Imatges de pÓgina
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account of the want of skill of the artillerymen, few shots, if any, took effect: the negroes became indifferent to this prelude, and were only stimulated to a more obstinate resistance. The thundering of the cannon at first caused more consternation than their effects, but the fears of the negroes ceased as soon as they became accustomed to it. Before the attack commences, all avenues to the village are blocked up with large stones or other impediments, the village is provided with water for several days, the cattle and other property taken up to the mountain; in short, nothing necessary for a proper defence is neglected. The men, armed only with fances, occupy every spot which may be defended, and even the women do not remain inactive; they either take part in the battle personally, or encourage their husbands by their cries and lamentations, and provide them with arms; in short, all are active, except the sick and aged. The points of their wooden lances are first dipped into a poison which is standing by them in an earthen vessel, and which is prepared from the juice of a certain plant. The poison is of a whitish colour, and looks like milk which has been standing; the nature of the plant, and the manner in which the poison is prepared, is still a secret, and generally known only to one family in the village, who will not on any account make it known to others.

with horror; and his description of slave-hunting in Nubia presents a picture of oppression which must stamp this plausible tyrant with everlasting infamy. The number of persons carried off from the Nubian mountains between 1825 and 1839, omitting the thousands who were captured by the Bakkara, amounted to at least 100,000. As soon as the rainy season is over, the capturing excursion, called Gasna, commences, and the necessary number of camels, one for each soldier, and others for arms, ammunition, and tents, is demanded. The soldiers seize all that comes in their way, and in a few days all that is necessary is obtained. The capturing expedition consists of from 1000 to 2000 regular foot soldiers; 400 to 800 Mograbini | (Bedouins on horseback) armed with guns and pistols; 300 to 500 of the militia (half-naked savages) on dromedaries, with shields and spears; and 1000 more on foot, with bucklers and small lances. "As soon as every thing is ready, the march begins. They usually take from two to four field-pieces, and only sufficient bread for the first eight days. Oxen, sheep, and other cattle, are generally taken by force before at Cordofan, although the tax upon cattle may have been paid. When they meet with a flock, either feeding or at the watering-places, they steal the cattle, and do not care whether it belongs to one or more persons; they make no reparation for necessary things, whoever may be the sufferer, and no objection or complaint is listened to, as the governor himself is present.

show this ambassador particular marks of honour, and such as are contrary to custom, I mean not thereby to give a precedent to others. I particularly love and esteem him for the affection which I know he has for me, for his firmness in our religion, and his fidelity to his master. I dare not repeat all that he said to my advantage." At this and other meetings, Sully showed great tact, and was successful in getting James to form a treaty with Henry of the kind desired. On the whole, the ambassador formed rather a low estimate of James, of whom he pronounced on this occasion that he was the most learned fool in Christendom, To describe his services and connexion with Henry his master, is, as mentioned before, to tell at once Sully's history, and to show his literary abilities. The slavery in which the king was held by his passions, was a great source of vexation to Sully, both on account of his personal love for him, and of the expenses attending such a course of life. One day, when the minister was resisting some improper application, the temporary favourite, D'Entragues, said impudently and haughtily to him, "To whom would you have the king grant favours, if not to his relations, courtiers, and favourites ?" "Madam," replied Sully, "you would be in the right if his majesty took the money out of his own purse; but is it reasonable that he should take it out of those of his poor subjects, to gratify such people as you speak of?" Holding such sentiments, it may be conceived that Sully's administration was a continued blessing to his country. He was easy of access, and methodical in all his habits. Though sometimes galled into anger by his remonstrances, Henry raised him to the highest honours of the peerage, and, with his other posts, gave him the governorship of Poitou. Henry's death in 1610 terminated Sully's official career, and he received at its close a gratuity of 100,000 crowns. Occasionally, after this period, he was sent for to the councils of Louis XIII., and at these times he appeared in the antiquated garb of the old court. Some silly young courtiers laughing once at his appearance, "Sire," said the venerable minister to the king, "when your father, of glorious memory, honoured me by a call to his state consultations, he previously sent away the buffoons." The king felt the rebuke, and remained alone with Sully.

Sully died in 1641, at the age of eighty-two. His "Memoirs" and his memory have ever been highly esteemed in France.

As soon as they arrive at the first mountains in Nubia, the inhabitants are asked to give the appointed number of slaves as their customary tribute. This is usually done with readiness; for these people live so near Cordofan, and are well aware that, by an obstinate refusal, they expose themselves to far greater sufferings. If the slaves are given without resistance, the inhabitants of that mountain are preserved from the horrors of an open attack; but as the food of the soldiers begins to fail about that time, the poor people are obliged to procure the necessary provisions as well as the specified number of slaves, and the Turks do not consider whether the harvest has been good or bad. All that is not freely given, the soldiers take by force. Like so many bloodhounds, they know how to discover the hidden stores, and frequently leave these unfortunate people scarcely a loaf for the next day. They then proceed on to the more distant mountains: here they consider themselves to be in the land of an enemy; they encamp near the mountain which they intend to take by storm the following day, or immediately, if it is practicable. But before the attack commences, they endeavour to settle the affair amicably; a messenger is sent to the sheik, in order to invite him to come to the camp, and to bring with him the requisite number of slaves. If the chief agrees with his subjects to the proposal, in order to prevent all further bloodshed, or if he finds his means inadequate to attempt resistance, he readily gives the appointed number of slaves. The sheik then proceeds to procure the number he has promised; and this is not difficult, for many volunteers offer themselves for their brethren, and are ready to subject themselves to all the horrors of slavery, in order to free those they love.

SLAVE HUNTS IN EGYPT. THE recent publication of a work entitled "Egypt and Mohammed Ali,"* by Dr R. R. Madden, has brought prominently into notice a variety of circumstances connected with the legalised system of slavery in Egypt, as well as the manner in which it is supported by the practice of hunting down and carrying off the unfortunate inhabitants of Nubia and Abyssinia. As little is popularly known on the subject, we propose, with the assistance of facts gleaned from the work of this intrepid and philanthropic writer, to bring it before our readers.

As soon as the signal is given for the attack, the infantry sound the alarm, and an assault is made upon the mountain. Thousands of lances, large stones, and pieces of wood, are then thrown at the assailants; behind every large stone a negro is concealed, who either throws his poisoned lance at the enemy, or waits for the moment when his opponent approaches the spot of his concealment, when he pierces him with his lance. The soldiers, who are only able to climb up the steep heights with great difficulty, are obliged to sling their guns over their backs, in order to have the use of their hands when climbing, and, consequently, are often in the power of the negroes before they are able to discover them. But nothing deters these robbers. Animated with avarice and revenge, they mind no impediment, not even death itself. One after another treads upon the corpse of his comrade, and thinks only of robbery and murder, and the village is at last taken, in spite of the most desperate resistance. And then the revenge is horrible. Neither the aged nor sick people are spared, women, and even children in their mother's womb, fall a sacrifice to their fury; the huts are plundered, the little possession of the unfortunate inhabitants carried away or destroyed, and all that fall alive into the hands of the robbers, are led as slaves into the camp. When the negroes see that their resistance is no longer of any avail, they frequently prefer death to slavery; and if they are not prevented, you may see the father rip up first the stomach of his wife, then of his children, and then his own, that they may not fall alive into the hands of the enemy. Others endeavour to save themselves by creeping into holes, and remain there for several days without nourishment, where there is frequently only room sufficient to allow them to lie on their backs, and in that situation they sometimes remain for eight days. They have assured me, that if they can overcome the first three days, they may, with a little effort, continue full eight days without food. But even from these hiding-places, the unfeeling barbarians know how to draw them, or they make use of means to destroy them: provided with combustibles, such as pitch, brimstone, &c., the soldiers try to kindle a fire before the entrance of the holes, and by forcing the stinking smoke up the holes, the poor creatures are forced to creep out, and to surrender themselves to their enemies, or they are suffocated with the smoke.

Here the most heart-rending scenes may be witnessed for who is willing to separate himself from his home, from his parents, brothers and sisters, and relations?-who likes to forsake the cottage that has sheltered him from his infancy, and where he has spent so many happy hours in the society of those by whom he is beloved?-who likes to go forth to meet a horrible futurity, which promises nothing but misery, eruelty, and, what is perhaps most desirable, death? and yet they feel the necessity that one of them should suffer in order to exempt the rest; the father may frequently be seen disputing with his son, the brother with his brother, as to which of them is to deliver himself freely into slavery, for every one wishes to save his affectionate and endeared relative.

