to school until their tenth or this is seldom the case, he practically receives thirty We took leave of the reader just after having entered twelfth year; and for those who cannot afford to pay, francs per day, ten francs being counted for back fare. Basle,* to the close neighbourhood of which we had the education is gratis. Besides the higher academies, If he behave well, which he is almost certain to do, been rapidly transferred by the railway train from there are several schools at which special instruction you give him a gratuity of two or three francs over and Strasburg. We were then, at last, in Switzerland is given in drawing, ornamental design, &c., in order above his stipulated charge. He will accommodate we had reached the land of hills, and Alpine glaciers, to improve the tastes and habits of the operative himself to all the whims of the voyageur-start at any and picturesque valleys, after a long though not unin- classes.
hour, stop where he wishes to come out and walk, and teresting journey from the banks of the Scheldt; and Murray, I don't know with what truth, tells us will take him in a leisurely way from thirty to forty the proper business of our excursion may be said now that, when somewhat more ardently religious than at miles in the day, including a stoppage of an hour to have commenced.
present, the piety and mercantile spirit of the trades- somewhere for dinner. We were fortunate in picking The time of our entrance to the ancient city of men of Basle were remarkably exhibited in the mot- up a singularly good-humoured person to take us in Basle was a beautiful Sunday afternoon, and well cal- toes and signs placed over their doors ; one of these charge, Louis by name; and, being a native of Vaud, culated to show us a feature in the manners of the blazons, over the threshold of a butcher, is recorded French was his vernacular tongue. Louis was a highly place. All the shops, except those in which fruit, to have had the following appendage of elegant ver- respectable man, dressed, when on duty, like a subtobacco, or other trifles were sold, were closed, and the sification :
stantial geoman, in a round hat and olive-coloured streets, composed of tall stone houses, many of which
“ Wacht auf ihr Menschen und thut Buss;
greatcoat, and only shifting into a blue linen blouse possessed well-stanchioned windows, wore an air of
Ich heiss zum Goldenen Rinderfuss."
when engaged in the business of the stable. With tranquil decorum. Yet there was not that austerity which may be translated
respect to manners, he was an agreeable mixture of which I had been taught to expect in the habits of
German steadiness with French acuteness and civility. the people. At a number of the doors sat groups of
“Wake, and repent your sins with grief ;
Whenever we came within sight of any scene of histwo or three females, in their best attire, enjoying the
I'm call'd the Golden Shin of Beef."
torical interest or picturesque beauty, Louis's laughing calm and rather sultry evening ; fountains of pure We did not see any thing of this sort, but observed a round face was turned round to the carriage, and, with water gushed forth in heavy jets, giving an air of tolerably well-filled flesh-market, considering it was whip outstretched to the spot, he obligingly opened liveliness to the thoroughfares; and hundreds of men Monday morning, and the bakers' shops already his store of knowledge on the subject. and women were crowding homewards from festivities steamed with shelves of substantial loaves, the price of Under the auspices, then, of this useful conductor, beyond the barriers. The government, it appears, is which, as we observed by tickets outside, was regulated behold us sallying from the garrisoned portal of Basle, rigorous in enforcing Sabbath observance; but as by a magisterial tariff. All tourists speak admiringly on our way to Zurich, which lies at the distance of France, with its merry piping village of St Louis, is of the fountains of Basle. They are, indeed, pretty and fifty-three English miles, in a south-easterly direction. within two miles of the gates of the town, and Baden refreshing; and one wonders where all the water comes Excellent as were Louis's horses, it would have been lies at a short distance on the other side of the river, from. Yet, after all, these fountains are a barbarous impossible to proceed that length'in a single day, even the law, as it may be supposed, is somewhat limited mode of supplying a town with water; and it would had it been desirable ; and our minds were at any in its operation.
be infinitely more to the purpose to introduce pipes rate made up to take the journey quite leisurely, visitOne of the first places to which we wandered and cisterns into every dwelling-house. A peculiarity is ing, as we went along, the highly interesting union of in the course of the evening was the bridge across here for the first time observed in the construction of the three great tributaries of the Rhine-the Aar, the the Rhine, where a front view of the town, slop- the houses, which continues through all Switzerland, Reuss, and the Limmat ; and stopping for the night ing down the steep bank to the river, gives a good and is a natural consequence of surrounding towns at the comparatively little-known watering-place of idea of the place. The appearance of the Rhine is with walls. I allude to the practice of devoting the Baden in Argau, or, as it is called by the French, startling: It comes rolling from the upper country, lower floors as stables, and, to make the matter worse, Baden-en-Suisse. a beautiful light green flood, of about a hundred causing the entrance to these receptacles to be under Our route lay for several miles over an undulating yards in breadth, and in passing presses close upon the roof of the same small covered court into which piece of country, with the Rhine on our left, and upthe foundations of the houses on the lower part of certain windows of the dwelling-house above are opened. lands and hills of various heights on our right. The the sloping hill on the left, and by a bend is speedily We had an opportunity of enjoying this very agree- view of the light-green river, occasionally procured lost in the flat country on the right. Many of the able proximity to the cavalry of the establishment in through openings in the bushes and sloping banks, houses being painted white, with green jalousies, and the Drei Könige ; and in almost every house we slept with the open country of Baden beyond, backed by the upper parts of the town being decorated with in for the succeeding four weeks, we were equally for the hilly range of the Black Forest, was very pleasspires, or jagged with peculiar-shaped edifices, the tunate. As in Edinburgh, where the vicious fashion ing; but not more so than rich green hill-sides and scene is both lively and impressive. Immediately of building tall houses has been perpetuated long after vales on our right, all evidently devoted to some useful below the bridge, at a slip of quay, rests the small the necessity for huddling up the population within a purpose in husbandry, and here and there dotted with steamer which conveys passengers to and from Stras- given space had passed away, so, in the Swiss towns, masses of trees. We now began to see cottages and burg, on certain days of the week; but beyond this it the fashion of making stables in the lower storeys, even farm-houses standing alone, both by the roadside and does not go, in consequence of the impetuosity of the of the finest residences, is much too inveterate to be at a distance. It was also apparent that there was nostream. The bridge, stretching boldly across the easily swept away. With this peculiarity as a draw thing here like those large seignorial tenures which are river, is constructed chiefly of wood, supported on back, we perceived sundry instances of improvement common in Baden. The country was partitioned into stone piers, and seems placed in a perilous situation ; in architecture, and had occasion to admire an elegant fields, under tolerable culture, for grain crops ; and yet it is of great antiquity, and has withstood num- suite of buildings, recently erected in the higher and many parts were thickly studded with vineyards, that berless shocks during the floods of spring, when the more open part of the town, for the university. looked more promising than what I had seen farther snow-clad peaks begin to send down their annual Basle is a very small state, consisting, in fact, of down the Rhine. The farms, I was told, seldom extribute of waters. At the further end of the bridge, little else than the town. Anciently, the city, with ceeded forty acres, and they were generally not more is a small town called Little Basle, where we observed its adjacent territory, formed a part of the German than half of that size : being, for the greater part, the much less appearance of decorum than in its larger empire ; but in 1501' it was admitted into the Swiss property of those who cultivated them, we had now prototype ; estaminets were crowded with smokers, confederation, from which time till 1798, when the an opportunity of seeing in actual practice that diviand outside a coffee-room, on the brink of the river, French altered the face of affairs, it was a republic sion of property which has been often described as the there were spread a number of small tables, at which managed by an aristocracy of citizens. On the 20th perfection of the social condition. I shall not generalise persons were enjoying themselves, in a free and easy of January 1798, the burgomaster and grand council at present on this much-debated question, and content way, with cigars and the light wines of the country. thought fit to enact, that all citizens in town and myself with saying, that, in the course of the day's Not at all disposed to prolong our investigations on country should possess equal privileges ; and all