In all the undertakings of Mohammed Ali, with the ostensible view of civilising the nation of which he is the ruler, he appears to be animated by one prevailing sentiment, and that is, the desire to serve his own selfish purposes, and yet deceive the people of Europe, who, he is fully aware, have an eye to his public actions. In accomplishing this object, he has, by the aid of French tacticians, been eminently successful. The trick of his highness is generally well managed; it consists in issuing orders of the most liberal nature respecting any matter of serious complaint, for which he receives a great deal of praise, but which orders, except in particular instances, he takes good care shall never be carried into execution. Two or three years ago, when on an expedition into Eastern Africa, he found it his interest to be very much shocked with the practice of capturing slaves for sale within his dominions, and issued an immediate order that this barbarous trade should be prohibited. So pleasing a circumstance gave much satisfaction in England, and the Anti-Slavery Convention held in London sent an address applauding his generous and humane conduct. Dr Madden was the bearer of this document to his highness; but, greatly to his surprise, he found, on its presentation (August 1840), that the pacha had taken no step whatever to give effect to those orders for which he was now congratulated. The slave hunts and slave sales went on the same as ever.

The anticipation of falling into the hands of the unfeeling Turks, where nothing but misery and torments await them, to which they must submit-the prospect of being obliged to forsake all that is dear to them, and that for ever-overpowers them. They bedew the cheeks of those they love with their tears, while they press the last kiss, and take the last farewell; they then deliver themselves into the hands of their unfeeling, hardened tormentors. Sometimes they are obliged to be torn by force from the embraces of their friends and relations. The sheik generally receives a dress as a present for his ready services.

Our author was much shocked to find the Egyptian But there are very few mountains that submit to despot so much less a man of humanity than English such a demand. Most villages which are advantaphilanthropy had supposed, and he took leave to pre-geously situated, and lie near steep precipices or insent to him a very bold address, in which he stated accessible heights, that can be ascended only with that there were three hundred slaves for sale at that difficulty, defend themselves most valiantly, and fight moment in the markets of Cairo and Alexandria; that for the rights of liberty with a courage, perseverance, the number sold in the preceding twelve months was and sacrifice, of which history furnishes us with few above ten thousand; and that the government not examples. Very few flee at the approach of their only permitted, but practised, the horrible traffic, the enemies, although they might take refuge in the high pacha's soldiers being regularly employed in seizing mountains with all their goods, especially as they slaves in Nubia, and a tax upon their exportation being receive timely information of the arrival of the solone of the resources of his treasury. Mohammed Ali diers; but they consider such flights cowardly and equivocated, and threw the blame upon the law and shameful, and prefer to die fighting for their liberty. the sultan ; but his issuing licenses to slave-merchants is in itself sufficient to establish his guilt. The particulars which Dr Madden gives of the mutilation of children for certain purposes makes the flesh thrill

* London: Hamilton and Adams, 1 vol. 1841.

If the sheik does not yield to the demand, an attack is made upon the village. The cavalry and bearers of lances surround the whole mountain, and the infantry endeavour to climb the heights. Formerly, they fired with cannon upon the villages and those places where the negroes were assembled, but. on

After the Turks have done all in their power to capture the living, they lead these unfortunate people into the camp; they then plunder the huts and the cattle, and several hundred soldiers are engaged in searching the mountain in every direction, in order to steal the hidden harvest, that the rest of the negroes, who were fortunate enough to escape, and have hid themselves in inaccessible caves, should not find any thing on their return to nourish and continue their life.

As soon as they have obtained about 500 or 600 slaves, they are sent to Lobeid, with an escort of country people, and about fifty soldiers, under the command of an officer. In order to prevent escape, a sheba is hung round the necks of the adults. A sheba is a young tree, about eight feet long, and two inches thick, and which has a fork at the top; it is so tied to the neck of the poor creature, that the trunk of the tree hangs down in the front, and the fork closed behind the neck with a cross piece of timber, or tied together with strips cut out of a fresh skin; and in this situation the slave, in order to be able to walk at all, is obliged to take the tree into his hands, and to carry it before him, But none can endure this very long, and to render it easier, the one in advance takes the tree of the man behind him on his shoulder. It is impossible for them to get their head free, and it frequently happens that they have their necks wounded, which is followed by an inflammation, and sometimes even by death.

Boys, between ten and fifteen years of age, who cannot bear such a sheba, are tied together, two and two, with wooden clasps on their hands: this is done by placing the wood on the right arm of one, and on the left of another, above the wrist, and then lacing it tightly. Other boys are tied together, by two and two, with leather strings. Boys under the above-men

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country, they rise thirty or forty feet high, without a single branch or a single leaf, and it is generally upon the tops of mountains that they grow. Pæping, a German botanical traveller in Brazil, says that, in that country, a hill top bristling with the cactus speciosissimus, resembles nothing so much as a hog's back!

Then we have the creeping cereus (cereus flagelliformis), which looks like a number of cats' tails tied together, and hung over a flower-pot, with a few crimson flowers stuck into them irregularly. The spines with which these hanging stems are completely covered are what give them the cats' tail appearance: they have no leaves, but the tails are sometimes forked. The leaf cactus (Epiphyllum phyllanthoides) is of totally different but equally quaint form, the stems appearing to consist of a series of leaves stuck into each other, and having notches in the sides from which spring the flowers. The porcupine cactus (echinocactus) has a round ball-like stem, often with projecting angles like a lady's reticule, covered with hard sharp spines. The flowers of this genus appear thrown carelessly on the stem, and not to belong to it. We might expatiate upon the eccentricities of this order of plants for half a day, but shall content ourselves with adverting to that crowning conceit manifested by one of the family, of blowing in the middle of the night-emblem apt

whimsical in their forms, since long before there was
such a thing as the human mind to regard them either
in one light or another. We see jocularities and
merriments in animals which existed long before man,
and to which no moral error can be imputed. Finally,
we see man himself organised so thoroughly for mirth,
that his very health is liable to be improved by it."
Well, indeed, might Grecian imagination include
Thalia amongst the children of Jove.

POPULAR INFORMATION ON FRENCH
LITERATURE.

ELEVENTH ARTICLE.-SULLY.

increased to upwards of three thousand, which obliged the French to fly for an asylum into the house of the ambassador. I at last imagined something extraordinary had happened, and having questioned Terrail and Gadancourt, they informed me of the particulars.

The honour of my nation, my own in particular, and the interest of my negotiation, were the first objects that presented themselves to my mind. I was also most sensibly grieved that my entry into London should be marked at the beginning by so fatal an accident; and at that moment, I am persuaded, my countenance plainly expressed the sentiments with which I was agitated. Guided by my first impulse, I arose, took a flambeau, and ordering all that were in the house (amounting to about a hundred) to range themHAVING described the early warlike portion of Sully's selves round the walls, hoped by this means to discareer, we now take him up as a grave and calculating cover the murderer, which I did without any difficulty minister of state. The section of his Memoirs devoted by his agitation and fear. He was for denying it at to this part of his history presents a picture of politi- first, but I soon obliged him to confess the truth. He cal sagacity remarkable for that age, leaving us scarcely was a young man, and the son of the Sieur de Comsenior, was often checked, when about to do a foolish room to wonder that his royal master, though his baut, principal examiner in Chancery, very rich, and a kinsman likewise of Beaumont, who entering at thing, by the consideration, “What will Sully say to that moment, desired me to give young Combaut into all this?" He commenced his career as a minister in his hands, that he might endeavour to save him. "I 1594, in the capacity of secretary of state. Four years do not wonder,' replied I to Beaumont, with an air of after, he was appointed superintendant of finances, authority and indignation, that the English and you having displayed as much ability in that department are at variance, if you are capable of preferring the as he had previously shown military fire and skill in interest of yourself and your relations to that of the the time of war. Many important negotiations were king and the public; but the service of the king my conducted by him. One is very remarkable, as show-master, and the safety of so many gentlemen of good ing the liberties which Sully took with the king, and the families, shall not suffer for such an imprudent stripstate of feeling existing between the two. The king, ling as this.' I told Beaumont, in plain terms, that his master, had given a rash and unworthy promise Combaut should be beheaded in a few minutes. How, of marriage in one of his fits of passion. Sully was sir,' cried Beaumont, behead a kinsman of mine, posin confidence consulted by Henry. On reading the sessed of two hundred thousand crowns, an only son! document, he slowly and gravely tore it in pieces. it is but an ill recompense for the trouble he has "Are you mad?" cried the infuriated monarch. given himself, and the expense he has been at to ac"Yes," answered Sully, "I am mad, sire, and I wish company you.' I again replied, in as positive a tone, I were the only madman in France!" Sully's firm-I had no occasion for such company; and, to be ness had the result of making Henry enter into a short, I desired Beaumont to quit my apartment, for marriage with the person whose alliance in those times I thought it would be improper to have him present was best suited to the exigencies of the state. As in the council, which I intended to hold immediately, regards mutual liking and individual feelings, these in order to pronounce sentence of death upon Comare seldom held of consequence in such affairs.

The many important negotiations in which Sully was engaged at home, exclusively of mere financial affairs, had reference chiefly to the maintenance of the Protestant interests, and to the suppression of the petty feudal sovereigns yet existing in France, and possessing sufficient power to brave and embarrass their liege lord. It was through the able management of matters in Henry's days, that this anomalous and perilous state of things was brought to an end, and the real authority lodged in the hands of a single monarch. Besides aiding his master powerfully in such domestic concerns, Sully was employed in many foreign missions and negotiations. As ambassador from Henry, he had a confidential interview with Queen Elizabeth at Dover in 1601; and two years afterwards, he went to London on a mission to her successor, James I. Of the account given of the latter visit, we shall present some incidental snatches.

and true of a certain class of whimsical mortals.
Every one has heard of lusus naturæ-sports of na-
ture-things which she was supposed to produce in
the way of freak, and as exceptions from her ordinary
laws. Fossil shells, for example, were considered as
lusus naturæ, no one being able to understand how, if
they had been originally real shells of marine molluscs,
they could ever have got into those deep-seated rocks
where they were found embedded. It is now believed
that there are no such things as lusus naturæ, every
one of her organic creations being formed after a dis-
tinct type, and designed for a particular purpose in
creation, just as there is no character used in a printed
book but what there is a type for in the compositor's
case, and is liable to appear accordingly in other printed
books of the same language. The true sports of na-
ture are to be seen in the many grotesque forms of
her legitimate and recognised children, animals and
plants, and in the whimsical powers and properties
which she has assigned to many of at least the former
class. With regard to grotesque forms in plants and
animals, it may be said that these things are perhaps
not absolutely grotesque, and that it is only in conse-
quence of some law of our minds that we think them
so. This, we conceive, may be the case without in
the least detracting from the force of what has been
Sully, whose instructions chiefly related to the con-
said; for how can we judge of any thing but by virtue junction of France and England against the Spanish
of and in accordance with the habits of our minds? interests, found at Calais the vice-admirals of France,
Undoubtedly, if the cheek of the fair young maiden Holland, and England, all of them anxious for the
affects us with the sense of beauty, as truly does the honour of conveying him across the channel. By way
figure of the Barbary ape affect us with the sense of of a compliment, he accepted the seemingly courteous
comicality. So, also, of the powers and properties of offer of the English, and his going on board led to re-
many animals. The chatter of the parrot, the strut sults which prove that the English sailors of that day
and crow of the cock, the wretched bray of the ass, the were just the English sailors of the present. The
capers of the young goat, and the pranks of the kitten, French admiral, "De Vic, who only sought an oppor-
all affect us with the same risibility as the humour of a tunity of showing the English his resentment of the
Mathews or the wit of a Sheridan. To come finally violences committed by their pirates, advancing, bear-
to man, he has been endowed with both the power ing the French flag on his maintop-gallant mast, I
of creating mirth and the power of enjoying it. found these complaisant English were enraged at an
He has a faculty of the ludicrous in his mental offence which, according to them, was equally injuri-
organisation, and muscles in the face whereby to ex- ous to the King of England, and the King of France,
press the sensation in its well-known form of laughter. whom I represented; and I had reason to think them
Some are born with such a predominance of the still more rude and impolite, when, without deigning
ludicrous in their nature, and such wonderful powers to consult me, fifty shot were immediately fired into
of awakening risibility in their fellow-creatures, as to De Vic's ship." Sully thought it wise to explain that
seem to have been mainly designed, as far as the the flag was raised in honour of Henry's ambassador;
worldly utility of their existence is concerned, for this and he also deemed it prudent to make a signal for its
purpose. This is a class of men particularly apt at being lowered, which was done just in time, as appears
perceiving the comicalities of the lower animal and from another broadside having been prepared by the
vegetable worlds.
While others see only what is English, which they fired at "random." Sully and his
painful and melancholy in the scene around them, extensive suite, notwithstanding this untoward open-
they are conscious only of what is merry and ridi- ing incident, were received with great honours at
culous, and spend the part of their lives that is devoted Dover, whence they went by land to Gravesend, and,
to common sensation in a constant flow of self-gene-entering a rich royal barge, sailed up the Thames.
rated humour.
The Tower gave him a salute of three thousand guns,
the finest thing of the kind (he says) that he had ever
heard. He had scarcely reached London, and taken
up a temporary residence in a house there, when an-
other untoward business occurred, of which he gives

We would fain, from all that has been said, establish the importance of the comical in the mundane economy. It seems to us that it cannot be necessarily a reprehensible frivolity-to however absurd purposes it may be occasionally perverted-when we see traces of it springing directly from the common Origin of all things. Time and place may be necessary for its proper development amongst assembled human beings, but this is no more than what may be said of all things There is a time to laugh and a time to weep. Man, it is true, in his blind zeal for what his higher sentiments dictate, has sometimes acted as if to smile were a sin. He has, strange to say, thought that an invariable gloom and sadness was the proper habit of mind in which to live, as being more agreeable to the Deity. But when we look into the book of nature, we see these ideas completely contradicted. We there find types of being which must have been grotesque and

an account.

His people went out to houses of entertainment,
and "at the same place they met with some English,
with whom they quarrelled, fought, and one of the
English was killed. The populace, who were before
prejudiced against us, being excited by the family of
the deceased, who was a substantial citizen, assembled,
and began loudly to threaten revenge upon all the
French, even in their lodgings. The affair soon be-
gan to appear of great consequence, for the number
of people assembled upon the occasion was presently

merriment is good for digestion.
* Dr Hufeland of Berlin has expressed his opinion that light

baut.

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In this council I made choice only of the oldest and the wisest of my retinue; and the affair being presently determined, I sent Arnaud to inform the mayor of London of it, and to desire him to have his officers ready the next day, to conduct the culprit to the place of execution, and to have the executioner there ready to receive him."

The mayor, however, to whose justice Sully finally delivered the culprit, let him escape at the instance of the relative, and, satisfied with Sully, the people seem to have done nothing further in the matter. Justice, it would seem, had not then come to the state in which Oliver Cromwell placed it, when Don Pontoleon Sa, the very brother of the Portuguese ambassador, was sent to the scaffold by the stern Protector, in spite of all entreaties, individual and national Sully is induced by what passed on this occasion to give the following picture of our nation-not a very Hattering one, but tinged to some extent with truth. "It is certain that the English hate us, and this hatred is so general and inveterate, that one would almost be tempted to number it among their natural dispositions: it is undoubtedly an effect of their arrogance and pride, for no nation in Europe is more haughty and insolent, nor more conceited of its superior excellence. Were they to be believed, understanding and common sense are to be found only among them: they are obstinately wedded to all their own opinions, and despise those of every other nation; and to hear others, or suspect themselves, is what never enters into their thoughts. Their self-love renders them slaves to all their capricious humours. What they at one time believe to have wisely performed, or firmly resolved, is at another time destroyed without their knowing, or being able to give a reason: they are accordingly so undetermined in themselves, that frequently one would not take them for the same persons, and from hence they themselves sometimes appear surprised on perceiving their own continued irresolution. If we examine what are called their maxims of state, we shall discover in them only the laws of pride itself, adopted by arrogance or indolence." Admitting the correctness of the charge of national vanity, we must observe that Sully's national prejudice has prevented him from seeing that it is probably in a great measure to this belief in our superiority that we owe our actual greatness in arms and

arts.