, ac- journey, a new light broke in upon our ideas of Swiss the present occasion, we quietly took refuge at our cordingly, benefited by this decree till 1ố14, when its romance. The cottages of the peasantry, I regret to hotel, and made Basle the subject of more minute provisions were reversed, and the aristocracy of the say, were any thing
but cleanly or decent in external examination on the morrow, when the town had re town resumed their former superiority, leaving the aspect, and sundry villages we passed through would sumed its every day, appearance. In the course of country without an adequate representation. Now have vied, in point of dirtiness, with the dirtiest village our rambles, and in whicherer direction we penetrated, commenced a regular storm of politics, country tersus in Scotland. At one of the largest of these villages or it was gratifying to observe an air of great substan- town, which lasted till 1830, when the second French small towns, called Frick, we were brought to a halt to tiality and wealth; another distinction is appreciated, Revolution giving encouragement to the party who dinner
about one o'clock ; the sun glaring with intolerin comparison with French towns,
we see few soldiers
, had been thrust out of power, the quarrel was referred able splendour, and the heat excessive. Not a soul was and these of a respectable appearance, and there is on to the argument of sword and bullet. It was a most astir on the burning street, as we descended at the all sides a more wholesome atmosphere of trade and distressing thing to see this ancient republic, of about door of what we found
to be a good and well-provided industry. The principal manufacture in the town is twelve square miles and 40,000 inhabitants, breaking inn. Nothing was to be seen alive but a few stray that of ribbons, which are as beautiful as those of into civil war ; but all the remonstrances of the diet hens scratching on the numerous dunghills, or ducks France, and are exported on a large scale. The town failed to bring about an amicable settlement. The town paddling in the green stagnant pools
with which has long been reputed as one of the richest places in made some concessions, but the day was gone by for every habitation was provided. With a temperature Europe for its size (about 22,000 inhabitants), and it half measures ; and, after a world of wrangling, in at nearly 100 degrees Fahrenheit in the sun, 1 leave continues to be the residence of a set of cautious August 1833, the town forces, amounting to several any one to judge if this could be called a wholesome inoney-lenders, who exert an influence even over the thousand men, with 12 pieces of artillery, marched state of affairs. distant exchanges of Amsterdam and Paris. A num. against those of the country. The movement was badly The continuation of our ride was through a country ber of them, also, are understood to have lent capital conducted ; the campagnards or countrymen defeated which improved in interest as we advanced ; and to establish and support factories in Mulhausen and hem by a sudden onslaught; and the Basleois, com- being now in the Roman Catholic canton of Argau Alsace (the adjacent part of France), where the fab-pletely routed, left 100 men dead on the field. The or Argovie, churchyards full of glittering erosses, and rication of tissues of various kinds is at present con- diet now took energetic measures to settle the distur- figures by the roadside, were occasionally passed. Harducted on a scale resembling that of any English ma- bances, and ordained a separation into two cantons, ing wound our way up a long ascent betweer: two nufacturing district. The ribbon manufacture was called Basle Ville and Basle Campagne, the latter con- woody hills, a splendid view burst upop us at sho considerably benefited by the settlement of wea''ers sisting of two-thirds of the original canton. Each sends summit of the vale of the beautiful winding Aar. from France in the year 1685, when, by the revocation a deputy to the diet ; but the two make only one vote In the extreme distance on the east, high ranges of of the edict of Nantes, Louis XIV. drove great num- when they agree, and if they differ, the vote is not to hills formed a background to the scene ; farther in bers of Protestants into other countries
for protection. be reckoned. By this arrangement, the town of Basle front, on the top of a craggy height, stood the castle At present, nearly 12,000 individuals are believed to retains its constitution ; having first, in order to of Hapsburg, the cradle of the imperial family of be engaged in this trade in Basle and its neighbour secure it, lost a hundred citizens, and entailed upon it- Austria, now a few jagged ruins; beneath, and still hood. I'he business is conducted on an enterprising self that invariable attendant on wars-a public debt. nearer us, was the Aar, pursuing a serpentine course but not rash scale ; bankruptcies are of rare occur. After seeing all that we thought worth looking at in amidst richly-clothed banks; and, descending the long rence; and the workmen are generally in comfortable the town, we gladly left its confined streets, and set off sloping path, we saw it pass onward to the town of
on our excursion in the voiture of a lohnkutscher. A Brugg, beyond which it vanished round a corner of * The proper pronunciation of this word is Basil, though the lohnkutscher is one who owns a carriage and a pair of a vine-clad steep. Brugg, to which
we were soon French pronunciation, Baal, is also commor
horses, which he lets out for hire, occasionally him. I brought, lies in a hollow on both sides of the river,
and is neat and substantial in appearance. Here we visitants. Some idea of the great estimation in which master of the order, seeing the hopelessness of any crossed the Aar; and, at the distance of little more the waters are held, may be obtained from the fact secure settlement of it on lands not its own, projected than a mile beyond the town, came upon the equally that between the 6th of June and 26th of September a great and important conquest—that of the island of if not more beautiful vale of the Reuss; then, cross- 1840, 19,530 persons had arrived and spent more or Rhodes. Rhodes is about one hundred and twenty ing this stream also, at a short distance beyond, having less time in attendance. The bulk of the residents at miles in circumference, and close on the coast of Asia gained another rising ground, we had before us the the time of our visit were a more respectable body Minor. It was at this time nominally a possession of river Limmat, rolling onward through a similarly of people than we saw any where else in Switzerland the Greek emperor, Andronicus ; but in reality was beautiful vale. The spectacle was striking, and tell in one spot. There were apparently few or no French in the power of Saracenic pirates, mixed with Greeks ing Louis to give the horses a rest, we descended or English ; and the amusements consisted either in of the same stamp. Fulk de Villaret gathered his to examine it at our leisure. Advancing from the loitering about the beautiful banks of the Limmat war-galleys, and made a bold descent on the isle. The road to a position where we could command the most or making excursions in chairs and on the backs of resistance was obstinate, and years elapsed ere the advantageous view, the three valleys lay stretched donkeys to various scenes of interest in the neigh- knights succeeded in planting the standard of the out in their varying sinuosities before us, the moun-bourhood.