Sully's account of accidental particulars connected with his embassy, is much more interesting than his description of his interviews with James I., of whose personal demeanour he says little. Their first meeting, however, must have been striking. Sully, attended by one hundred and twenty selected gentlemen of his large suite, and a party of the royal guards, went to see the king at Greenwich. " His majesty having sent to desire my appearance in his presence, I was above a quarter of an hour before I could get to the foot of his throne, occasioned both by the great numbers that were already there, and because I made all my retinue walk before me. The prince no sooner perceived me than he descended two steps, and would have descended them all, so very desirous he appeared to receive and embrace me, had not one of his ministers, who stood next him, whispered softly in his ear that he ought to go no farther. If,' said he aloud, 'I

show this ambassador particular marks of honour, and such as are contrary to custom, I mean not thereby to give a precedent to others. I particularly love and esteem him for the affection which I know he has for me, for his firmness in our religion, and his fidelity to his master. I dare not repeat all that he said to my advantage." At this and other meetings, Sully showed great tact, and was successful in getting James to form a treaty with Henry of the kind desired. On the whole, the ambassador formed rather a low estimate of James, of whom he pronounced on this occasion that he was the most learned fool in Christendom. To describe his services and connexion with Henry his master, is, as mentioned before, to tell at once Sully's history, and to show his literary abilities. The slavery in which the king was held by his passions, was a great source of vexation to Sully, both on account of his personal love for him, and of the expenses attending such a course of life. One day, when the minister was resisting some improper application, the temporary favourite, D'Entragues, said impudently and haughtily to him, "To whom would you have the king grant favours, if not to his relations, courtiers, and favourites ?" "Madam," replied Sully, "you would be in the right if his majesty took the money out of his own purse; but is it reasonable that he should take it out of those of his poor subjects, to gratify such people as you speak of?" Holding such sentiments, it may be conceived that Sully's administration was a continued blessing to his country. He was easy of access, and methodical in all his habits. Though sometimes galled into anger by his remonstrances, Henry raised him to the highest honours of the peerage, and, with his other posts, gave him the governorship of Poitou. Henry's death in 1610 terminated Sully's official career, and he received at its close a gratuity of 100,000 crowns. Occasionally, after this period, he was sent for to the councils of Louis XIII., and at these times he appeared in the antiquated garb of the old court. Some silly young courtiers laughing once at his appearance, "Sire," said the venerable minister to the king, "when your father, of glorious memory, honoured me by a call to his state consultations, he previously sent away the buffoons." The king felt the rebuke, and remained alone with Sully.

Sully died in 1641, at the age of eighty-two. His "Memoirs" and his memory have ever been highly esteemed in France.

SLAVE HUNTS IN EGYPT. The recent publication of a work entitled "Egypt and Mohammed Ali," by Dr R. R. Madden, has brought prominently into notice a variety of circumstances connected with the legalised system of slavery in Egypt, as well as the manner in which it is supported by the practice of hunting down and carrying off the unfortunate inhabitants of Nubia and Abyssinia. As little is popularly known on the subject, we propose, with the assistance of facts gleaned from the work of this intrepid and philanthropic writer, to bring it before our readers.

with horror; and his description of slave-hunting in Nubia presents a picture of oppression which must stamp this plausible tyrant with everlasting infamy. The number of persons carried off from the Nubian mountains between 1825 and 1839, omitting the thousands who were captured by the Bakkara, amounted to at least 100,000. As soon as the rainy season is over, the capturing excursion, called Gasna, commences, and the necessary number of camels, one for each soldier, and others for arms, ammunition, and tents, is demanded. The soldiers seize all that comes in their way, and in a few days all that is necessary is obtained. The capturing expedition consists of from 1000 to 2000 regular foot soldiers; 400 to 800 Mograbini (Bedouins on horseback) armed with guns and pistols; 300 to 500 of the militia (half-naked savages) on dromedaries, with shields and spears; and 1000 more on foot, with bucklers and small lances. "As soon as every thing is ready, the march begins. They usually take from two to four field-pieces, and only sufficient bread for the first eight days. Oxen, sheep, and other cattle, are generally taken by force before at Cordofan, although the tax upon cattle may have been paid. When they meet with a flock, either feeding or at the watering-places, they steal the cattle, and do not care whether it belongs to one or more persons; they make no reparation for necessary things, whoever may be the sufferer, and no objection or complaint is listened to, as the governor himself is present.

As soon as they arrive at the first mountains in Nubia, the inhabitants are asked to give the appointed number of slaves as their customary tribute. This is usually done with readiness; for these people live so near Cordofan, and are well aware that, by an obstinate refusal, they expose themselves to far greater sufferings. If the slaves are given without resistance, the inhabitants of that mountain are preserved from the horrors of an open attack; but as the food of the soldiers begins to fail about that time, the poor people are obliged to procure the necessary provisions as well as the specified number of slaves, and the Turks do not consider whether the harvest has been good or bad. All that is not freely given, the soldiers take by force. Like so many bloodhounds, they know how to discover the hidden stores, and frequently leave these unfortunate people scarcely a loaf for the next day. They then proceed on to the more distant mountains: here they consider themselves to be in the land of an enemy; they encamp near the mountain which they intend to take by storm the following day, or immediately, if it is practicable. But before the attack commences, they endeavour to settle the affair amicably; a messenger is sent to the sheik, in order to invite him to come to the camp, and to bring with him the requisite number of slaves. If the chief agrees with his subjects to the proposal, in order to prevent all further bloodshed, or if he finds his means inadequate to attempt resistance, he readily gives the appointed number of slaves. The sheik then proceeds to procure the number he has promised; and this is not difficult, for many volunteers offer themselves for their brethren, and are ready to subject themselves to all the horrors of slavery, in order to free those they love.

nessed for who is willing to separate himself from his home, from his parents, brothers and sisters, and relations?-who likes to forsake the cottage that has sheltered him from his infancy, and where he has spent so many happy hours in the society of those by whom he is beloved?-who likes to go forth to meet a horrible futurity, which promises nothing but misery, cruelty, and, what is perhaps most desirable, death? and yet they feel the necessity that one of them should suffer in order to exempt the rest; the father may frequently be seen disputing with his son, the brother with his brother, as to which of them is to deliver himself freely into slavery, for every one wishes to save his affectionate and endeared relative.

In all the undertakings of Mohammed Ali, with the ostensible view of civilising the nation of which. Here the most heart-rending scenes may be withe is the ruler, he appears to be animated by one prevailing sentiment, and that is, the desire to serve his own selfish purposes, and yet deceive the people of Europe, who, he is fully aware, have an eye to his public actions. In accomplishing this object, he has, by the aid of French tacticians, been eminently successful. The trick of his highness is generally well managed; it consists in issuing orders of the most liberal nature respecting any matter of serious complaint, for which he receives a great deal of praise, but which orders, except in particular instances, he takes good care shall never be carried into execution. Two or three years ago, when on an expedition into Eastern Africa, he found it his interest to be very much shocked with the practice of capturing slaves for sale within his dominions, and issued an immediate order that this barbarous trade should be prohibited. So pleasing a circumstance gave much satisfaction in England, and the Anti-Slavery Convention held in London sent an address applauding his generous and humane conduct. Dr Madden was the bearer of this document to his highness; but, greatly to his surprise, he found, on its presentation (August 1840), that the pacha had taken no step whatever to give effect to those orders for which he was now congratulated. The slave hunts and slave sales went on the same as ever.

Our author was much shocked to find the Egyptian despot so much less a man of humanity than English philanthropy had supposed, and he took leave to present to him a very bold address, in which he stated that there were three hundred slaves for sale at that moment in the markets of Cairo and Alexandria; that the number sold in the preceding twelve months was above ten thousand; and that the government not only permitted, but practised, the horrible traffic, the pacha's soldiers being regularly employed in seizing slaves in Nubia, and a tax upon their exportation being one of the resources of his treasury. Mohammed Ali equivocated, and threw the blame upon the law and the sultan; but his issuing licenses to slave-merchants is in itself sufficient to establish his guilt. The particulars which Dr Madden gives of the mutilation of children for certain purposes makes the flesh thrill

* London: Hamilton and Adams. I vol. 1841.

The anticipation of falling into the hands of the unfeeling Turks, where nothing but misery and torments await them, to which they must submit the prospect of being obliged to forsake all that is dear to them, and that for ever-overpowers them. They bedew the cheeks of those they love with their tears, while they press the last kiss, and take the last farewell; they then deliver themselves into the hands of their unfeeling, hardened tormentors. Sometimes they are obliged to be torn by force from the embraces of their friends and relations. The sheik generally receives a dress as a present for his ready services.

But there are very few mountains that submit to such a demand. Most villages which are advantageously situated, and lie near steep precipices or inaccessible heights, that can be ascended only with difficulty, defend themselves most valiantly, and fight for the rights of liberty with a courage, perseverance, and sacrifice, of which history furnishes us with few examples. Very few flee at the approach of their enemies, although they might take refuge in the high mountains with all their goods, especially as they receive timely information of the arrival of the soldiers; but they consider such flights cowardly and shameful, and prefer to die fighting for their liberty.

If the sheik does not yield to the demand, an attack is made upon the village. The cavalry and bearers of lances surround the whole mountain, and the infantry endeavour to climb the heights. Formerly, they fired with cannon upon the villages and those places where the negroes were assembled, but. on

account of the want of skill of the artillerymen, few shots, if any, took effect: the negroes became indifferent to this prelude, and were only stimulated to a more obstinate resistance. The thundering of the cannon at first caused more consternation than their effects, but the fears of the negroes ceased as soon as they became accustomed to it. Before the attack commences, all avenues to the village are blocked up with large stones or other impediments, the village is provided with water for several days, the cattle and other property taken up to the mountain; in short, nothing necessary for a proper defence is neglected. The men, armed only with lances, occupy every spot which may be defended, and even the women do not remain inactive; they either take part in the battle personally, or encourage their husbands by their cries and lamentations, and provide them with arms; in short, all are active, except the sick and aged. The points of their wooden lances are first dipped into a poison which is standing by them in an earthen vessel, and which is prepared from the juice of a certain plant. The poison is of a whitish colour, and looks like milk which has been standing; the nature of the plant, and the manner in which the poison is prepared, is still a secret, and generally known only to one family in the village, who will not on any account make it known to others.

As soon as the signal is given for the attack, the infantry sound the alarm, and an assault is made upon the mountain. Thousands of lances, large stones, and pieces of wood, are then thrown at the assailants; behind every large stone a negro is concealed, who either throws his poisoned lance at the enemy, or waits for the moment when his opponent approaches the spot of his concealment, when he pierces him with his lance. The soldiers, who are only able to climb up the steep heights with great difficulty, are obliged to sling their guns over their backs, in order to have the use of their hands when climbing, and, consequently, are often in the power of the negroes before they are able to discover them. But nothing deters these robbers. Animated with avarice and revenge, they mind no impediment, not even death itself. One after another treads upon the corpse of his comrade, and thinks only of robbery and murder, and the village is at last taken, in spite of the most desperate resistance. And then the revenge is horrible. Neither the aged nor sick people are spared, women, and even children in their mother's womb, fall a sacrifice to their fury; the huts are plundered, the little possession of the unfortunate inhabitants carried away or destroyed, and all that fall alive into the hands of the robbers, are led as slaves into the camp. When the negroes see that their resistance is no longer of any avail, they frequently prefer death to slavery; and if they are not prevented, you may see the father rip up first the stomach of his wife, then of his children, and then his own, that they may not fall alive into the hands of the enemy. Others endeavour to save themselves by creeping into holes, and remain there for several days without nourishment, where there is frequently only room sufficient to allow them to lie on their backs, and in that situation they sometimes remain for eight days. They have assured me, that if they can overcome the first three days, they may, with a little effort, continue full eight days without food. But even from these hiding-places, the unfeeling barbarians know how to draw them, or they make use of means to destroy them: provided with combustibles, such as pitch, brimstone, &c., the soldiers try to kindle a fire before the entrance of the holes, and by forcing the stinking smoke up the holes, the poor creatures are forced to creep out, and to surrender themselves to their enemies, or they are suffocated with the smoke.

After the Turks have done all in their power to capture the living, they lead these unfortunate people into the camp; they then plunder the huts and the cattle, and several hundred soldiers are engaged in searching the mountain in every direction, in order to steal the hidden harvest, that the rest of the negroes, who were fortunate enough to escape, and have hid themselves in inaccessible caves, should not find any thing on their return to nourish and continue their life.

As soon as they have obtained about 500 or 600 slaves, they are sent to Lobeid, with an escort of country people, and about fifty soldiers, under the command of an officer. In order to prevent escape, a sheba is hung round the necks of the adults. A sheba is a young tree, about eight feet long, and two inches thick, and which has a fork at the top; it is so tied to the neck of the poor creature, that the trunk of the tree hangs down in the front, and the fork closed behind the neck with a cross piece of timber, or tied together with strips cut out of a fresh skin; and in this situation the slave, in order to be able to walk at all, is obliged to take the tree into his hands, and to carry it before him. But none can endure this very long, and to render it easier, the one in advance takes the tree of the man behind him on his shoulder. It is impossible for them to get their head free, and it frequently happens that they have their necks wounded, which is followed by an inflammation, and sometimes even by death.

Boys, between ten and fifteen years of age, who cannot bear such a sheba, are tied together, two and two, with wooden clasps on their hands: this is done by placing the wood on the right arm of one, and on the left of another, above the wrist, and then lacing it tightly. Other boys are tied together, by two and two, with leather strings. Boys under the above-men

tioned ages, as well as girls, women, and aged persons, are allowed to walk at liberty. Many a mother carries her sucking babe, of a few days old, in her arms; others have to carry on their backs, or in their arms, two or three of their children, as they are too young and feeble to walk by themselves. Old people, tottering with their staves, the sick and wounded, walk, surrounded by their daughters, wives, or relations, and are assisted and even carried occasionally by them. If one of these unfortunate persons remains behind the line but one step, he is immediately forced to proceed by blows from the butt-ends of the guns, or by stripes of the whip; and if they even then should not be able to move on, from ten to twelve of them are tied with their hands to a cord, one end of which is fastened to the pommel of a camel, and the dying thus dragged along. No pity is shown to those who sink down; they are not released, but dragged along with the rest, even if one should die before they arrive at the appointed halting-place. Before the caravan halts, no refreshment, either of food or drink, is given to the debilitated negroes; the unfeeling Turks have no compassion-even if a drop of water should be sufficient to refresh the feeble, it is not given to him, but he is left to perish."

Enough of this dreadful picture! Let us hope that European, or at least British public opinion, will in some way be brought to bear upon the smooth-tongued monster who is at the bottom of all these atrocities.

LETTERS FROM A LADY IN LONDON TO HER NIECE IN THE COUNTRY. MADAME TUSSAUD'S EXHIBITION. MY DEAR JANE,-I arrived in London a few days ago, after a long and amusing tour with your uncle on the Continent; and having much to do in a very limited time, before coming home to Scotland, it was only yesterday that I could begin to look about me, or visit any of the interesting sights in this wonderfully large town. By the kindness of Mr. - I was conducted to several public buildings in the early part of the day; but none of these afforded me so much pleasure as an exhibition to which I was taken in the evening-I mean the very curious wax-work at the Bazaar in Baker Street, the proprietor of which is Madame Tussaud.