white cross on the walls of Rhodes. But they pertainous country on the south, whence the waters ori
sisted in the siege till they made it their own. ginated, gradually declining in height, till the dividing
The fate of the Knights Templars, almost at this boundaries of the three rivers melted into a common
THE KNIGHTS OF MALTA.
very moment, showed the importance and necessity centre, and the waters were conjoined into a single Tue institution of the Knights of Malta was one of of such a fixed settlement. Returning to its Eurostream. These waters are the drainage of all central greater importance and utility in its day than is gene- pean commanderies, this wealthy order, the rival of and northern Switzerland, and we afterwards had oc- rally imagined. However slight may be the merit that of the Hospitallers in fame and power, became casion to visit their main sources—the lakes of Brienz accruing from the Crusades for the recovery of the soon a subject of jealousy and avaricious envy to the and Thun, whence issues the Aar; the lakes of Zug Holy Land, they are entitled to share in it largely; monarchs of the time, and especially to Philip of and Lucerne, which contribute the Reuss ; and the but they have higher claims, of a much later date, France. In concert with the pope, that sovereign, lake of Zurich, which sends forth the Limmat. All upon the gratitude of the Christian world. Almost under colour of forged charges of criminality, wrested are of a lightish green colour, and to our eye the by the unaided exertions of this band of brothers, the its property from the order, and subjected its memReuss appeared the largest of the trio. In the race Ottoman power was held in check, and its extension bers to imprisonment, tortures, and death. Other to effect a junction of streams, the Renss also falls materially impeded, on the eastern coasts of Europe. countries also abolished the order, but without the first into the Aar, which, thus vastly increased, runs This was a great service to the whole of that conti same accompanying barbarities. Philip of France was on a short way till struck upon by the Limmat; the nent. The Knights of Malta effected, on the bosom partly disappointed, for the Pope forced him to accede Aar, therefore, has the honour of imparting its name of the Mediterranean, what John Sobieski effected on to a general edict, giving the Templar possessions to to the united waters, which, after flowing a distance of the plains of Austria ; and their names should be em- the Knights of St John. ten miles to the north, fall into the Rhine and double balmed along with his in the memory of Christendom. The latter body was greatly increased in power by it in size ; the other or primary branch of the Rhine Towards the middle of the eleventh century, when these accessions, and it became more common than ever being a similar drainage from above the lake of Con- the Holy Land was entirely in the power of the Ma- for the younger nobility of Europe to enter the order of stance, and flowing by Schaufhausen to this spot, hommedans, the Egyptian caliph, Monstaser-Billah, the Hospitallers. Riches brought with it augmented where it is thus so largely increased.
was induced to permit the erection of a Christian luxury and many evils, but the knights were still kept We spent so much time over this scene of beauty, chapel in the city of Jerusalem, with two hospitals, in high military condition. A new race of the followers and I should add historical interest-for the spot one of them dedicated to St John the Almoner. These of Mahommed appeared against them. Othman (the before us, on the peninsula formed by the junction of were intended for the relief of the numerous pilgrims Bone-Breaker), who gave a permanent name to the the Aar and the Reuss, was in early ages the site of who then visited Palestine from all Christian coun Turkish nation, possessed, with a tribe of Turkomauns, the great Roman station of Vindonissa, within the tries. After Godfrey of Bouillon conquered the Holy the region of Asia Minor adjoining Rhodes. He atbroad limits of which, in after times, rose the castle of City in 1099, the Hospital of St John became a place tacked the knights in their city ; but, though one of Hapsburg—that twilight began to draw its curtain of great note as an establishment for healing the the most tried and renowned warriors of his race, he around us, while still several miles from our resting- wounded and the sick, and was converted by Gerard, failed to make the slightest impression on them. Simiplace for the night; and resuming our journey, by a its rector, from a secular to a religious institution. | lar assaults were renewed in more alarming shapes in road up the left side of the Limmat, which impetu- He, with his brothers and sisters of charity, formally the course of the years immediately succeeding. Beously shot on its way between high woody banks, the abjured the world, and assumed as their dress a black twixt the year 1310, when the order settled at Řhodes, broad disk of the autumnal moon rose over the distant gown, having on the left breast a white cross. At the and the year 1453, when the Turks took Constantieminences, and, guided by its gentle light, we arrived same time, a number of illustrious crusaders, burning nople, and founded a new empire, the Knights of in due time at the gates of Baden.