Madame Tussaud, you must understand, is an elderly French lady, who, in the early part of her life, figured in the higher circles of Paris at the time of the Revolution. She was the niece and adopted daughter of M. Curtius, a Swiss medical gentleman, who was famous for his skill in modelling figures in wax; so much so, that the royal family of France invited him to Paris, where he was greatly patronised. His young niece becoming a proficient in wax-modelling under his kind directions, she also attained eminence in the art, and was employed at the royal palace to teach it to the Princess Elizabeth-a lady of amiable manners, who, with thousands of other persons equally worthy and unfortunate, perished during the revolutionary disorders. Under such respectable auspices, Madame Tussaud gained an entrance into the best society, and became personally acquainted with almost all the distinguished men of the day. When the revolution broke out, she was among the few connected with the aristocracy who were spared, and this she owed to her skill as an artiste: you see how much good may sometimes come of learning a useful art, which may either embellish life in prosperity or support it in the day of hard adversity. Well, Madame 'T'ussaud was spared from the guillotine, because she was required by the revolutionary leaders to immortalise them by her craft. She made figures in wax of Robespierre, Marat, Danton, and a great many other worthies, dressing them, of course, in the new fashion of the period, called the costume of the sans culottes. She was also on many occasions employed to take models of heads which had been severed on the scaffold; the leaders of the terrorists, as they were called, not interfering to prevent her performing this melancholy task. By these and other means, Madame Tussaud was enabled to form a large and valuable collection of models of the most remarkable individuals in France-royalists, revolutionists, generals, men of science and literature, and also ladies of distinction. With this collection she afterwards came to England, where she was permitted by many distinguished personages to take models of them in wax; and here at last we find her, now advanced in years, exhibiting her unrivalled collection in one of the fashionable streets in the west end of London.

age, tastefully decorated with white and gold, to the principal room. But here, my dear Jane, I regret my utter inability to convey to you, as distinctly as I could wish, the extraordinary appearance of things on entering. Imagine a room about a hundred feet long (perhaps more), and lofty in proportion, the walls hung with scarlet cloth, which, before reaching the ceiling, is terminated by a ledge running round the whole room; on this ledge are placed, at regular intervals, elegant vases, gilt, with a thick garland of gilt flowers festooned from vase to vase. Over the doorway is a gallery splendidly gilt, filled with musicians who play on various instruments. All the pillars and doors are of white and gilt, which lightens the effect produced by the scarlet walls. The whole place is brilliantly illuminated with gas, issuing from numerous lustres depending from the roof. With all this grandeur, take into account the crowd of figures, animate and inanimate, with which the apartment was filled-some in groups, some standing as if in doubt whether the objects before them were of flesh and blood, or merely artificial; every countenance impressed with the feeling of gratified wonder, and looking as if under the influence of a dream.

leads one to suppose that he is out of place, the scene around being one of intense brilliancy and glitter. He is dressed in a plain suit of black. Lord Byron's, I should suppose, is not what might be considered a fine likeness. The face is not so expressive or intellectual in its character as one is led to expect, in seeing a representation of this distinguished poet. His dress is partly concealed by a cloak thrown over his shoulders. The face is modelled from a bust of Lord Byron executed in Italy while he resided there. Another group, comprising the King of Hanover, Lord Brougham, Sir Francis Burdett, and Daniel O'Connell, occupies a position on this side of the room; as also the Earl of Leicester, a fine venerable-looking personage, Earl Spencer, and Lord Durham. At the upper end of the room is a fine commanding figure of the King of the Belgians, taken from life in 1817; and at a little distance apart is Queen Caroline, in a court dress of black velvet, and a hat with white feathers. This brings us to the upper end of the room, where a still more gorgeous scene opens up, showing a spacious recess or anteroom, the whole of which is seen at one glance, magnificently fitted up. The walls are hung, in the richest manner, with crimson silk velvet, and the floor laid with crimson; the whole got up in the most tasteful and superb style.

The sole occupant of this grand apartment is his late Majesty George IV., in his coronation robes. The figure is said to have been modelled from life; the attitude is at once easy and commanding. The king is decorated with the order of the Bath, the order of the Garter, and the Guelphic order. The principal robe, which is the identical one worn at the procession to Westminster Abbey on the day of the coronation, measures seven yards in length, by three in width; is of crimson velvet, splendidly embroidered with gold; and, with the parliamentary robe, and the imperial robe, which is of purple velvet, both of which are also exhibited, contains 567 feet of velvet and embroidery, and cost, along with the ermine lining, eighteen thousand pounds! The throne is also introduced on which the king received the allied monarchs. The crown, orb, and sceptre, which are arranged on a table, are correct copies of those used at the coronation. The jewels, of course, are imitation, but so dazzlingly brilliant, that it would take a good judge to discover the deception. After looking on this, and turning to the comparatively humble figure of Queen Caroline, the effect is painful. She is, as it were, standing a spectator of that splendour in which she was not allowed to participate. Beyond this opening, on the other side, is the Princess Charlotte, in a velvet dress, taken from a bust for which her royal highness sat on the day of her marriage. Near to this is the late Duke of York, in the robes of the order of the Garter, said to have been taken from life.

The first figure, on the right-hand side of the door, represents the inventor of the Infernal Machine, Fieschi -the person, you know, who attempted to destroy the King of the French; and as the head and eyes move in a manner perfectly natural, you are at first startled at being brought so immediately in contact with a person of character so infamous, and who appears to be in the act of discharging his terri.ic instrument of death, consisting of twenty-five gun-barrels, loaded with several inches of gunpowder, besides ball and slugs; but as there are so many pleasing and attractive objects courting the attention at every step, I shall not linger beside one which is only calculated to awaken feelings of horror. Near to this first figure, forming a delightful contrast to the French assassin, is the modelled figure of an infant asleep, a beautiful emblem of innocence and simplicity. It is told of this infant, that, in the year 1796, the Seine overflowed its banks, when the child was washed away in its cradle, but was rescued by some person who saw it floating down the stream. Bonaparte, having heard of the circumstance, had the child, who was a boy, taken care of till he was a proper age, when he had him placed at the Polytechnic School in Paris, and ultimately provided for him in the army. Again, in contradistinction to this, stands the figure of Edward Oxford, who lately gained an undesirable notoriety in consequence of his insane attempt to shoot the Queen, as she was driving in the Park. There is not anything particular in his appearance. He looks like a genteelish young man, who would not attract any attention but for his crime. The next group, which is to be regarded with a much greater degree of interest, A fantastically dressed figure of Baron Swedenborg represents Louis XVI. of France, his unfortunate next attracts the attention. The costume is that of a queen, Marie Antoinette, and the dauphin. One senator of Sweden. This individual, you perhaps have is led to imagine that these must be true likenesses heard, was the founder of a small religious sect of of the originals, from the circumstance of their extraordinary opinions. The next objects of consehaving been exhibited at La Petit Trianon at Versailles, quence are his late Majesty William IV., in an admiwhere they must have been visited by many who ral's uniform, remarkably well executed; and Queen could judge of the correctness of the resemblances. Adelaide, in a court dress of dark silk velvet, her They were taken from life in 1790. They are dressed countenance more distinguished for gentleness and in the costume of the period, and are represented as mildness of expression than queenly dignity. sitting on a sofa, or chair of state, the dauphin standing beside them. His figure or face must have been taken subsequent to 1790, as he was not born till 1785, and here looks at least eight or ten years of age.

Near this group, on the same side of the room, are Louis Philippe, and the present Emperor of Russia. The King of the French, who is dressed in the uniform of the National Guards, is a decided likeness. This figure and that of the Emperor of Russia were taken from life. Again, amongst the crowned heads may be noticed Henry IV. of France, in a suit of chevalier armour, and Charles II. of England, also wearing a suit of magnificent armour. On the right hand side, the attention is arrested by the majestic figure of Mrs Siddons, in the dress and attitude of Queen Catherine, in the play of Henry VIII.; and near her is her celebrated brother, John Kemble, in the character of Hamlet. The faces of both are fine, and singularly expressive-such countenances as one looks for in vain in the every-day world. At a little distance, in a sitting attitude, is Shakspeare, but for whom, it is possible, the talents of the last-mentioned personages might not have been brought so conspicuously forward.

On this side of the room, in the centre, we are gratified with a representation of the marriage group of the Queen: Prince Albert is in the act of holding the ring, preparatory to placing it on the finger of her Majesty, while the Archbishop of Canterbury is performing his part of the ceremony with a look of great solemnity. The Queen is dressed in white satin, with a beautiful lace robe over it, and a train bordered with orange flowers. A wreath of the orange blossom encircles her head, from the back of which a white lace veil is arranged with great elegance. Across the breast her Majesty wears the order of the Garter. Prince Albert is dressed in a field-marshal's uniformscarlet coat, &c., with the order of the Garter round his leg, over stockings of white silk.

The exhibition is open during the day; but we had heard that the effect was much finer at night, and preferred seeing it under its best aspect. Externally there is nothing to indicate the singular scene which is going on within; and, on entering, you find yourself in an elegant, well-lighted lobby, surrounded by statues. A double staircase-that is, a flight of stairs leading from each side of the lobby-unites on a Landing at the top, from which, by a door pannelled with mirrors, you gain entrance to a beautiful outer apartment, tastefully laid out with ornaments of various kinds-mirrors, vases, &c. The walls, doors, &c., being of white decorated with gold, have a lightness and elegance, the effect of which is very pleasing. At On this side, also, there is Lord Byron, as if conone side of the door, on entering, before a small table, versing with Sir Walter Scott, whose likeness was sits the venerable proprietor, neatly dressed in black, taken by Madame Tussaud, while in Edinburgh in bowing to the company as they come in or out. Here 1828. There is a substantial respectability in Sir the money is taken; and you advance through a pass-Walter's appearance, which, on a first glance, almost

A little farther on is another of the royal brothers, the late Duke of Kent, in the robes and orders of the Bath and Garter; but the most conspicuous group on this side of the room exhibits a cluster of six persons, arranged with good effect. The centre figure represents Mary Queen of Scots, in a sitting attitude, enduring the withering and bitter rebukes of her censor, John Knox, who is backed by John Calvin and Martin Luther, in their black gowns and bands, with black caps. The introduction of these two latter gentlemen is not in accordance with historical facts, but they add to the effect pictorially. On the other side of Mary are figures of Queen Elizabeth and her father, Henry VIII. Henry, I must observe, is not in the least like the bluff Harry with whose face every one is familiar-it is the only failure in the room. The dress is quite correct, but the resemblance is not in the least like the portraits of Henry VIII. Queen Elizabeth does not appear to advantage by the side of her beautiful victim, Mary; her dress, however, is very good. Mary is dressed in a robe of black velvet, with a profusion of splendid old white lace—her look expresses patient submission.

On this side of the room there is a figure of Voltaire, as if addressing an old coquette, in the dress of the period-high-heeled shoes, powdered wig, ruffles, and buckram. A little farther on is a group of eminent personages, the most striking of whom is Mohammed Ali, in a Turkish costume, and which includes Lord Palmerston; Commodore Napier, in the uniform of an admiral; Joseph Hume, MP., Lord John Russell, and Sir Robert Peel, the three last-named gentlemen said to have been taken from life. Here we have Paganini playing on his violin, and near him a fine figure of the late Princess Augusta, in a splendid court dress of velvet. and white satin, with a fine set of brilliants. Nearer to the door is an interesting figure of Madame Malibran, in a black velvet dress and black lace scarf; and underneath the pedestal on which she is placed, there is a humorous figure of Mr Liston, in the character of Paul Pry, with his everlasting umbrella under his arm; and beside him, sitting at a desk as if writing, with the pen in his hand, is Frost, the Chartist leader. It was some time before I discovered that this was

not a real person-I thought him a check-taker, or
some official connected with the establishment.
I must now turn your attention to the middle of
the spacious room. We have been all this time pushing
our way along the sides; the crowd has become more
dense, and it is only by manoeuvring that we can
make our way along. The centre is occupied by two
distinct groups, both of them interesting in no small
degree. The first represents the most celebrated
characters of the late war, with the members of the
Holy Alliance. Opposite, on a raised platform, is a
pedestal, surmounted by an eagle, the favourite em-
blem of Napoleon, who is standing at a little distance
pointing towards it.
Behind him stands Marshal
Ney. On the floor, by the side of Napoleon, are the
Duke of Wellington, Lord Hill, and the Marquis of
Anglesea. At the foot of the pedestal is seated the
Emperor of Austria, in the white coat and uniform of
the Austrian guards. His face is singularly mild and
benevolent in its expression. Behind the emperor are
the King of Prussia and Marshal Blucher. The Em-
peror of Russia, in the uniform of the Russian guards,
occupies a conspicuous place, and is understood to be
offering, on behalf of the allied monarchs, the kingdom
of France to Napoleon. Next to the pedestal, behind, is
Murat, King of Naples; and between him and Ney is
Roustan, a favourite Mameluke, in an Egyptian cos-
tume, who is said to have saved Napoleon's life while
in Egypt.

On the floor, on this side, is Prince Talleyrand, as if conversing with Bernadotte, King of Sweden; and next to him is Lord Nelson, in an admiral's uniform, from a cast taken from his face. Napoleon is dressed in the uniform of a chasseur of the Guard-a white kind of surtout-coat, with long boots-and bears the star of the Legion of Honour. His face is said to have been taken from life in 1815. This is a striking group altogether; bringing before you, as if living and breathing, those celebrated men with whose names every one is more or less acquainted. I know, my dear Jane, that your love of history will have enabled you, long ere this, to become familiar with not only their names, but with the parts which they played in the great transactions of their time.

Between this and the next group stands a figure of Madame Tussaud herself, dressed in a neat black silk cloak and bonnet. This is a capital deception. You would not for a moment suppose the figure to be artificial, did you not, perhaps, in the crowd, come up against it rather rudely, and having turned to apologise, you see that the eye is fixed as if looking upon a female who appears reclining on a couch asleep. There is a black lace veil thrown over the latter figure; and, to your amazement, you see the chest heaving, as if breathing gently in sleep. This is ingeniously contrived by springs, but looks so perfectly natural, that you can scarcely turn away. This sleeping beauty represents a young Frenchwoman, who was the widow of a lieutenant-colonel of the body-guard of Louis XVI., killed in defending the palace of the Tuilleries, in the attack of August 1792. This lady was so unfortunate as to incur the vengeance of Robespierre, was condemned by him to the guillotine, and perished at the age of twenty-two.

The second group exhibits the coronation of the Queen, who is seated on a throne in her crimson velvet robes. The crown has just been placed on her head by the Archbishop of Canterbury, who is standing behind, as if imploring a blessing. The Queen is holding in her hand the orb and sceptre, the insignia of royalty. The archbishop is supported by the Archbishop of York on his right, and the Bishop of London on his left hand. Next the Queen, on the right, stands the Duke of Cambridge; then the Duchess of Kent, in a full coronation robe of velvet: next in order stands Lord Melbourne; next to his lordship is the Duke of Newcastle; and last, on this side, is Lord Lyndhurst, all robed as peers. At the other side of her Majesty is the Duke of Sussex, wearing the robes of a peer, and the collar of the Bath and star of St Andrew; next to him is Earl Grey; then the Duke of Sutherland, all of these being also in their robes; Earl Mulgrave comes next, followed by the Marquis of Londonderry, in the uniform of the 4th Hussars, wearing the order of the Guelph ; and, lastly, the Duke of Devonshire, in a court dress, wearing the order of the Garter.

Madame Tussaud, who, I believe, changes the linen,
laces, &c., every week or two, so that they are all
beautifully clean and neat. Nor is there that stiffness
or awkwardness in the figures that one might expect
in things so purely artificial, the face and hands only
being composed of wax, the rest of the person, I
believe, is stuffed so as to resemble nature as closely
as possible. Besides the apartments I have mentioned,
there is a room which is shown separately, an extra
charge being made for admission. This apartment is
allotted to such personages as Burke, Robespierre,
Courvoisier, &c.; but as the contemplation of these
gentlemen could not be productive of any thing but
horror, I thought it a pity to destroy the very pleasing
impression which was left by the more interesting
exhibition in the large saloon, and so I passed them

over.

OCCASIONAL NOTES.

A MAP OF RACES.

little pamphlet respecting the customs of the Travellers' Room. He sets out by describing how, as an isolated class in the community, they "have made less progress in the melioration of their condition than perhaps any other, compared with the valuable opportunities they possess, and the sphere in which they move. How is this?" asks the knight of the whip; and, if the proposition be correct, we ask the same thing. The answer which casts up in the sequel is, that commercial travellers generally, though often disposed to enter on a course of improvement, are placed at a serious disadvantage, by being obliged to attend to certain usages with respect to their mode of living at inns. We shall allow the writer to explain his meaning by an extract from the works of Mr Dunlop. The travellers are met in the room appropriated to their use, and the solemn duty of dinner is in the act of performance.