with pious zeal, entered the body; and Godfrey of St John fought many great battles, by sea and land, Here there was some little difficulty. Originally Bouillon endowed it with lands in Brabant. His with the two Mahommedan powers in their neighbuilt under the shadow of a feudal castle on an adjoin- example was speedily followed by other princes and bourhood, the Egyptian and Turkish. It is amazing ing height, now in ruins, Baden is at present a walled barons of Europe, until the order grew wealthy, and to reflect, that this comparatively small body of men town, greatly deteriorated by poverty, and we had no founded many new houses both in Asia and Europe. should not only have foiled so many efforts made by wish to have any thing to do with it. A huge vaulted The next step was the conjunction of the military these powerful sovereignties to reduce them and take portal, in its decayed wall, stood hospitably open, the with the religious character. Raymond du Puis suc their stronghold, but should have even obtained possesdoors having been long since removed, and the idea ceeded to the rectorship; and, having been a brave sion of Cos and other Greek islands, captured Smyrna of defence laid aside ; but this offered no inducement soldier in his day, he was induced, by the reiterated and held it for a long period, and made various expefor our entering the place, and, conducted by Louis, attacks made on the Christians at their first settle- ditions against Syria and other places, if possessed we turned off by a path to the left in search of the ment in the East, to propose to his companions, most of the population and resources of a strong and warboarding houses at the springs—in fact, the true or of them old soldiers like himself, to join the profession like nation. They proved an unextractible thorn in practical Baden, the ancient town being only Baden of arms to their other duties. The summons sounded the sides of the focs of Christianity. theoretical. Our way was down a long declivity like a trumpet in the ears of the veterans, and Ray Our space will only permit of a mere sketch being closely overhanging the Limmat, which we heard mond du Puis became the first Grand-master of the given of the career of the order ; but we may allude rushing beneath us, but could scarcely see, as the Order of the Knights-Hospitallers of St John. Three specially to one event, the most important in its lofty bank on the farther side shut out the moon's classes were established in the order--that of the annals. The hour came at length for the fall of beams from the profound hollow into which we were Knights, who were required, at first at least, to prove Rhodes, after the knights had held it for more than slowly descending. By Louis's care, we were at length a noble extraction; that of Chaplains, who were two hundred years. Solyman the Magnificent resafely landed within the courtyard of the Stadthof, an non-military; and that of Ilalf-Knights, or Serving solved at any price to oust them from their strongextensive hotel and boarding-house.
Brothers, who were not of high birth, and whose hold. We quote from Sutherland's history of the On the morrow, when awakened by the sound of duties lay both in the hospital and the field. The order, in the passage that follows. In June 1522, Foices without, found ourselves lodged in a build- establishment of commanderies, as the houses were "a signal from Mount St Stephen intimated to the ing most romantically situated within the margin of called, in different countries, rendered it proper to Rhodians that the Turkish fleet was in sight. Countthe river, and which was evidently crowded with visi-establish divisions called Languages in the order, as less sails studded the Lycian Strait; and tumult and ters. We had seen no scene so singular since leaving one for England, one for Germany, and so on. These wailing instantly rose from every quarter of the city. home. The small town was composed of an irregular were at first seven, and finally nine in number. Noble The gates were formally shut, and public prayers were cluster of buildings of high and low degree, but mostly youths from all Europe soon swelled the order of the offered up in the churches, imploring Heaven to grant hotels of great size, planted at the bottom of the steep Hospitallers into a numerous force, and one of great the victory to the champions of the Cross. This done, bank, and leaving only space for a shady promenade strength, in times when a single mounted knight, the whole population hurried to the ramparts and along the side of the Limmat. On the opposite or left cased in armour, was a match for half a dozen of the towers, to behold the terrible armament that threatened bank the ground was equally precipitous, but facing ordinary soldiery. Their wealth also enabled them to them with destruction. Four hundred sail swept past the south was laid out principally as vineyards, with hire large bodies of mercenaries to aid in their enter the mouth of the haven with the pomp and circuma strip of a village at the foot, to which a wooden prises ; and their European houses, or commanderies, stance of a triumphal pageant; and on board this bridge gave the readiest access. Among the various served as depôts, whence auxiliaries were continually mighty fleet were 140,000 soldiers, exclusive of 60,000 hotels and lod ng-houses in different quarters, there drafted to the wars.
serfs, torn from the forests of the Danube, to serve was a concourse of visiters from Germany as well as This formidable body remained in Palestine during as pioneers.” Six hundred knights, with less than distant cantons of Switzerland, fully as numerous as the entire period of its occupation, complete or par five thousand regular troops, and a comparatively at Spa, but much less distingué than at Baden-Baden. tial, by the Latin Christians, witnessing the whole of weak body of citizens and peasants, formed the whole
The spot has been celebrated since the days of the the nine crusades, rendered necessary by the inveterate force prepared to oppose this immense armament, Romans for its sanative waters, which are hot and of determination of the Mahommedans to recover their the leader of which, Solyman in person, told his troops a sulphureous quality. There are sixteen springs, all lost possessions. During all this time, they existed that he had come to Rhodes “to conquer or die." rising within perhaps thirty feet of the river: one but to fight, having scarcely one month of perfect For upwards of three months, the most awful scenes gushes out near the walls of the Stadthof, within the bed repose ; and in fight they exhibited the most despe- of carnage took place daily, after the siege had begun. of the stream, and has been covered with a neat stone rate valour on all occasions, though the abstemious- For one man who fell among the knights, twenty fell building, from which the water is drawn for the use of ness of their rules was relaxed by degrees. They re- among the Turks; but even this proportion was ruin. the baths. The aggregate quantity of water thrown mained in the Holy Land after kings and barons had ous to the former. In one assault, fifteen thousand ap is about a hundred gallons per minute, the springs all yielded up the cause in despair. 'At length, in the Turks were slain. By degrees, every one of the ram. flowing with equal vigour and heat both day and night. year 1291, the Sultan Saladin drove them from their parts of Rhodes was in ruins, yet still the knights and The temperature, if I might judge from feeling, was last stronghold of Saint John d'Acre, and compelled their grand-master, a venerable old man, were unconabout 90 degrees Fahrenheit. Every hotel has a them to take refuge in Cyprus, then under a Latin querable. _They filled the breaches with their mailed spring and baths, the former rushing out as an ever- king. They there summoned all their commanderies bodies. Frequently, Solyman half-resolved to give running fountain in an open court or covered arcade, to send members and supplies, and were soon enabled up the struggle, and frequently he threatened his offito which all residents have access. For the benefit once more to establish themselves as a powerful naval cers with death for their want of success. He proof the public, or, properly speaking, visiters of a poorer as well as military body. Their views were to harass posed various capitulations, and by capitulation was order, there is a free countain in the confined patch the Mahommedans of Syria and Egypt by sea. One the siege finally closed. The knights were unvan. of street, and here in early morning hundreds were expedition more they made against the Saracens of quished, but Rhodes was unterable. Twelve days were in attendance. I was told that the sending of poor Jerusalem ; but they found both that city, and the given them to embark their property; and, on the 1st patients to the baths and springs is performed as a other fortresses of the country, to be in so ruinous a of January 1593, the remnant of the Rhodian Chrisconscientious duty by the authorities of almost every state, that the approach of the Egyptian sultan forced tians went on board their galleys, a homeless band. canton ; publie contributions are also made at the them to fly to their ships. It was immediately after Before that departure, Solyman, who had in him great bath-houses for the benefit of the humbler order of this step that Fulk de Villaret, twenty-fourth grand-points of character sought an interview with L'Isle
Adam, the grand-master. “For a time the two war- opposition, took possession of the island. The inha
WAR. riors eyed each other with piercing glances. The vene bitants seem to have been utterly tired of the rule of rable and majestic port of the grand-master won the the knights; and the latter ceded Malta to the French, What, speaking in quite unofficial language, is the net admiration of the youthful despot; and he magnani- by a treaty which bound them at once to quit the isle. purport of war?. To my own knowledge, for example, mously requested his interpreter to console the Chris- They received petty annuities in lieu of this their an
there dwell and toil, in the British village of Dumdrudge, tian chief with the assurance, that even the bravest of cient possession.
usually some five hundred souls. From these, by certain men were liable to become the sport of fortune. Ile in The British expelled the French ; but the knights selected, during the French war, say thirty able-bodied
“natural enemies" of the French, there are successively vited him, at the same time, to embrace the Mahom- returned to Malta no more. An attempt at the remedan faith, and enter his service, since the Christian establishment of the order was made by Paul of Rus
men : Dumdrudge, at her own expense, has suckled and
nursed them ; she has, not without difficulty and sorrow, princes, who had abandoned him in his extremity, did sia, which ended in nothing. Thus fell the renowned fed them up to manhood, and even trained them to not merit the alliance of so redoubted a chief ; and, by brotherhood of the Knights Hospitallers of St John. crafts, so that one can weave, another build, another way of a bribe, promised to advance him to the high- The extent of their possessions at one time, as well ! hammer, and the weakest can stand under thirty stone est dignities in his empire, and make him one of his as those of the Tempiars, is shown by the numberless , avoirdupois. Nevertheless, amid much weeping and chosen councillors. The grand-master answered, that places, in Britain and elsewhere, to which they have swearing, they are selected; all dressed in red, and were he to dishonour his grey hairs by becoming a permanently given names.
shipped away at the public charge, some 2000 miles, or traitor and renegade, he would only show how un
say, only to the south of Spain; and fed there till worthy he was of the high opinion which his conqueror
wanted. And now, to that same spot in the south of entertained of him ; and that he would far rather re
Spain, are thirty similar French artisans, from a French tire into obscurity, or part with life itself, than be
Dumdrudge, in like manner wending ; till at length, after
It is not pain, it is not grief, accounted a recreant and apostate by his own people.
That weigheth down my spirit now;
infinite effort, the parties come into actual juxtaposition, Solyman dismissed the venerable knight with honour;
A holier feeling craves relief
and thirty stand fronting thirty, each with a gun in his and said to Achmet Pasha, who was in attendance,
For burden'd breast, for burning brow :
hand. Straightway the word "Fire !” is given, and they Nor pain nor grief might thus me bow,
blow the souls out of one another; and, instead of sixty * It is not without regret that I drive this unfortu
Nor theirs the sorrow of the hour;
brisk useful craftsmen, the world has sixty dead carcasses, Date old man, full of sorrow, from his home.'”
A deeper sadness this, I trow,
which it must bury and anon shed tears for. Had these The Knights of St John had still their comman
Bound on me by some sterner power.
men any quarrel ? Busy as the devil is, not the smallest. deries, rich and powerful, over Europe, though Henry
Hast ever long'd to weep thy fill,
They lived far enough apart, were the entirest strangers VIII., about this very time, abolished the order in
And felt that thou in vain must pine
nay, in so wide a universe, there was even, unconsciously England. But their importance was yet sufficient to
Felt fall on thee the leaden chill
by commerce, some mutual helpfulness between them. procure for them the cession of the island of Malta,
Which freezes tears within their shrine ?
How then? Simpleton ! their governors had fallen out; where their numbers were soon recruited. Removed
Hast ever loved a full blue eye
and, instead of shooting one another, had the cunning to
Whose heaven mote ne'er upon thee shine ? in some measure, however, from the sphere of Turkish
make these poor blockheads shoot.- Carlyle's Sartor Or seen a bosom heave the sigh
Resartus. and Egyptian operations, the knights came now into
Thou knew'st was no response to thine ? hostility with new enemies of their faith. The African coasts swarmed at this time, as they also did at a
Hast ever felt full many a thought
BENEFIT OF A FREE PRESS.
Of tenderness within thee swell, much later date, with pirates, who filled their coffers
By Nature to thy spirit taught,
A free press is the parent of much good in a state. with gold, and their dungeons with captives, from
Yet blighting that wherein they dwell ?
But even a licentious press is a far less evil than a prese the European states. In concert with the Emperor
Thy misery to love too well,
that is enslaved, because both sides may be heard in the Charles, the Knights of Malta undertook a great ex
Since doomed still to love alone
former case, but not in the latter. Å licentious press Affection sickening in her cell,
may be an evil, an enslaved press must be so; for an pedition against the two Barbarossas, the most famous
For lack of things to rest upon.
enslaved press may cause error to be more current than pirates of the day, who had gained sovereign power in Algiers and Tunis, by expelling the rightful princes.