"When (proceeds Mr Dunlop, quoting from a previous writer on the subject) fish is leaving the table, the president inquires of the rice and the comDR KOMBST of Edinburgh has published a map of pany what wine will be agreeable. The wines geneEurope, in which the locality of the various races is rally used in the commercial room are port and sherry. pointed out by means of colouring.* The idea is a good Sometimes other wines are introduced, but in such one, and the execution stamps the author as a man of cases the party is a small and select one. The result ample knowledge and philosophical judgment. We of the president's inquiry is, usually, his desiring the could only wish that the colouring were executed with waiter to bring in a bottle of sherry. This is placed somewhat greater pains, and that the patches below, on the right hand of the president, who takes wine designed to serve for reference to the colours of the with the vice, and afterwards with the other gentlemap, were on a larger scale, so as to ensure greater men at table. Should the party exceed eight in numdistinctness. The political history of European coun- ber, two bottles of sherry are ordered to come in both tries has long occupied a sufficient share of attention. together. Pastry is paraded, succeeded by cheese, It is now beginning to be discovered that a know-which is the signal for the president's ordering port ledge of the race to which the people of a particular wine. When the cloth is removed, clean glasses are country or district belong, is a much readier key to placed before each person; and the president, filling their character. We would therefore say, that a his glass, passes the decanters to the gentleman on his careful perusal of Dr Kombst's map, and the infor- left, who, after filling, pushes them to his neighbour, mation condensed along its margins, would give more and so on, till they again arrive at the head of the illumination than the reading of many volumes. It table. When they have completed this tour, the is instructive to see at a glance into what a narrow president drinks The Ladies,' an act of gallantry space (comprehending central Ireland, the north-west which each gentleman immediately imitates. The of Scotland, Wales, and Brittany) the Celtic abori- bottles then describe the same circle as before, and gines of Europe have been pushed by the races of then the health of the reigning sovereign is proposed. higher endowment and civilisation which came after After these toasts, it depends upon the president them-and what comparatively large spaces are occu- whether each succeeding glass shall be consecrated by pied by the Teutonic and Sclavonian tribes. Nor is it a toast or drunk in silence. If the former be the less so to observe the results of race characters in the plan adopted, the vice-president is called upon by the institutions, civil and religious, of various countries. president to give a toast, and after him every gentleDr Kombst joins Dr M'Culloch and Dr Prichard man present, in succession. When the bill is called in a theory which, we believe, has not as yet attracted for, any person can rise and leave the table, without much attention-namely, that the ancient Greeks any apology for his thus learing; he has fulfilled his share were fundamentally a mixture of the Celtic and Teu- in the proceedings, and can now quit the table sans reproche. tonic branches of the Caucasian variety, the Teutones When you dine alone, you are expected to order a predominating in the Doric, and the Celts in the pint of wine. It is a usage of the room to order a Ionian states. He believes the Heraclide to have glass of wine, or spirits and water, in the evening. been a later and additional body of Teutones thrown The expenditure of one shilling in this way every in upon the previously mixed inhabitants. He ad- night, is considered to be one of the claims of the innduces, in support of this doctrine, various terms de- keeper upon the frequenters of his commercial room, scriptive of persons which are only appropriate to the and the liquor is generally ordered, whether used or Teutones, as xanthos, fair-haired, applied by Homer to not.' It is not unusual, among some parties, to treat Menelaus; glaukopis, blue-eyed, applied to Minerva; with drink those who give mercantile orders; and one euknemides, straight-legged, used by Homer with re- informant has known of a traveller, who, having been gard to the Achaians generally. Such terms, he supposed to have lost orders by not sufficient treating, says, could only exist in a country where the pecu- was, in consequence, turned off by the house which liarities they described were common, and where the employed him. The first time a traveller vists a partiopposite peculiarities were also prevalent, being in cular town or county, he is fined in a bottle of wine reality analogous to our names, Reid, Black, Brown, to the company; and a certificate is given by the chairand the German Roth, Schwarz, Braun, &c. Not to man that the fine has been paid. Not only are custospeak of language, Dr Kombst points to resemblance mers, in some cases, to be treated at or after giving of dispositions and manners, as shown in Ottfried orders, but also at settlement of accounts. In short, Müller's work on the Dorians. Skulls found in ancient this class is as much fettered and enslaved by drinking Greek tumuli exhibit a great resemblance to the skulls usage as almost any among the working ranks; and of the Germans. He adds-“ An accurate study of it would evidently require an exertion of moral courGreek statuary, made in different capitals of Europe, age which few possess, to travel a large part of the especially at Paris, has given me the most evident year, and to controvert, single-handed, all the drinking proof that the sculptors themselves were aware of a usages of all the commercial rooms within the traveldifference of race amongst the Greeks, as far as exhi- ler's beat, or journey." bited by a different bodily appearance. We find there models of the Celtic and of the Teutonic variety; Hercules, for example, and Jupiter, are every inch of them Teutonic figures. Not to speak of what would probably be called ideal portraits, let us look at real ones, and we shall find that the most distinguished Greek philosophers, poets, orators, statesmen, had Teutonic heads." "I could likewise show that a great deal of Teutonic blood flowed in the veins of the Romans." After this, no one can be surprised to hear that "the Teutonic variety has every where conquered and trampled under foot, nay exterminated, the other varieties with which it met in its progress towards the west.

At the upper end, overlooking this scene, are three female figures, raised on pedestals, representing the three kingdoms, holding the appropriate emblems of the three countries-England, Ireland, and Scotland. They are dressed fancifully with helmets and white Amongst a number of general propositions, stated plumes. by the author, with regard to the varieties of manThere is one figure more, which I had almost for-kind, we find the following:-"The different species gotten, and he is not the least celebrated person in the and varieties have an instinctive consciousness of their room; this is Mr Cobbett, who is sitting on a form, as natural physical difference, which may to a certain if admiring the scene around him. He is dressed in a extent be overcome by a great degree of mental culplain grey suit, with his hat on. He wears spectacles, ture, but which in primitive conditions is expressed and holds a snuff-box in his hand, as if inviting his by a mutual aversion and disinclination for marriage. neighbours to partake. His head moves from side to This peculiarity has often been denied by well-meanside, and you might sit by him for an hour without ing but one-sided and abstract-thinking philanthrodiscovering that he was not like yourself-a visiter. pists; but the whole history of all ages shows it most This, my dear Jane, closes my rambling account of distinctly to exist.” Madame Tussaud's famed exhibition, which you must not allow yourself to associate in your mind with those tawdry and tinselled spectacles which are often to be seen in provincial towns; there is nothing paltry or mean, or got-up looking about it, but, on the contrary, every thing bears evidence of the excellent judgment and liberality of the indefatigable conductor, A. K. Johnston.

COMMERCIAL TRAVELLERS.

A knight of the whip, who seems to have a leaning
to the temperance cause, addresses his brethren in a

Ethnographic Map of Europe. By Dr Gustaf Kombst,
F.R. N. S. C, &c. Edinburgh: John Johnstone, and W. and

The knight of the whip of course arrives at the conclusion, that habits of intemperance are the ruin of commercial travellers. They spend much precious time worse than uselessly, injure their health, and empty their pockets; and all for what?-the good of the house. Such is the presumed and ostensible cause; but our knight thinks that the evil is also in no small measure owing to the inclinations of the travellers themselves. Is a traveller cold with his outside ride-he calls for a glass! Is he fatigued with carrying his bag from shop to shop?-he takes a glass! Are orders scarce, and his mind depressed? he still calls for the other glass!! Is the dinner good-then it ought to be enhanced by an extra glass!!!" The usages are therefore to be considered as chains not unwillingly borne. "Think," he adds, “of the personal example of these men; what attraction would it exhibit, and what good disseminate, were it uniformly marked by intelligence, sobriety, and the nobler virtues of human nature! In place of this, however, the road' is marked by puerile monotony, relieved only by eating and drinking, and the eternal, ever-present, ever-soothing idea--' I think I'll pull the bell, and have a glass of '"

Our Knight endeavours to impress his brethren with the idea that they would do themselves much good and no small honour, by reforming the habits of the travellers' room, pulling the bell less frequently for their own gratifications, avoiding on all possible occasions to give treats, and organising such regula

* Our Commercial Travellers. By a Knight of the Whip. Glasgow: Gallie. 1841.

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