And hast thou known what 'tis to gaze,
wisdom, and wrong more powerful than right; a licenTunis and Goletta were conquered on this occasion,
In pensive musing, fancy free,
tious press cannot effect these things, for if it gives the Back on the joyous sunny days
poison, it gives also the antidote, which an enslaved chiefly by the dauntless valour of the Knights of St
Of boyhood and of infancy?
press withholds. An enslaved press is doubly fatal---it John, and the rightful governments were re-established.
Hast felt the rushing memories press,
not only takes away the true light, for in that case we But, in a future expedition, the order lost a great
And wish'd the troublers not to be?
might stand still, but it sets up a false one, that decoys force before Algiers, and a garrison of theirs was ex
Mementos of thy loneliness !
us to our destruction.---Lacon.
Then, stranger, thou canst feel for me. pelled with vast loss from Tripoli. For the next half century, the knights waged in
And if a mother's eye did bless
TULIPOMANIA IN HOLLAND.
Thine own, and fondly on thee smiled, cessant war with the piratical Mahommedans, both of
When the Tulipomania infected Holland, and single
A mother's bosom once did press Africa and the Turco-Grecian islands. The import
roots were sold for many hundred pounds, we are told Thine own-though only when a child:
“ People who had been absent from Holland, and whose ance of their services to European commerce was
Or if a sister fair and mild fully shown by the renewed attempts of the Ottoman
Hath laid her soft cheek thine upon,
chance it was to return when this folly was at its maxiPorte to suppress them. In 1565, one great attempt
Then fathom thou the anguish wild
mum, were sometimes led into awkward dilemmas by Born of the thought that both are gone.
their ignorance. There is an amusing instance of the was made by 30,000 Turks on the island. The assault
kind related in Blainville's Travels. A wealthy merchant, of the small fort of St Elmo will show the bravery of
Dearer than home to exile's thought,
who prided himself not a little on his rare tulips, received the knights in a fair light :-“At daybreak on the
Than science to the sage she taught,
upon one occasion a very valuable consignment of mer16th of June, the Turkish galleys commenced a furious
Or chieftain to his Highland clan
chandise from the Levant. Intelligence of its arrival was cannonade against the sea ward rampart ; and at the
Dearer than to the deluged earth
brought him by a sailor, who presented himself for that same time the land batteries shattered into ruin the
The bow of hope that heaven did span,
purpose at the counting-house, among bales of goods of
Dearer than all the world is worthstill remaining fortifications. This done, the Osman
every description. The merchant, to reward him for his
Is woman to the heart of man! lis entered the ditch to the sound of their proud but
news, munificently made him a present of a fine red-herbarbarous music; and, at the discharge of a signal
Prate not of friends : there is a smart
ring for his breakfast. The sailor had, it appears, a great gun, rushed impetuously to the assault, covered by
That mocks at friendship's nicest skill;
partiality for onions; and seeing a bulb, very like an onion, There is a void within the heart
lying upon the counter of this liberal trader, and think4000 harquebusiers and cross-bowmen, who, from their
That even friendship may not fill :
ing it no doubt very much out of its place among silks and post in the trenches, shot down every Christian soldier
There is within a mystic will,
velvets, he slily seized an opportunity, and slipped it into who showed himself in the breach. Behind that deadly
Aye calling at the spirit's shrine
his pocket as a relish for his herring. He got clear oft gap stood the knights and their scant battalion, armed
A something that demandeth still with pikes and spontoons, and forming, as it were, a
A breast to blend and beat with thine :
with his prize, and proceeded to the quay to eat his
breakfast. Hardly was his back turned, when the merliving wall. Between every three soldiers stood a
A breast will be thine own for aye,
chant missed his valuable Semper Augustus, worth 3000 knight, the better to sustain the courage of those who
Will bleed at ought that brings thee pain,
florins, or about L.280 sterling. The whole establishment
Will languish when thou art away, had nothing of chivalrous renown to uphold them. In
was instantly in an uproar; search was every where made
And leap when it on thine hath lain. vain did the Turks dash themselves on this impene
Oh give me such, or else give back,
for the precious root, but it was not to be found. Great trable phalanx. When swords and pikes were broken,
Ye years, the blessedness ye've ta'en !
was the merchant's distress of mind. The search was rethe Christian soldiers grappled with their antagonists,
The springiness my spirits lack
newed, but again without success. At last some one and terminated the death-struggle with their daggers.
And let me be a boy again!
thought of the sailor. The unhappy merchant sprang D.
into the street at the bare suggestion. His alarmed houseThe burning hoops were of eminent service in this
hold followed him. The sailor, simple soul! had not combat; and the cries of the wretches whom they
thought of concealment. He was found quietly sitting begirt, added greatly to the horror of the fight. It
on a coil of ropes, masticating the last morsel of his onion. was a cheering circumstance to the defenders of the
The sterile soils of the South American coast are
Little did he dream that he had been eating a breakfast fort, that the conflict was maintained under the eyes manured with a substance called guano, consisting of whose cost might have regaled a whole ship's crew for a of their friends in the Bourg, who they feared had
urate of ammonia and other ammoniacal salts, by the use twelvemonth ; or, as the plundered merchant bimself begun to doubt their bravery. Amid the thunder of of which a luxuriant vegetation and the richest crops are expressed it, might have sumptuously feasted the Prince the artillery, and the groans of the dying, their ears obtained. Guano has lately been imported in consider- of Orange and the whole court of the stadtholder.' Anwere gladdened at intervals by encouraging shouts able quantities into Liverpool and several other English thony caused pearls to be dissolved in wine to drink the wafted across the haven from the distant ramparts; ports, and is now experimentally employed as a manure
health of Cleopatra ; Sir Richard Whittington was as fooland the guns of Forts St Angelo and St Michael by English agriculturists. A consideration of its compo- ishly magnificent in an entertainment to King Henry V: ; played incessantly, and with considerable effect, on sition and mode of action cannot therefore fail to be ac
and Sir Thomas Gresham drank a diamond, dissolved in the Turkish lines. At the end of six hours, the ceptable. Much speculation has arisen as to the true wine, to the health of Queen Elizabeth, when she opened knights, covered with wounds, and blistered by the origin of guano, but the most certain proof is now afforded the Royal Exchange ; but the breakfast of this roguish
Dutchman was as splendid as either. He had the adscorching rays of the sun, had the consolation to hear that it has been produced by the accumulation of the exa retreat sounded from the enemy's trenches ; and the crements of the innumerable sea-fowl which inhabit the vantage, too, over his wasteful predecessors; their gems Turks reluctantly retired, leaving behind them 2000 islands upon which it is found. Meyen, the latest writer did not improve the taste or the wholesomeness of their dead.” When the last defender"fell, the Turks be upon this subject, completely coincides with this opinion, wine, while his tulip was quite delicious with his redcame masters of St Elmo. But they were ultimately cloud the sun when they rise from their resting-place in
for he says," their number is Legion ; they completely herring."--- Mackay's History of Popular Delusions. driven from the island, with a loss of 25,000 men. the morning, in flocks of miles in length." Yet, notwith
ULTIMATE SUCCESS OF GOOD SCHEMES. The order was congratulated by all Europe on this standing their great number, thousands of years must Many schemes ridiculed as Utopian, decried as visionoccasion. · For the next century, it continued to have elapsed before the excrements could have accumu ary, and declaimed against as impracticable, will be maintain maritime combats of lesser note, chiefly in lated to such a thickness as they possess at present. realised the moment the march of sound knowledge has contest with the African pirates. But its utility and Guano has been used by the Peruvians as a manure since effected this for our species--that of making men wise its wealth gradually departed. Each of the powers the twelfth century; and Rivero states that the annual enough to see their true interests, and disinterested of Europe became owners of great fleets, which re
consumption of guano, for the purposes of agriculture, enough to pursue them.--- Lacon. duced the galleys of St John to total insignificance; amounts to 40,000 fanegas (7600 quarters). The increase and there being no longer occasion for their services, According to the same authority, the crop of potatoes LONDON: Published, with permission of the proprictors, by the possessions of the knights slipt by degrees from is increased forty-five times by means of it, and that of W. S. Orr, Paternoster Row
Besides, islands could no longer be maize thirty-five times. The composition of guano points Printed by Bradbury and Evans, Whitefriars. wrested even from Mahommedans, or expeditions out how admirably it is fitted for a manure ; for not only made against them; treaties and alliances bound both does it contain ammoniacal salts in abundance, but also publishers or their agents ; also, any odd numbers to complete
Complete sets of the Journal are always to be had from the parties to peace. At length, in the time of the sixty- those inorganic constituents which are indispensable sets. Persons requiring their volumes bound along with title ninth grand-master, Bonaparte appeared before Va for the development of plants.- Professor Liebig's New pages and contents, have only to give them into the hands of any letta, the Maltese capital, and, after a feeble show of Work.
bookseller, with orders to that effect.
CONDUCTED BY WILLIAM AND ROBERT CHAMBERS, EDITORS OF " CHAMBERS'S INFORMATION FOR THE PEOPLE,”
“ CHAMBERS'S EDUCATIONAL COURSE,” &c.
PRICE 1 d.
THE TWO MISS SMITHS.
gentleman who resided some twenty miles off, took a vacant, and doubly gratified when the stranger added,
lodging in the town, and came there with his wife and “ I come from Bath, and was recommended by a A TRUE STORY.
family, in order, by a little courtesy and a few enter friend of yours, indeed probably a relation, as she In a certain town in the west of England, which tainments, to win the hearts of the electors and their bears the same name, Miss Joanna Smith." shall be nameless, there dwelt two maiden ladies of friends; and his first move was to send out invita
“ I know Miss Joanna very well, sir,” replied the name of Smith ; each possessing a small indepen- tions for a tea and card party, which, in due time, Miss Cecilia ;“ pray, walk up stairs, and I'll show you dence, each residing, with a single maid-servant, in a when the preparations were completed, was to be the apartments directly. (For,” thought she, “ I must small house, the drawing-room floor of which was let, followed by a ball. There was but one milliner and not let him go out of the house till he has taken them, whenever lodgers could be found; each hovering some dressmaker of any consideration in the town of B-, for fear he should find out his mistake.) Very nice where about the age of fifty, and each hating the and it may be imagined that on so splendid an occa rooms, sir, you see-every thing clean and comfortother with a restless and implacable enmity. The sion her services were in great request--so much so, able—a pretty view of the canal in front- just between origin of this aversion was the similarity of their that in the matter of head-dresses, she not only found
the baker's and the shoemaker's ; you'll get a peep, names ; each was Miss C. Smith, the one being called that it would be impossible, in so short a period, to sir, if you step to this window. Then it's uncomCecilia, the other Charlotte-a circumstance which fulfil the commands of her customers, but also that monly lively; the Exeter and Plymouth coaches, up gave rise to such innumerable mistakes and misun- she had neither the material nor the skill to give them and down, rattling through all day long, and indeed derstandings, as were sufficient to maintain these satisfaction. It was, therefore, settled that she should all night too, for the matter of that. A beautiful ladies in a constant state of irritability and warfare. send off an order to a house in Exeter, which was the little bed-room, back, too, sir_Yes, as you observe, it Letters, messages, invitations, parcels, bills, were daily county town, for a cargo of caps, togues, turbans, &c., certainly does look over a brick kiln; but there's no mis-sent, and opened by the wrong person, thus ex• fit for all ages and faces—“such as were not disposed dust—not the least in the world—for I never allow posing the private affairs of one to the other; and as of to be returned ;" and the ladies consented to wait, the windows to be opened : altogether, there can't be their aversion had long ago extinguished every thing with the best patience they could, for this interesting a pleasanter situation than it is." like delicacy on either side, any information so acconsignment, which was to arrive without fail on the The stranger, it must be owned, seemed less sensible quired was used without scruple to their mutual an- Wednesday, Thursday being the day fixed for the of all these advantages than he ought to have been ; noyance. Presents, too, of fruit, vegetables, or other party. But the last coach arrived on Wednesday however, he engaged the apartments : it was but for delicacies from the neighbouring gentry, not unfre- night without the expected boxes ; however, the a short time, as he had come there about some busiquently found their way to the wrong house ; and if un- coachman brought a message for Miss Gibbs, the ness connected with the election; and as Miss Joanna accompanied by a letter, which took away all excuse milliner, assuring her that they would be there the had so particularly recommended him to the lodging, for mistake, they were appropriated without remorse, next morning without fail.
he did not like to disoblige her. So the bargain was even when the appropriating party felt confident in Accordingly, when the first Exeter coach rattled struck : the maid received orders to provision the her heart that the article was not intended for her; through the little street of B-, which was about garrison with bread, butter, tea, sugar, &c., &c., whilst and this not from greediness or rapacity, but from half-past eleven, every head that was interested in the the gentleman returned to the inn to dispatch Boots the absolute delight they took in vexing each other. freight was to be seen looking anxiously out for the with his portmanteau and carpet-bag. It must be admitted, also, that this well-known deal boxes; and, sure enough, there they were—three “ You were only just in time, sir,” observed Miss enmity was occasionally played upon by the frolic-of them—large enough to contain caps for the whole Cecilia, as they descended the stairs, “ for I expected loving part of the community, both high and low; so town. Then there was a rush up stairs for their a gentleman to call at twelve o'clock to-day, who I that over and above the genuine mistakes, which were bonnets and shawls, and in a few minutes troops of am sure would have taken the lodgings.” of themselves quite enough to keep the poor ladies in ladies, young and old, were seen hurrying towards the “ I should be sorry to stand in his way,” responded hot water, every now and then some little hoax was market-place, where dwelt Miss Gibbs—the young in the stranger, who would not have been at all sorry got up and practised upon them, such as fictitious pursuit of artificial flowers, gold bands, and such-like for an opportunity of backing out of the bargain. love-letters, anonymous communications, and so forth. adornments—the elderly in search of a more mature " Perhaps you had better let him have them-I can It might have been imagined, as they were not an order of decoration. Amongst the candidates for finery, easily get accommodated elsewhere." swerable for their names, and as they were mutual nobody was more eager than the two Miss Smiths ; “ Oh dear, no, sir ; dear me! I wouldn't do such a sufferers by the similarity, one having as much right and they had reason to be so, not only because they thing for the world !” exclaimed Miss Cecilia, who to complain of this freak of fortune as the other, that had neither of them any thing at all fit to be worn at had only thrown out this little inuendo by way of they might have entered into a compact of forbear Mrs Hanaway's party, which was in a style much binding her lodger to his bargain, lest, on discovering ance, which would have been equally advantageous to above the entertainments they were usually invited his mistake, he should think himself at liberty to either party ; but their naturally acrimonious dis to, but also because they both invariably wore turbans, annul the agreement. For well she knew that it was positions prevented this, and each continued as angry and each was afraid that the other might carry off a mistake : Miss Joanna of Bath was Miss Charwith the other as she could have been if she had had the identical turban that might be most desirable for lotte's first cousin, and, hating Miss Cecilia, as she a sole and indefeasible right to the appellation of herself. Urged by this feeling, so alert were they, was in duty bound to do, would rather have sent her C. Smith, and her rival had usurped it in a pure spirit that they were each standing at their several windows a dose of arsenio than a lodger, any day. She had of annoyance and opposition. To be quite just, how when the coach passed, with their bonnets and cloaks used every precaution to avoid the accident that had erer, we must observe that Miss Cecilia was much actually on-ready to start for the plate !-determined happened, by writing on a card, "Miss Charlotte the worse of the two; by judicious management Miss to reach Miss Gibbs’s in time to witness the opening Smith, No. 16, High Street, B -, opposite the linenCharlotte might have been tamed, but the malice of the boxes. But “who shall control his fate ?" draper's shop;" but the thoughtless traveller, never of Miss Cecilia was altogether inexorable.
Just as Miss Cecilia was stepping off her threshold, dreaming of the danger in which he stood, lost the By the passing of the Reform Bill, the little town she was accosted by a very gentlemanly-looking per- card, and, trusting to his memory, fell into the snare. wherein dwelt these belligerent powers received a son, who, taking off his hat, with an air really irresis Miss Cecilia had been so engrossed by her anxiety very considerable accession of importance; it was tible, begged to know if he had “the honour of seeing to hook this fish before her rival could have a chance elerated into a borough, and had a whole live mem- Miss Smith”—a question which was, of course, an- of throwing out a bait for him, that, for a time, she ber to itself, which, with infinite pride and grati-swered in the affirmative.
actually forgot Miss Gibbs and the turban ; but now fication, it sent to parliament, after having extracted “ I was not quite sure," said he, “ whether I was that her point was gained, and sho felt sure of her from him all manner of pledges, and loaded him with right, for I had forgotten the number ; but I thought man, her former care revived with all its force, and all manner of instructions as to how he should con- it was sixty,” and he looked at the figures on the she hurried along the street towards the market-place, duct himself under every conceivable circumstance; door.
in a fever of apprehension lest she should be too late. not to mention a variety of bills for the improve “ This is sixty, sir,” said Miss Cecilia ; adding to The matter certainly looked ill; for, as she arrived ment of the roads and markets, the erection of a herself, “ I wonder if it was sixteen he was sent to,” breathless at the door, she saw groups of self-satisfied town-hall, and the reform of the systems of watching, for at number sixteen lived Miss Charlotte.
faces issuing from it, and, amongst the rest, the obpaving, lighting, &c., the important and consequential “ I was informed, madam,” pursued the gentleman, noxious Miss Charlotte's physiognomy appeared, looklittle town of B
“ that I could be accommodated with apartments ing more pleased than any body, A short time prerious to the first election—an event here—that you had a first floor to let.”
“Odious creature !” thought Miss Cecilia ; " as if which was anticipated by the inhabitants with the “ That is quite true, sir,” replied Miss Cecilia, de- she supposed that any turban in the world could make most vivid interestimone of the candidates, a country lighted to let her rooms, which had been some time her look tolerable !” But Miss Charlotte did suppose